glycogen synthase

Summary

Summary: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of D-glucose from UDPglucose into 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl chains. EC 2.4.1.11.

Top Publications

  1. Vilchez D, Ros S, Cifuentes D, Pujadas L, Valles J, Garcia Fojeda B, et al. Mechanism suppressing glycogen synthesis in neurons and its demise in progressive myoclonus epilepsy. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:1407-13 pubmed
    ..have the enzymatic machinery for synthesizing glycogen, but that it is suppressed by retention of muscle glycogen synthase (MGS) in the phosphorylated, inactive state...
  2. Sheng F, Jia X, Yep A, Preiss J, Geiger J. The crystal structures of the open and catalytically competent closed conformation of Escherichia coli glycogen synthase. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:17796-807 pubmed publisher
    Escherichia coli glycogen synthase (EcGS, EC 2.4.1.21) is a retaining glycosyltransferase (GT) that transfers glucose from adenosine diphosphate glucose to a glucan chain acceptor with retention of configuration at the anomeric carbon...
  3. McBride A, Hardie D. AMP-activated protein kinase--a sensor of glycogen as well as AMP and ATP?. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2009;196:99-113 pubmed publisher
    ..particle is in an active state when glycogen particles are fully synthesized, causing phosphorylation of glycogen synthase at site 2 and providing a feedback inhibition of further extension of the outer chains of glycogen...
  4. Dokken B, Saengsirisuwan V, Kim J, Teachey M, Henriksen E. Oxidative stress-induced insulin resistance in rat skeletal muscle: role of glycogen synthase kinase-3. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008;294:E615-21 pubmed
    ..05) activated basal glucose transport activity, net glycogen synthesis, and glycogen synthase activity and increased phosphorylation of insulin receptor (Tyr), Akt (Ser(473)), and GSK-3beta (Ser(9))...
  5. Sheng F, Yep A, Feng L, Preiss J, Geiger J. Oligosaccharide binding in Escherichia coli glycogen synthase. Biochemistry. 2009;48:10089-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Cocrystallization of Escherichia coli wild-type glycogen synthase (GS) with substrate ADPGlc and the glucan acceptor mimic HEPPSO produced a closed form of GS and suggests ..
  6. Fang Y, Studer E, Mitchell C, Grant S, Pandak W, Hylemon P, et al. Conjugated bile acids regulate hepatocyte glycogen synthase activity in vitro and in vivo via Galphai signaling. Mol Pharmacol. 2007;71:1122-8 pubmed
    The regulation of glycogen synthase activity by bile acids in primary hepatocytes and in the intact liver was investigated...
  7. Skurat A, Dietrich A, Roach P. Interaction between glycogenin and glycogen synthase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2006;456:93-7 pubmed
    b>Glycogen synthase plays a key role in regulating glycogen metabolism. In a search for regulators of glycogen synthase, a yeast two-hybrid study was performed...
  8. Douillard Guilloux G, Raben N, Takikita S, Ferry A, Vignaud A, Guillet Deniau I, et al. Restoration of muscle functionality by genetic suppression of glycogen synthesis in a murine model of Pompe disease. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:684-96 pubmed publisher
    ..GAA and glycogen synthase 1 (GYS1) KO mice were inter-crossed to generate a new double-KO model...
  9. Pescador N, Villar D, Cifuentes D, Garcia Rocha M, Ortiz Barahona A, Vazquez S, et al. Hypoxia promotes glycogen accumulation through hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-mediated induction of glycogen synthase 1. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9644 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that oxygen regulates the expression of the muscle glycogen synthase (GYS1). Hypoxic GYS1 induction requires HIF activity and a Hypoxia Response Element within its promoter...

More Information

Publications81

  1. Lai Y, Stuenaes J, Kuo C, Jensen J. Insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis and glycogen synthase activation after electrical stimulation of epitrochlearis muscles with different initial glycogen contents. Arch Physiol Biochem. 2010;116:116-27 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Glycogen synthase fractional activity inversely correlated with glycogen content and contraction increased glycogen synthase ..
  2. Turnbull J, Wang P, Girard J, Ruggieri A, Wang T, Draginov A, et al. Glycogen hyperphosphorylation underlies lafora body formation. Ann Neurol. 2010;68:925-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The 2 leading hypotheses of Lafora body formation are: (1) increased glycogen synthase activity extends glycogen strands too rapidly to allow adequate branching, resulting in polyglucosans; and (..
