Summary: A class of glucosyltransferases that catalyzes the degradation of storage polysaccharides, such as glucose polymers, by phosphorolysis in animals (GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE) and in plants (STARCH PHOSPHORYLASE).

Top Publications

  1. Hwang P, Fletterick R. Convergent and divergent evolution of regulatory sites in eukaryotic phosphorylases. Nature. 1986;324:80-4 pubmed
    ..4.1.1). Phosphorylases from different organisms or cell types exhibit markedly contrasting regulatory features; this makes the enzyme ..
  2. Nakajima M, Nishimoto M, Kitaoka M. Practical preparation of D-galactosyl-beta1-->4-L-rhamnose employing the combined action of phosphorylases. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2010;74:1652-5 pubmed
    ..Finally, 49 g of GalRha was isolated from part of the reaction mixture with yeast treatment by gel-filtration chromatography. ..
  3. Nakai H, Kitaoka M, Svensson B, Ohtsubo K. Recent development of phosphorylases possessing large potential for oligosaccharide synthesis. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2013;17:301-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Phosphorylases are one group of carbohydrate active enzymes involved in the cleavage and formation of glycosidic linkages together with glycoside hydrolases and sugar nucleotide-dependent glycosyltransferases...
  4. Schinzel R, Nidetzky B. Bacterial alpha-glucan phosphorylases. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1999;171:73-9 pubmed
    ..glycogen and other alpha-1,4-D-glucan storage polysaccharides are present in many bacteria, only few glucan phosphorylases from bacteria have been identified and characterised on the protein or gene level...
  5. Buchbinder J, Rath V, Fletterick R. Structural relationships among regulated and unregulated phosphorylases. Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct. 2001;30:191-209 pubmed
    ..In this review, we compare crystallographic structures of regulated and unregulated phosphorylases, including maltodextrin phosphorylase (MalP) from Escherichia coli, glycogen phosphorylase from yeast, and ..
  6. Somsak L, Kovacs L, Toth M, Osz E, Szilagyi L, Györgydeák Z, et al. Synthesis of and a comparative study on the inhibition of muscle and liver glycogen phosphorylases by epimeric pairs of d-gluco- and d-xylopyranosylidene-spiro-(thio)hydantoins and N-(d-glucopyranosyl) amides. J Med Chem. 2001;44:2843-8 pubmed
    ..Enzyme assays with a and b forms of muscle and liver glycogen phosphorylases showed spiro-hydantoin 12 and spiro-thiohydantoin 14 to be the best and equipotent inhibitors with K(i) values ..
  7. Aiston S, Green A, Mukhtar M, Agius L. Glucose 6-phosphate causes translocation of phosphorylase in hepatocytes and inactivates the enzyme synergistically with glucose. Biochem J. 2004;377:195-204 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, glucose 6-P causes both translocation of phosphorylase and inactivation, indicating a more complex role in the regulation of glycogen metabolism than can be explained from regulation of glycogen synthase alone. ..
  8. Rath V, Ammirati M, Danley D, Ekstrom J, Gibbs E, Hynes T, et al. Human liver glycogen phosphorylase inhibitors bind at a new allosteric site. Chem Biol. 2000;7:677-82 pubmed
    Glycogen phosphorylases catalyze the breakdown of glycogen to glucose-1-phosphate for glycolysis...
  9. Johnson L. Glycogen phosphorylase: control by phosphorylation and allosteric effectors. FASEB J. 1992;6:2274-82 pubmed
    ..The allosteric mechanism of activation of phosphorylase by phosphorylation may be relevant to other enzymes although it is now known that other mechanisms such as electrostatic steric blocking mechanisms also exist. ..

More Information


  1. Carabaza A, Ciudad C, Baqué S, Guinovart J. Glucose has to be phosphorylated to activate glycogen synthase, but not to inactivate glycogen phosphorylase in hepatocytes. FEBS Lett. 1992;296:211-4 pubmed
  2. Kawahara R, Saburi W, Odaka R, Taguchi H, Ito S, Mori H, et al. Metabolic mechanism of mannan in a ruminal bacterium, Ruminococcus albus, involving two mannoside phosphorylases and cellobiose 2-epimerase: discovery of a new carbohydrate phosphorylase, ?-1,4-mannooligosaccharide phosphorylase. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:42389-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, RaMP2 is thought to catalyze the phosphorolysis of ?-1,4-mannooligosaccharides longer than ?-1,4-mannobiose to produce Man1P and ?-1,4-mannobiose...
