n acetyllactosamine synthase


Summary: The A protein of the lactose synthase complex. In the presence of the B protein (LACTALBUMIN) specificity is changed from N-acetylglucosamine to glucose. EC

Top Publications

  1. Tengowski M, Wassler M, Shur B, Schatten G. Subcellular localization of beta1,4-galactosyltransferase on bull sperm and its function during sperm-egg interactions. Mol Reprod Dev. 2001;58:236-44 pubmed
    ..The function of GalT in both the murine and bovine systems suggests that it may serve as a generalized gamete receptor in mammals. ..
  2. Lu Q, Shur B. Sperm from beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase-null mice are refractory to ZP3-induced acrosome reactions and penetrate the zona pellucida poorly. Development. 1997;124:4121-31 pubmed
  3. Matsuoka K, Kaneko R, Koyama T, Ma X, Esumi Y, Nakamura T, et al. Synthesis of sialyllactosamine clusters using carbosilane as core scaffolds by means of chemical and enzymatic approaches. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2010;20:4906-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Further sugar elongation of the LacNAc clusters was demonstrated using alpha2,3 sialyl transferase and CMP-neuraminic acid (CMP-NANA) to yield the corresponding SiaLacNAc clusters. ..
  4. Mitsuhashi N, Fischer Lougheed J, Shulkin I, Kleihauer A, Kohn D, Weinberg K, et al. Tolerance induction by lentiviral gene therapy with a nonmyeloablative regimen. Blood. 2006;107:2286-93 pubmed
    ..Mice reconstituted with GalT accepted alphaGal+ heart grafts over 100 days. Transduction with lentiviral vectors results in chimerism at levels sufficient to induce long-term tolerance under nonmyeloablative conditions. ..
  5. Brockhausen I, Carran J, McEleney K, Lehotay M, Yang X, Yin L, et al. N-Acyl derivatives of glucosamine as acceptor substrates for galactosyltransferase from bone and cartilage cells. Carbohydr Res. 2005;340:1997-2003 pubmed
    ..GlcNBu at 1 and 5mM concentrations in the glucose-free cell medium of primary human osteoblasts from osteoarthritis patients did not significantly alter cell proliferation or cell differentiation. ..
  6. Blixt O, Brown J, Schur M, Wakarchuk W, Paulson J. Efficient preparation of natural and synthetic galactosides with a recombinant beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase-/UDP-4'-gal epimerase fusion protein. J Org Chem. 2001;66:2442-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, bacterially expressed fusion protein is well suited for the facile and economic preparation of natural oligosaccharides and synthetic derivatives based on the lactosamine core. ..
  7. Permyakov E, Reyzer I, Berliner L. Effects of Zn(II) on galactosyltransferase activity. J Protein Chem. 1993;12:633-8 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, in N-acetyllactosamine synthesis, Zn(II) only slightly effects Km(app) for N-acetylglucosamine and has essentially no effect on Km(app) or Vm for UDP-galactose. ..
  8. Post D, Munson R, Baker B, Zhong H, Bozue J, Gibson B. Identification of genes involved in the expression of atypical lipooligosaccharide structures from a second class of Haemophilus ducreyi. Infect Immun. 2007;75:113-21 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that the lbgAB genes can serve as one indicator of the classification of H. ducreyi strains...
  9. Yamashita H, Kubushiro K, Ma J, Fujii T, Tsukazaki K, Iwamori M, et al. Alteration in the metastatic potential of ovarian cancer cells by transfection of the antisense gene of beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase. Oncol Rep. 2003;10:1857-62 pubmed
    ..These results indicated that beta-1,4-GT is closely related to the invasive and metastatic potentials of ovarian cancer while it is not involved in the proliferative potential. ..