  3. Fuchs G, Diges C, Kohlstaedt L, Wehner K, Sarnow P. Proteomic analysis of ribosomes: translational control of mRNA populations by glycogen synthase GYS1. J Mol Biol. 2011;410:118-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, the phosphorylated isoform of glycogen synthase, glycogen synthase 1 (GYS1), was preferentially associated with elongating ribosomes...
  4. Kuma Y, Campbell D, Cuenda A. Identification of glycogen synthase as a new substrate for stress-activated protein kinase 2b/p38beta. Biochem J. 2004;379:133-9 pubmed
    The endogenous glycogen synthase in extracts from mouse skeletal muscle, liver and brain bound specifically to SAPK2b (stress-activated protein kinase 2b)/p38b, but not to other members of the group of SAPK/p38 kinases...
  5. Kim Y, Shulman G, Kahn B. Fatty acid infusion selectively impairs insulin action on Akt1 and protein kinase C lambda /zeta but not on glycogen synthase kinase-3. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:32915-22 pubmed
    ..Insulin inhibited glycogen synthase kinase 3alpha (GSK-3alpha) activity by 30% and GSK-3beta activity by approximately 65% and increased protein ..
  6. Duran J, Saez I, Gruart A, Guinovart J, Delgado Garcia J. Impairment in long-term memory formation and learning-dependent synaptic plasticity in mice lacking glycogen synthase in the brain. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2013;33:550-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To address this long-standing question, we generated a brain-specific Glycogen Synthase knockout (GYS1(Nestin-KO)) mouse and studied the functional consequences of the lack of glycogen in the ..
  7. Gomis R, Favre C, Garcia Rocha M, Fernández Novell J, Ferrer J, Guinovart J. Glucose 6-phosphate produced by gluconeogenesis and by glucokinase is equally effective in activating hepatic glycogen synthase. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:9740-6 pubmed
    ..of glucose or by gluconeogenesis from dihydroxyacetone (DHA) was equally effective in activating glycogen synthase (GS)...
  8. Cupertino F, Freitas F, de Paula R, Bertolini M. Ambient pH controls glycogen levels by regulating glycogen synthase gene expression in Neurospora crassa. New insights into the pH signaling pathway. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44258 pubmed publisher
    ..Its accumulation in a specific situation results from the balance between glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase activities that control synthesis and degradation, respectively...
  9. Osorio Paz I, Sánchez Chávez G, Salceda R. Control of glycogen content in retina: allosteric regulation of glycogen synthase. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30822 pubmed publisher
    ..under different experimental conditions and correlated them with glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) content and glycogen synthase (GS) activity...
  10. Sánchez Chávez G, Hernández Berrones J, Luna Ulloa L, Coffe V, Salceda R. Effect of diabetes on glycogen metabolism in rat retina. Neurochem Res. 2008;33:1301-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to better understand the effect of hyperglycemia in retina, we studied glycogen content as well as glycogen synthase and phosphorylase activities in both normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat retina and compared them ..
  11. Kollberg G, Tulinius M, Gilljam T, Ostman Smith I, Forsander G, Jotorp P, et al. Cardiomyopathy and exercise intolerance in muscle glycogen storage disease 0. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:1507-14 pubmed
    ..muscle and heart glycogen deficiency caused by a homozygous stop mutation (R462-->ter) in the muscle glycogen synthase gene. The oldest brother died from sudden cardiac arrest at the age of 10.5 years...
  12. Greenberg C, Jurczak M, Danos A, Brady M. Glycogen branches out: new perspectives on the role of glycogen metabolism in the integration of metabolic pathways. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006;291:E1-8 pubmed
    ..However, recent findings demonstrate that the roles of glycogen metabolism in energy sensing, integration of metabolic pathways, and coordination of cellular responses to hormonal stimuli are far more complex. ..
  13. Bouskila M, Hunter R, Ibrahim A, Delattre L, Peggie M, van Diepen J, et al. Allosteric regulation of glycogen synthase controls glycogen synthesis in muscle. Cell Metab. 2010;12:456-66 pubmed publisher
    b>Glycogen synthase (GS), a key enzyme in glycogen synthesis, is activated by the allosteric stimulator glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) and by dephosphorylation through inactivation of GS kinase-3 with insulin...