  3. Nakajima M, Nishimoto M, Kitaoka M. Characterization of three beta-galactoside phosphorylases from Clostridium phytofermentans: discovery of d-galactosyl-beta1->4-l-rhamnose phosphorylase. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:19220-7 pubmed publisher
    ..d-Gal-beta1-->3-d-GlcNAc), thus indicating that they are d-galactosyl-beta1-->3-N-acetyl-d-hexosamine phosphorylases, subclassified as GNB/LNB phosphorylase. In contrast, Cphy1920 protein phosphorolyzed neither GNB nor LNB...
  4. Aiston S, Hampson L, Gomez Foix A, Guinovart J, Agius L. Hepatic glycogen synthesis is highly sensitive to phosphorylase activity: evidence from metabolic control analysis. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:23858-66 pubmed
    ..The high control coefficient of phosphorylase on glycogen synthesis affirms that phosphorylase is a strong candidate target for controlling hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes in both the absorptive and postabsorptive states. ..
  5. Oikonomakos N, Schnier J, Zographos S, Skamnaki V, Tsitsanou K, Johnson L. Flavopiridol inhibits glycogen phosphorylase by binding at the inhibitor site. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:34566-73 pubmed
  6. Ladevèze S, Tarquis L, Cecchini D, Bercovici J, André I, Topham C, et al. Role of glycoside phosphorylases in mannose foraging by human gut bacteria. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:32370-83 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we describe the ability of phosphorylases to participate in the breakdown of human N-glycans, from an analysis of the substrate specificity of UhgbMP, a ..
  7. Kaiser A, Nishi K, Gorin F, Walsh D, Bradbury E, Schnier J. The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor flavopiridol inhibits glycogen phosphorylase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2001;386:179-87 pubmed
    ..Using immobilized flavopiridol, we identified glycogen phosphorylases (GP) from liver and brain as flavopiridol binding proteins from HeLa cell extract...
  8. Fernández Bañares I, Clotet J, Arino J, Guinovart J. Glycogen hyperaccumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ras2 mutant. A biochemical study. FEBS Lett. 1991;290:38-42 pubmed
    ..The increase in total glycogen synthase and, particularly, the full activation of this enzyme may explain glycogen hyperaccumulation in the ras2 mutant even in the presence of elevated levels of glycogen phosphorylase a. ..
  9. Jenkins J, Johnson L, Wilson K. Assignment of the amino acid sequence to the crystal structure of glycogen phosphorylase b. Biochemistry. 1978;17:5694-5 pubmed
  10. Veerababu G, Tang J, Hoffman R, Daniels M, Hebert L, Crook E, et al. Overexpression of glutamine: fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase in the liver of transgenic mice results in enhanced glycogen storage, hyperlipidemia, obesity, and impaired glucose tolerance. Diabetes. 2000;49:2070-8 pubmed
    ..Increased hexosamine flux in the liver signals a shift toward fuel storage, resulting ultimately in obesity and insulin resistance. ..
  11. Salas V, Corcoran G. Calcium-dependent DNA damage and adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate-independent glycogen phosphorylase activation in an in vitro model of acetaminophen-induced liver injury. Hepatology. 1997;25:1432-8 pubmed
  12. Tsujino S, Shanske S, Nonaka I, DiMauro S. The molecular genetic basis of myophosphorylase deficiency (McArdle's disease). Muscle Nerve Suppl. 1995;3:S23-7 pubmed
    ..Although these findings define the wide spectrum of genetic lesions causing McArdle's disease, the clinical heterogeneity of this disorder remains to be explained. ..
  13. Konkle A, Wilson P, Bielajew C. Histochemical mapping of the substrate for brain-stimulation reward with glycogen phosphorylase. J Neurosci Methods. 1999;93:111-9 pubmed
  14. Dombradi V, Willis A, Vereb G, Johnson L. The sequence around the phosphorylation site of the porcine heart type phosphorylase isoenzyme. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1988;91:717-21 pubmed
    ..4. The sequence was compared to the known sequences of muscle and liver type isophosphorylases and the structural consequences of the amino acid residue exchanges were predicted. ..
  15. Naranan V, Brickey D, Rutherford C. Glycogen phosphorylase 'b' in Dictyostelium: stability and endogenous phosphorylation. Mol Cell Biochem. 1988;83:89-104 pubmed
    ..A protein kinase responsible for the observed in vitro phosphorylation of the phosphorylase 'b' subunit is characterized. ..
  16. de la Fuente van Bentem S, Anrather D, Dohnal I, Roitinger E, Csaszar E, Joore J, et al. Site-specific phosphorylation profiling of Arabidopsis proteins by mass spectrometry and peptide chip analysis. J Proteome Res. 2008;7:2458-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data demonstrate that a combination of mass spectrometry with peptide chip phosphorylation profiling has a great potential to unravel phosphoproteome dynamics and to identify PK substrates. ..