More Information


  1. Parry S, Hanisch F, Leir S, Sutton Smith M, Morris H, Dell A, et al. N-Glycosylation of the MUC1 mucin in epithelial cells and secretions. Glycobiology. 2006;16:623-34 pubmed
    ..Many of the N-glycan structures are identical on MUC1F and native MUC1; however, a marked difference is seen between the N-glycans on membrane-bound and secreted forms of the native molecule. ..
  2. Johnston D, Shaper J, Shaper N, Joziasse D, Wright W. The gene encoding murine alpha 1,3-galactosyltransferase is expressed in female germ cells but not in male germ cells. Dev Biol. 1995;171:224-32 pubmed
  3. Ramakrishnan B, Boeggeman E, Ramasamy V, Qasba P. Structure and catalytic cycle of beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2004;14:593-600 pubmed
    ..After binding of the oligosaccharide acceptor and transfer of the galactose moiety, the product disaccharide unit is ejected and the enzyme returns to the open conformation, repeating the catalytic cycle. ..
  4. van den Nieuwenhof I, Renardel de Lavalette C, Diaz N, Van Die I, van den Berg T. Differential galactosylation of neuronal and haematopoietic signal regulatory protein-alpha determines its cellular binding-specificity. J Cell Sci. 2001;114:1321-9 pubmed
    ..In contrast, SIRP alpha-Fc bound relatively strong to macrophages. These data show that the galactosylation of SIRP alpha determines its cellular binding specificity. ..
  5. Saitoh E, Aoki D, Susumu N, Udagawa Y, Nozawa S. Galactosyltransferase associated with tumor in patients with ovarian cancer: factors involved in elevation of serum galactosyltransferase. Int J Oncol. 2003;23:303-10 pubmed
    ..It seems that the decrease of GAT occurs as a result of conversion into normal beta1,4-GalT. ..
  6. Ramakrishnan B, Boeggeman E, Qasba P. Beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase and lactose synthase: molecular mechanical devices. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;291:1113-8 pubmed
    ..The conformational change that masks the sugar nucleotide binding site can also be induced by the acceptor alone, thus making it possible for the protein to act as a specific lectin. ..
  7. Hennet T, Dinter A, Kuhnert P, Mattu T, Rudd P, Berger E. Genomic cloning and expression of three murine UDP-galactose: beta-N-acetylglucosamine beta1,3-galactosyltransferase genes. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:58-65 pubmed
    ..The identification of beta3GalT genes emphasizes the structural diversity present in the galactosyltransferase gene family. ..
  8. Seo N, Hollister J, Jarvis D. Mammalian glycosyltransferase expression allows sialoglycoprotein production by baculovirus-infected insect cells. Protein Expr Purif. 2001;22:234-41 pubmed
    ..Thus, this study demonstrates that the baculovirus-insect cell expression system can be metabolically engineered for N-glycoprotein sialylation by the addition of two mammalian glycosyltransferase genes. ..
  9. Bettler E, Imberty A, Priem B, Chazalet V, Heyraud A, Joziasse D, et al. Production of recombinant xenotransplantation antigen in Escherichia coli. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;302:620-4 pubmed
    ..This strain produced 0.68 g/L of the heptasaccharide Galp alpha(1-3)Galp beta(1-4)(GlcNAc)(5), which harbours the xenoantigen at its non-reducing end, establishing the feasibility of this approach. ..
  10. Gawlitzek M, Ryll T, Lofgren J, Sliwkowski M. Ammonium alters N-glycan structures of recombinant TNFR-IgG: degradative versus biosynthetic mechanisms. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2000;68:637-46 pubmed
    ..Consequently, ammonium seems to alter the carbohydrate biosynthesis of TNFR-IgG by a pH-mediated effect on glycosyltransferase activity. ..
  11. Miller D, Shi X, Burkin H. Molecular basis of mammalian gamete binding. Recent Prog Horm Res. 2002;57:37-73 pubmed
    ..New technical advances and creative ideas offer the opportunity to make important advances and to solve the conundrum of fertilization. ..
  12. Jeong Y, Choi O, Lim H, Son Y, Kim H, Kim J. Enhanced sialylation of recombinant erythropoietin in CHO cells by human glycosyltransferase expression. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008;18:1945-52 pubmed
    ..Thus, coexpression of alpha2,3-ST and beta1,4-GT may be beneficial for producing therapeutic glycoproteins with enhanced sialylation in CHO cells. ..
  13. van den Nieuwenhof I, Schiphorst W, van den Eijnden D. The lactose analog GalNAcbeta1-->4Glc is present in bovine colostrum. Enzymatic basis for its occurrence. FEBS Lett. 1999;459:377-80 pubmed
  14. Chang K, Baek N, Yang J, Lee J, Bo J, Chung I. Expression and characterization of recombinant beta-secretase from Trichoplusia ni BTI Tn5B1-4 cells transformed with cDNAs encoding human beta1,4-galactosyltransferase and Gal beta1,4-GlcNAc alpha 2,6-sialytransferase. Protein Expr Purif. 2005;44:87-93 pubmed
    ..The concentrations at half-maximum inhibition (IC(50)) values estimated from inhibition analyses using purified beta-secretases from Tn5B1-4/betaSEC and Tn5B1-4/betaSEC/GalT-ST cells were 32 and 290 nM, respectively. ..
  15. Uehara K, Muramatsu T. Molecular cloning and characterization of beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase expressed in mouse testis. Eur J Biochem. 1997;244:706-12 pubmed
    ..These results strongly suggest that the 46-kDa protein is a beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase. ..
  16. Lu Q, Hasty P, Shur B. Targeted mutation in beta1,4-galactosyltransferase leads to pituitary insufficiency and neonatal lethality. Dev Biol. 1997;181:257-67 pubmed
    ..The fact that approximately 10% of the GalTase-null mice survive the neonatal period indicates the presence of a previously unrecognized compensatory pathway for glycoprotein hormone glycosylation and/or action. ..