  14. Smith J, Ju J, Saha B, Racette B, Fisher J. Levodopa with carbidopa diminishes glycogen concentration, glycogen synthase activity, and insulin-stimulated glucose transport in rat skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2004;97:2339-46 pubmed
    ..We examined the effects of levodopa-carbidopa on glycogen concentration, glycogen synthase activity, and insulin-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle, the predominant insulin-responsive ..
  15. Skurat A, Dietrich A. Phosphorylation of Ser640 in muscle glycogen synthase by DYRK family protein kinases. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:2490-8 pubmed
    b>Glycogen synthase, a key enzyme in the regulation of glycogen synthesis by insulin, is controlled by multisite phosphorylation...
  16. Polekhina G, Gupta A, Michell B, van Denderen B, Murthy S, Feil S, et al. AMPK beta subunit targets metabolic stress sensing to glycogen. Curr Biol. 2003;13:867-71 pubmed
    ..Glycogen binding provides an architectural link between AMPK and a major cellular energy store and juxtaposes AMPK to glycogen bound phosphatases. ..
  17. Buschiazzo A, Ugalde J, Guerin M, Shepard W, Ugalde R, Alzari P. Crystal structure of glycogen synthase: homologous enzymes catalyze glycogen synthesis and degradation. EMBO J. 2004;23:3196-205 pubmed
    ..Glycogen biosynthesis involves the action of several enzymes among which glycogen synthase catalyzes the synthesis of the alpha-1,4-glucose backbone...
  18. Ciaraldi T, Nikoulina S, Bandukwala R, Carter L, Henry R. Role of glycogen synthase kinase-3 alpha in insulin action in cultured human skeletal muscle cells. Endocrinology. 2007;148:4393-9 pubmed
    An association between glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) in skeletal muscle and insulin resistance has been demonstrated in type 2 diabetic patients. In addition, inhibition of GSK3 improves insulin action...
  19. Højlund K, Staehr P, Hansen B, Green K, Hardie D, Richter E, et al. Increased phosphorylation of skeletal muscle glycogen synthase at NH2-terminal sites during physiological hyperinsulinemia in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2003;52:1393-402 pubmed
    In type 2 diabetes, insulin activation of muscle glycogen synthase (GS) is impaired. This defect plays a major role for the development of insulin resistance and hyperglycemia...
  20. Sacchetto R, Bovo E, Salviati L, Damiani E, Margreth A. Glycogen synthase binds to sarcoplasmic reticulum and is phosphorylated by CaMKII in fast-twitch skeletal muscle. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2007;459:115-21 pubmed
    We investigated the subcellular localization of glycogen synthase (GS) in the adductor muscle of anesthetized rabbits injected intravenously with propranolol...
  21. Ferrer J, Favre C, Gomis R, Fernández Novell J, Garcia Rocha M, de la Iglesia N, et al. Control of glycogen deposition. FEBS Lett. 2003;546:127-32 pubmed
    Traditionally, glycogen synthase (GS) has been considered to catalyze the key step of glycogen synthesis and to exercise most of the control over this metabolic pathway...
  22. Ugalde J, Parodi A, Ugalde R. De novo synthesis of bacterial glycogen: Agrobacterium tumefaciens glycogen synthase is involved in glucan initiation and elongation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:10659-63 pubmed
    ..A. tumefaciens glycogen synthase (GS) purified to homogeneity from the above-mentioned cells was able to build its own primer by transferring ..
  23. Freitas F, Bertolini M. Genomic organization of the Neurospora crassa gsn gene: possible involvement of the STRE and HSE elements in the modulation of transcription during heat shock. Mol Genet Genomics. 2004;272:550-61 pubmed
    b>Glycogen synthase, an enzyme involved in glycogen biosynthesis, is regulated by phosphorylation and by the allosteric ligand glucose-6-phosphate (G6P). In addition, enzyme levels can be regulated by changes in gene expression...
  24. Cid E, Cifuentes D, Baqué S, Ferrer J, Guinovart J. Determinants of the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of muscle glycogen synthase. FEBS J. 2005;272:3197-213 pubmed
    Muscle glycogen synthase (MGS) presents a nuclear speckled pattern in primary cultured human muscle and in 3T3-L1 cells deprived of glucose and with depleted glycogen reserves...