  17. De Groeve M, Tran G, Van Hoorebeke A, Stout J, Desmet T, Savvides S, et al. Development and application of a screening assay for glycoside phosphorylases. Anal Biochem. 2010;401:162-7 pubmed publisher
    Glycoside phosphorylases (GPs) are interesting enzymes for the glycosylation of chemical molecules. They require only a glycosyl phosphate as sugar donor and an acceptor molecule with a free hydroxyl group...
  18. Wang Z, Tsuruta H, Honda Y, Tachi iri Y, Wakabayashi K, Amemiya Y, et al. Kinetic study on the dimer-tetramer interconversion of phosphorylase b by a stopped-flow X-ray scattering method. Biophys Chem. 1989;33:153-60 pubmed
    ..Puchwein, O. Kratky, C. F. Golker and E. Helmreich, Biochemistry 9 (1970) 4691). The reason for this inconsistency is discussed. ..
  19. Nakai H, Petersen B, Westphal Y, Dilokpimol A, Abou Hachem M, Duus J, et al. Rational engineering of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM maltose phosphorylase into either trehalose or kojibiose dual specificity phosphorylase. Protein Eng Des Sel. 2010;23:781-7 pubmed publisher a target for specificity engineering since it contains distinct sequences for different GH65 disaccharide phosphorylases. Substitution of LaMP His413-Glu421, His413-Ile418 and His413-Glu415 from loop 3, that include His413 and ..
  20. Unciuleac M, Shuman S. Distinctive effects of domain deletions on the manganese-dependent DNA polymerase and DNA phosphorylase activities of Mycobacterium smegmatis polynucleotide phosphorylase. Biochemistry. 2013;52:2967-81 pubmed publisher
  21. Hermann J, Titani K, Ericsson L, Wade R, Neurath H, Walsh K. Amino acid sequence of two cyanogen bromide fragments of glycogen phosphorylase. Biochemistry. 1978;17:5672-9 pubmed
  22. Shimada S, Shiomori K, Tashima S, Tsuruta J, Ogawa M. Frequent p53 mutation in brain (fetal)-type glycogen phosphorylase positive foci adjacent to human 'de novo' colorectal carcinomas. Br J Cancer. 2001;84:1497-504 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that BGP foci are promising candidates for the further investigation of 'de novo' colorectal carcinogenesis. ..
  23. Crook E, Crenshaw G, Veerababu G, Singh L. Overexpression of glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase in rat-1 fibroblasts enhances glucose-mediated glycogen accumulation via suppression of glycogen phosphorylase activity. Endocrinology. 2000;141:1962-70 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that the HBP is an important regulator of cellular glucose metabolism and supports its role as a cellular glucose/satiety sensor. ..
  24. Wang Z. Influence of substrates on in vitro dephosphorylation of glycogen phosphorylase a by protein phosphatase-1. Biochem J. 1999;341 ( Pt 3):545-54 pubmed
  25. Kauffman F, Davis L, Whittaker M. Activation of glycogen phosphorylase in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells and isolated hepatocytes by organophosphates. Biochem Pharmacol. 1990;39:347-54 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these data argue strongly that organophosphates increase phosphorylase-a activity in intact cells via a novel mechanism involving release of calcium from intracellular binding sites. ..
  26. O Doherty R, Anderson P, Zhao A, Bornfeldt K, Newgard C. Sparing effect of leptin on liver glycogen stores in rats during the fed-to-fasted transition. Am J Physiol. 1999;277:E544-50 pubmed
    ..We conclude that moderate increases in plasma leptin levels decrease liver glycogen degradation during the fed-to-fasted transition. ..
  27. Mayer D, Bannasch P. Activity of glycogen synthase and phosphorylase and glucose 6-phosphate content in renal clear cell carcinomas. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 1988;114:369-72 pubmed
    ..These findings agree with those in some other glycogenotic tissues and support the concept that an accumulation of G6P is associated with excessive storage of glycogen in preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions. ..
  28. Oikonomakos N, Zographos S, Johnson L, Papageorgiou A, Acharya K. The binding of 2-deoxy-D-glucose 6-phosphate to glycogen phosphorylase b: kinetic and crystallographic studies. J Mol Biol. 1995;254:900-17 pubmed
  29. Komali M, Kalarani V, Venkatrayulu C, Chandra Sekhara Reddy D. Hyperglycaemic effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine and dopamine in the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium malcolmsonii. J Exp Zool A Comp Exp Biol. 2005;303:448-55 pubmed
    ..It is hypothesized that 5-HT and DA induce hyperglycaemia in prawns by stimulating the release of crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone (CHH) from the X-organ sinus gland (XO-SG) complex located in the eyestalk. ..