  25. Glintborg D, Højlund K, Andersen N, Hansen B, Beck Nielsen H, Wojtaszewski J. Impaired insulin activation and dephosphorylation of glycogen synthase in skeletal muscle of women with polycystic ovary syndrome is reversed by pioglitazone treatment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:3618-26 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated protein content, activity, and phosphorylation of glycogen synthase (GS) and its major upstream inhibitor, GS kinase (GSK)-3 in skeletal muscle biopsies from 24 PCOS patients (..
  26. Biensø R, Ringholm S, Kiilerich K, Aachmann Andersen N, Krogh Madsen R, Guerra B, et al. GLUT4 and glycogen synthase are key players in bed rest-induced insulin resistance. Diabetes. 2012;61:1090-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of insulin to phosphorylate Akt and activate glycogen synthase (GS) was reduced with normal GS site 3 but abnormal GS site 2+2a phosphorylation after bed rest...
  27. Horcajada C, Guinovart J, Fita I, Ferrer J. Crystal structure of an archaeal glycogen synthase: insights into oligomerization and substrate binding of eukaryotic glycogen synthases. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:2923-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The crystal structure of the glycogen synthase from Pyrococcus abyssi, the smallest known member of this family of enzymes, revealed that its subunits ..
  28. Jensen J, Lai Y. Regulation of muscle glycogen synthase phosphorylation and kinetic properties by insulin, exercise, adrenaline and role in insulin resistance. Arch Physiol Biochem. 2009;115:13-21 pubmed publisher
    In mammals, excess carbohydrate is stored as glycogen and glycogen synthase is the enzyme that incorporates glucose units into the glycogen particle...
  29. Pederson B, Chen H, Schroeder J, Shou W, DePaoli Roach A, Roach P. Abnormal cardiac development in the absence of heart glycogen. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:7179-87 pubmed
    ..heart, and several other tissues were generated by disruption of the GYS1 gene, which encodes an isoform of glycogen synthase. Crossing mice heterozygous for the GYS1 disruption resulted in a significant underrepresentation of GYS1-..
  30. Yep A, Bejar C, Ballicora M, Dubay J, Iglesias A, Preiss J. An assay for adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP)-glucose pyrophosphorylase that measures the synthesis of radioactive ADP-glucose with glycogen synthase. Anal Biochem. 2004;324:52-9 pubmed
    ..as a substrate, the ADP-[14C]glucose formed as a product is converted to [14C]glycogen by the addition of glycogen synthase and nonradioactive glycogen as primer...
  31. Miyamoto L, Toyoda T, Hayashi T, Yonemitsu S, Nakano M, Tanaka S, et al. Effect of acute activation of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase on glycogen regulation in isolated rat skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2007;102:1007-13 pubmed
    ..In contrast, whereas contraction stimulated glycogen synthase (GS), AICAR treatment decreased GS activity...
  32. Jensen J, Ruzzin J, Jebens E, Brennesvik E, Knardahl S. Improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and glycogen synthase activation in rat skeletal muscles after adrenaline infusion: role of glycogen content and PKB phosphorylation. Acta Physiol Scand. 2005;184:121-30 pubmed
    Effects of in vivo adrenaline infusion on subsequent insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and glycogen synthase activation was investigated in slow-twitch (soleus) and fast-twitch (epitrochlearis) muscles...
  33. McCue M, Valberg S, Lucio M, Mickelson J. Glycogen synthase 1 (GYS1) mutation in diverse breeds with polysaccharide storage myopathy. J Vet Intern Med. 2008;22:1228-33 pubmed publisher
  34. Ortmeyer H, Adall Y, Marciani K, Katsiaras A, Ryan A, Bodkin N, et al. Skeletal muscle glycogen synthase subcellular localization: effects of insulin and PPAR-alpha agonist (K-111) administration in rhesus monkeys. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005;288:R1509-17 pubmed
    Insulin covalently and allosterically regulates glycogen synthase (GS) and may also cause the translocation of GS from glycogen-poor to glycogen-rich locations...
  35. Tagliabracci V, Turnbull J, Wang W, Girard J, Zhao X, Skurat A, et al. Laforin is a glycogen phosphatase, deficiency of which leads to elevated phosphorylation of glycogen in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:19262-6 pubmed
    ..This study provides a molecular link between an observed biochemical property of laforin and the phenotype of a mouse model of Lafora disease. The results also have important implications for glycogen metabolism generally. ..
  36. Rayasam G, Tulasi V, Sodhi R, Davis J, Ray A. Glycogen synthase kinase 3: more than a namesake. Br J Pharmacol. 2009;156:885-98 pubmed publisher
    b>Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), a constitutively acting multi-functional serine threonine kinase is involved in diverse physiological pathways ranging from metabolism, cell cycle, gene expression, development and oncogenesis to ..
  37. Pederson B, Cope C, Schroeder J, Smith M, Irimia J, Thurberg B, et al. Exercise capacity of mice genetically lacking muscle glycogen synthase: in mice, muscle glycogen is not essential for exercise. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:17260-5 pubmed
    ..The MGSKO mouse has the GYS1 gene, encoding the muscle isoform of glycogen synthase, disrupted so that skeletal muscle totally lacks glycogen...
  38. Yep A, Ballicora M, Preiss J. The active site of the Escherichia coli glycogen synthase is similar to the active site of retaining GT-B glycosyltransferases. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;316:960-6 pubmed
    ..We modeled the Escherichia coli glycogen synthase based on three glycosyltransferases with a GT-B fold...
  39. Montori Grau M, Minor R, Lerin C, Allard J, Garcia Martinez C, De Cabo R, et al. Effects of aging and calorie restriction on rat skeletal muscle glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase. Exp Gerontol. 2009;44:426-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Old (24 months) compared to young (6 months) rats maintained ad libitum on a standard diet had reduced glycogen synthase (GS) activity, lower muscle GS protein levels, increased phosphorylation of GS at site 3a with less ..
  40. Busuioc M, Mackiewicz K, Buttaro B, Piggot P. Role of intracellular polysaccharide in persistence of Streptococcus mutans. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:7315-22 pubmed publisher
    ..mutans. Here we show that inactivation of the glgA gene (SMU1536), encoding a putative glycogen synthase, prevented accumulation of IPS. IPS is important for the persistence of S...
  41. Weinstein D, Correia C, Saunders A, Wolfsdorf J. Hepatic glycogen synthase deficiency: an infrequently recognized cause of ketotic hypoglycemia. Mol Genet Metab. 2006;87:284-8 pubmed
    ..This mini-review discusses the pathophysiology of this disorder, use of mutation analysis to diagnose GSD0, and the clinical characteristics of all reported cases of GSD0. ..
  42. Baskaran S, Roach P, DePaoli Roach A, Hurley T. Structural basis for glucose-6-phosphate activation of glycogen synthase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:17563-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Glycogen synthase homologs in bacteria and archaea lack regulation, while the eukaryotic enzymes are inhibited by protein ..
  43. Poulsen P, Wojtaszewski J, Petersen I, Christensen K, Richter E, Beck Nielsen H, et al. Impact of genetic versus environmental factors on the control of muscle glycogen synthase activation in twins. Diabetes. 2005;54:1289-96 pubmed
    ..in first-degree relatives have indicated a genetic origin of the defective insulin activation of muscle glycogen synthase (GS) in type 2 diabetes...
  44. Khanna M, Imasaki T, Chikwana V, Perez Miller S, Hunter G, Mosley A, et al. Expression and purification of functional human glycogen synthase-1 (hGYS1) in insect cells. Protein Expr Purif. 2013;90:78-83 pubmed publisher
    We have successfully expressed and purified active human glycogen synthase-1 (hGYS1)...
  45. Vind B, Birk J, Vienberg S, Andersen B, Beck Nielsen H, Wojtaszewski J, et al. Hyperglycaemia normalises insulin action on glucose metabolism but not the impaired activation of AKT and glycogen synthase in the skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2012;55:1435-45 pubmed publisher
    ..glucose disposal, primarily glycogen synthesis, is associated with defective insulin activation of glycogen synthase (GS) in skeletal muscle...
  46. Prats C, Bernal C, Cadefau J, Frias J, Tibolla M, Cusso R. Glycogen depletion and resynthesis during 14 days of chronic low-frequency stimulation of rabbit muscle. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1573:68-74 pubmed
    ..The effect of 14 days of chronic electro-stimulation on glycogen turnover and on the regulation of glycogen synthase in fast-twitch muscle was studied...