  30. Nihira T, Saito Y, Nishimoto M, Kitaoka M, Igarashi K, Ohtsubo K, et al. Discovery of cellobionic acid phosphorylase in cellulolytic bacteria and fungi. FEBS Lett. 2013;587:3556-61 pubmed publisher
  31. Kamp G, Winnemöller M. Partially phosphorylated glycogen phosphorylase in the lugworm Arenicola marina, its regulatory function during hypoxia. Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler. 1992;373:1193-200 pubmed
    ..The Km for P(i) was 16 mmol/l in absence and 13 mmol/l in presence of AMP. Half maximum activation by AMP was reached at 9 mumol/l. IMP up to 10 mmol/l did not activate and ATP up to 4 mmol/l did not inhibit GPase ab in absence of AMP. ..
  32. Burenina E. [Activities and properties of phosphorylases of turbellariae Phagocata sibirica and cestodes Bothriocephalus scorpii]. Zh Evol Biokhim Fiziol. 2007;43:132-9 pubmed
    Activities and properties of phosphorylases of cytosol and mitochondrial fractions are studied in free-living turbellaria Phagocata sibirica and cestodes Bothriocephalus scorpii. The phosphorylase activities in P. sibirica and B...
  33. Lu Y, Steichen J, Yao J, Sharkey T. The role of cytosolic alpha-glucan phosphorylase in maltose metabolism and the comparison of amylomaltase in Arabidopsis and Escherichia coli. Plant Physiol. 2006;142:878-89 pubmed
    ..Other plant species also contain SHG, DPE2, and alpha-glucan phosphorylase, so this pathway for maltose metabolism may be widespread among plants. ..
  34. Palm D, Goerl R, Burger K. Evolution of catalytic and regulatory sites in phosphorylases. Nature. 1985;313:500-2 pubmed
    ..Transcriptional control of bacterial phosphorylases further extends the range of regulatory mechanisms by which phosphorylases contribute to the control of ..
  35. Tashima S, Shimada S, Yamaguchi K, Tsuruta J, Ogawa M. Expression of brain-type glycogen phosphorylase is a potentially novel early biomarker in the carcinogenesis of human colorectal carcinomas. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000;95:255-63 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that BGP is a novel biomarker for carcinogenesis in both the pathways of ACS and the de novo colorectal carcinoma. ..
  36. Chen S, Santomango T, Williams P, Lacy D, McGuinness O. Glucagon-mediated impairments in hepatic and peripheral tissue nutrient disposal are not aggravated by increased lipid availability. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;296:E1172-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, unlike increasing the percentage of calories as fat, inappropriate glucagon secretion in the absence of compensatory hyperinsulinemia limits whole body nutrient disposition. ..
  37. Lee Y, Benisek W. Inactivation of phosphorylase b by potassium ferrate. Identification of a tyrosine residue involved in the binding of adenosine 5'-monophosphate. J Biol Chem. 1978;253:5460-3 pubmed
    ..The sequence of this peptide obtained from both untreated and ferrate-treated phosphorylase b was determined, and the results showed that tyrosine-75 was the residue with which ferrate reacts. ..
  38. Dale J, Courtney H, Kotb M, Schifferli D. Phosphorylase-cross-reactive antibodies evoked by streptococcal M protein. Infect Immun. 1990;58:774-8 pubmed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for immunological cross-reactivity with purified rabbit muscle phosphorylases a and b. Of 10 pep M5 antisera tested, 3 showed significant cross-reactivity with both forms of the enzyme...
  39. Martin B, Luo S, Kintanar A, Chen M, Graves D. Effect of citrulline for arginine replacement on the structure and turnover of phosphopeptide substrates of protein phosphatase-1. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1998;359:179-91 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that hydrogen bonded complexes were formed between the dianion of phosphate and the protonated form of arginine or canavanine with a bifurcated structure having preference for the omega-hydrogens. ..
  40. Gorin F, Mullinax R, Ignacio P, Neve R, Kurnit D. McArdle's & Hers' diseases: glycogen phosphorylase transcriptional expression in human tissues. J Neurogenet. 1987;4:293-308 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, using degenerate oligonucleotide probes to two different coding regions of M-phosphorylase, a novel 4.1-kb transcript was demonstrated to be present in human fetal and adult brain. ..