  47. Parker G, Lund K, Taylor R, McClain D. Insulin resistance of glycogen synthase mediated by o-linked N-acetylglucosamine. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:10022-7 pubmed
    We have investigated the mechanism by which high concentrations of glucose inhibit insulin stimulation of glycogen synthase. In NIH-3T3-L1 adipocytes cultured in low glucose (LG; 2.5 mm), the half-maximal activation concentration (A(0...
  48. Christ Roberts C, Pratipanawatr T, Pratipanawatr W, Berria R, Belfort R, Mandarino L. Increased insulin receptor signaling and glycogen synthase activity contribute to the synergistic effect of exercise on insulin action. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2003;95:2519-29 pubmed
    ..Exercise enhanced insulin-stimulated increases in glycogen synthase fractional velocity in control (from 0.07 +/- 0.02 to 0.22 +/- 0.05, P < 0.05) and diabetic (from 0...
  49. Ros S, Garcia Rocha M, Dominguez J, Ferrer J, Guinovart J. Control of liver glycogen synthase activity and intracellular distribution by phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:6370-8 pubmed publisher
    Eukaryotic glycogen synthase activity is regulated by reversible phosphorylation at multiple sites...
  50. Højlund K, Frystyk J, Levin K, Flyvbjerg A, Wojtaszewski J, Beck Nielsen H. Reduced plasma adiponectin concentrations may contribute to impaired insulin activation of glycogen synthase in skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2006;49:1283-91 pubmed
    ..between plasma adiponectin and parameters of whole-body glucose and lipid metabolism, and muscle glycogen synthase (GS) activity in 51 Caucasians (ten lean, 21 obese and 20 with type 2 diabetes)...
  51. Taylor A, Ye J, Schmitz Peiffer C. Inhibition of glycogen synthesis by increased lipid availability is associated with subcellular redistribution of glycogen synthase. J Endocrinol. 2006;188:11-23 pubmed
    ..glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis in muscle, but it is not clear whether alterations in glycogen synthase activity itself play a direct role...
  52. Jørgensen S, Nielsen J, Birk J, Olsen G, Viollet B, Andreelli F, et al. The alpha2-5'AMP-activated protein kinase is a site 2 glycogen synthase kinase in skeletal muscle and is responsive to glucose loading. Diabetes. 2004;53:3074-81 pubmed
    ..activation of AMPK by 5-aminoimidazole-1-beta-4-carboxamide ribofuranoside (AICAR) leads to inactivation of glycogen synthase (GS) and phosphorylation of GS at Ser 7 (site 2)...
  53. Lai Y, Zarrinpashneh E, Jensen J. Additive effect of contraction and insulin on glucose uptake and glycogen synthase in muscle with different glycogen contents. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2010;108:1106-15 pubmed publisher
    Insulin and contraction regulate glucose uptake and glycogen synthase (GS) via distinct mechanisms in skeletal muscles, and an additive effect has been reported...
  54. Yep A, Ballicora M, Preiss J. The ADP-glucose binding site of the Escherichia coli glycogen synthase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2006;453:188-96 pubmed
    ..We modeled the Escherichia coli glycogen synthase based on the coordinates of the inactive form of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens glycogen synthase and the ..
  55. McCue M, Armien A, Lucio M, Mickelson J, Valberg S. Comparative skeletal muscle histopathologic and ultrastructural features in two forms of polysaccharide storage myopathy in horses. Vet Pathol. 2009;46:1281-91 pubmed publisher
    ..A dominant mutation in the glycogen synthase 1 gene (GYS1) accounts for a substantial proportion of PSSM cases in at least 17 breeds, including Quarter ..
  56. Pederson B, Schroeder J, Parker G, Smith M, DePaoli Roach A, Roach P. Glucose metabolism in mice lacking muscle glycogen synthase. Diabetes. 2005;54:3466-73 pubmed
    ..MGSKO mice lack skeletal muscle glycogen due to disruption of the GYS1 gene, which encodes muscle glycogen synthase. MGSKO mice were 5-10% smaller than wild-type littermates with less body fat...
  57. Jensen J, Jebens E, Brennesvik E, Ruzzin J, Soos M, Engebretsen E, et al. Muscle glycogen inharmoniously regulates glycogen synthase activity, glucose uptake, and proximal insulin signaling. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006;290:E154-E162 pubmed
    ..In LG, basal and insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis and glycogen synthase activation were higher and glycogen synthase phosphorylation (Ser(645), Ser(649), Ser(653), Ser(657)) lower ..