  41. Cloutier M, Rutherford C. Glycogen phosphorylase in Dictyostelium. Developmental regulation of two forms and their physical and kinetic properties. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:9486-93 pubmed
    ..We report here on the existence, the developmental regulation, the purification to homogeneity, and some of the physical and kinetic properties of both the 5'-AMP-dependent and -independent forms of the enzyme. ..
  42. Pfeiffer Guglielmi B, Broer S, Bröer A, Hamprecht B. Isozyme pattern of glycogen phosphorylase in the rat nervous system and rat astroglia-rich primary cultures: electrophoretic and polymerase chain reaction studies. Neurochem Res. 2000;25:1485-91 pubmed
    ..In immature brain and cultured glial cells, the additional presence of the L isozyme is possible. These results support the idea that astrocytes express two or even three GP isozymes simultaneously. ..
  43. Howell B, Odde D, Cassimeris L. Kinase and phosphatase inhibitors cause rapid alterations in microtubule dynamic instability in living cells. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 1997;38:201-14 pubmed
  44. Gibon Y, Blaesing O, Hannemann J, Carillo P, Höhne M, Hendriks J, et al. A Robot-based platform to measure multiple enzyme activities in Arabidopsis using a set of cycling assays: comparison of changes of enzyme activities and transcript levels during diurnal cycles and in prolonged darkness. Plant Cell. 2004;16:3304-25 pubmed
  45. Dauvillee D, Chochois V, Steup M, Haebel S, Eckermann N, Ritte G, et al. Plastidial phosphorylase is required for normal starch synthesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Plant J. 2006;48:274-85 pubmed
    ..The two plastidial phosphorylases are shown to function as homodimers containing two 91-kDa (PhoA) subunits and two 110-kDa (PhoB) subunits...
  46. Park E, Thomas J. S-thiolation of creatine kinase and glycogen phosphorylase b initiated by partially reduced oxygen species. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1988;964:151-60 pubmed
    ..Thus, reduced oxygen species may react with protein sulfhydryls resulting in S-thiolation by a mechanism that involves the reaction of an activated protein thiol with reduced glutathione. ..
  47. Chan K. Ganglioside-modulated protein phosphorylation in muscle. Activation of phosphorylase b kinase by gangliosides. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:18632-7 pubmed
    ..4 microM in the absence of Ca2+ and 1.3 microM when the divalent cation was present. These findings suggest that gangliosides may play a role as biomodulators in the regulation of glycogenolysis in muscle. ..
  48. Rajendra W, Rao P, Suhasini N, Sailaja P. Hexachlorophene induced alterations in brain carbohydrate metabolism of Wistar rat. J Environ Sci Health B. 1992;27:751-8 pubmed
    ..The inhibition of NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase coupled with glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase indicates reduced generation of NADPH2 and pentoses for the synthesis of fatty acids and nucleotides. ..
  49. Toth B, Zelena D, Szucs K, Szoor B, Gergely P. Comparative characterization of liver glycogen metabolism in rat and guinea-pig. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1992;103:547-52 pubmed
    ..4. The existence of inhibitor-1 in the liver of guinea-pig can maintain a lower activity of type-1 protein phosphatase, especially when inhibitor-1 is phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. ..
  50. Farkas I, Toth B, Gergely P, Bot G. Insoluble glycogen and its interaction with phosphorylase. A novel method for the purification of liver phosphorylase A. Acta Biochim Biophys Hung. 1987;22:17-29 pubmed
    ..Insoluble glycogen could bind rabbit skeletal muscle and liver phosphorylases. The association of insoluble glycogen with phosphorylase could be treated as a distribution equilibrium ..
  51. Titani K, Koide A, Ericsson L, Kumar S, Hermann J, Wade R, et al. Sequence of the carboxyl-terminal 492 residues of rabbit muscle glycogen phosphorylase including the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate binding site. Biochemistry. 1978;17:5680-93 pubmed
    ..They provide a chemical basis on which the relationship between structure and function of the enzyme can be examined. ..
  52. Cuenda A, Nogues M, Henao F, Gutierrez Merino C. Interaction between glycogen phosphorylase and sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes and its functional implications. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:11998-2004 pubmed
    ..Thus, linear polysaccharide fragments of glycogen bound to the SR membranes are likely mediating the binding of glycogen phosphorylase b to these membranes. ..
  53. Bibel M, Brettl C, Gosslar U, Kriegsh user G, Liebl W. Isolation and analysis of genes for amylolytic enzymes of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1998;158:9-15 pubmed
    ..Enzyme properties are reported which demonstrate the extreme thermostability of these T. maritima enzymes...