  58. Hunter R, Treebak J, Wojtaszewski J, Sakamoto K. Molecular mechanism by which AMP-activated protein kinase activation promotes glycogen accumulation in muscle. Diabetes. 2011;60:766-74 pubmed publisher
    ..ATP production, while it is thought to inhibit anabolic glycogen synthesis by suppressing the activity of glycogen synthase (GS) to maintain the energy balance in muscle...
  59. McCue M, Valberg S, Miller M, Wade C, DiMauro S, Akman H, et al. Glycogen synthase (GYS1) mutation causes a novel skeletal muscle glycogenosis. Genomics. 2008;91:458-66 pubmed publisher
    ..A genome-wide association identified GYS1, encoding skeletal muscle glycogen synthase (GS), as a candidate gene for PSSM...
  60. Mott D, Stone K, Gessel M, Bunt J, Bogardus C. Palmitate action to inhibit glycogen synthase and stimulate protein phosphatase 2A increases with risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008;294:E444-50 pubmed
    ..with cultured mouse myotubes support a mechanism for palmitate activation of PP2A, leading to activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3...
  61. Prats C, Helge J, Nordby P, Qvortrup K, Ploug T, Dela F, et al. Dual regulation of muscle glycogen synthase during exercise by activation and compartmentalization. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:15692-700 pubmed publisher
    b>Glycogen synthase (GS) is considered the rate-limiting enzyme in glycogenesis but still today there is a lack of understanding on its regulation...
  62. MacAulay K, Blair A, Hajduch E, Terashima T, Baba O, Sutherland C, et al. Constitutive activation of GSK3 down-regulates glycogen synthase abundance and glycogen deposition in rat skeletal muscle cells. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:9509-18 pubmed
    The effects of inhibition or constitutive activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) on glycogen synthase (GS) activity, abundance, and glycogen deposition in L6 rat skeletal muscle cells were investigated...
  63. Christ Roberts C, Mandarino L. Glycogen synthase: key effect of exercise on insulin action. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2004;32:90-4 pubmed
    ..Increased activity or expression of other proteins seems to be more important. An increase in activity and expression of glycogen synthase and GLUT4 may be key to the effects of exercise.
  64. Parker G, Taylor R, Jones D, McClain D. Hyperglycemia and inhibition of glycogen synthase in streptozotocin-treated mice: role of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:20636-42 pubmed
    b>Glycogen synthase is post-translationally modified by both phosphate and O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc)...
  65. Fujii N, Boppart M, Dufresne S, Crowley P, Jozsi A, Sakamoto K, et al. Overexpression or ablation of JNK in skeletal muscle has no effect on glycogen synthase activity. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2004;287:C200-8 pubmed
    ..differentiated muscle cells, although this protein has been proposed to regulate insulin-stimulated glycogen synthase activity in mouse skeletal muscle...
  66. Spiegel R, Mahamid J, Orho Melander M, Miron D, Horovitz Y. The variable clinical phenotype of liver glycogen synthase deficiency. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2007;20:1339-42 pubmed
    We report two new cases of liver glycogen synthase deficiency (GSD0). The first patient presented at the age of 8 months with recurrent hypoglycemic seizures...
  67. Højlund K, Beck Nielsen H. Impaired glycogen synthase activity and mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle: markers or mediators of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes?. Curr Diabetes Rev. 2006;2:375-95 pubmed
    ..synthesis and increased intramyocellular lipid content, whereas impaired insulin activation of muscle glycogen synthase represents a consistent, molecular defect found in both type 2 diabetic and high-risk individuals...
  68. Aiston S, Green A, Mukhtar M, Agius L. Glucose 6-phosphate causes translocation of phosphorylase in hepatocytes and inactivates the enzyme synergistically with glucose. Biochem J. 2004;377:195-204 pubmed
    The role of glucose 6-P (glucose 6-phosphate) in regulating the activation state of glycogen synthase and its translocation is well documented...
  69. Ougolkov A, Billadeau D. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3. Methods Mol Biol. 2008;468:67-75 pubmed publisher
    There are two homologous forms of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3, GSK-3alpha and GSK-3beta, which play overlapping roles in the regulation of Wnt, Hedgehog, and insulin pathways, as well as the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB-..