  17. Lamarre Vincent N, Hsieh Wilson L. Dynamic glycosylation of the transcription factor CREB: a potential role in gene regulation. J Am Chem Soc. 2003;125:6612-3 pubmed
    ..These findings have important implications for the role of O-GlcNAc glycosylation in gene regulation, and they provide a link between O-GlcNAc and information storage processes in the brain. ..
  18. Amano J, Kobayashi K, Oshima M. Comparative study of glycosyltransferase activities in Caco-2 cells before and after enterocytic differentiation using lectin-affinity high-performance liquid chromatography. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2001;395:191-8 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that an increase in specific glycosyltransferase activities brought on a change of the O-glycan structures during differentiation. ..
  19. Tomiya N, Howe D, Aumiller J, Pathak M, Park J, Palter K, et al. Complex-type biantennary N-glycans of recombinant human transferrin from Trichoplusia ni insect cells expressing mammalian [beta]-1,4-galactosyltransferase and [beta]-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase II. Glycobiology. 2003;13:23-34 pubmed
    ..Thus, this study describes a novel baculovirus-host system, which can be used to produce a recombinant glycoprotein with fully galactosylated, biantennary N-glycans. ..
  20. Kido M, Asano M, Iwakura Y, Ichinose M, Miki K, Furukawa K. Presence of polysialic acid and HNK-1 carbohydrate on brain glycoproteins from beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase-knockout mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998;245:860-4 pubmed
  21. Ramakrishnan B, Ramasamy V, Qasba P. Structural snapshots of beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase-I along the kinetic pathway. J Mol Biol. 2006;357:1619-33 pubmed
    ..Therefore, this water molecule plays an important role during catalysis in ensuring that the catalytic reaction proceeds in a forward direction. ..
  22. Boeggeman E, Ramakrishnan B, Qasba P. The N-terminal stem region of bovine and human beta1,4-galactosyltransferase I increases the in vitro folding efficiency of their catalytic domain from inclusion bodies. Protein Expr Purif. 2003;30:219-29 pubmed
  23. Nakazawa K, Ando T, Kimura T, Narimatsu H. Cloning and sequencing of a full-length cDNA of mouse N-acetylglucosamine (beta 1-4)galactosyltransferase. J Biochem. 1988;104:165-8 pubmed
    ..Junctions of the common and divergent regions of cDNA have dinucleotides, AG, suggesting that the variety of cDNA clones is generated through alternative splicing. ..
  24. Bencúrová M, Rendic D, Fabini G, Kopecky E, Altmann F, Wilson I. Expression of eukaryotic glycosyltransferases in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Biochimie. 2003;85:413-22 pubmed
    ..pastoris, an active secreted form of the protein was produced. ..
  25. Yadav S, Brew K. Identification of a region of UDP-galactose:N-acetylglucosamine beta 4-galactosyltransferase involved in UDP-galactose binding by differential labeling. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:14163-9 pubmed
    ..J., and Shaper, N. L. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 14290-14297). Sequence comparisons indicate that extended regions at the C terminus of each enzyme encompassing this area may represent homologous UDP-galactose-binding domains. ..
  26. Yamamoto F, Marken J, Tsuji T, White T, Clausen H, Hakomori S. Cloning and characterization of DNA complementary to human UDP-GalNAc: Fuc alpha 1----2Gal alpha 1----3GalNAc transferase (histo-blood group A transferase) mRNA. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:1146-51 pubmed
  27. Ito T, Sadamoto R, Naruchi K, Togame H, Takemoto H, Kondo H, et al. Highly oriented recombinant glycosyltransferases: site-specific immobilization of unstable membrane proteins by using Staphylococcus aureus sortase A. Biochemistry. 2010;49:2604-14 pubmed publisher
  28. Yang H, Hu L, Chen J, Zhu J, Tao T, Zhang F, et al. Lipopolysaccharide induced upregulation of beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase-I in Schwann cell. Inflammation. 2009;32:279-86 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that beta-1,4-GalT-I may play an important role in adhesion and migration of Schwann cells during inflammation. ..
  29. Zhou D, Chen C, Jiang S, Shen Z, Chi Z, Gu J. Expression of beta1,4-galactosyltransferase in the development of mouse brain. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1425:204-8 pubmed
    ..However, the contents of mRNA were not parallel to the enzyme activity. ..
  30. Odunsi K, Ghamande S, Chandrasekaran E, Ta A, Moysich K, Driscoll D, et al. Evaluation of beta1,4-galactosyltransferase as a potential biomarker for the detection of subclinical disease after the completion of primary therapy for ovarian cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002;187:575-80 pubmed
    ..N-acetylglucosamine:beta1,4-galactosyltransferase may be useful as a biomarker in the monitoring of patients with ovarian cancer when the serum CA 125 level is normal. These findings require confirmation in larger studies. ..
  31. Shur B, Neely C. Plasma membrane association, purification, and partial characterization of mouse sperm beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:17706-14 pubmed
    ..Purified sperm GalTase inhibits sperm binding to the egg zona pellucida, consistent with its proposed role during gamete recognition. ..
  32. McLauchlan H, James J, Lucocq J, Ponnambalam S. Characterization and regulation of constitutive transport intermediates involved in trafficking from the trans-Golgi network. Cell Biol Int. 2001;25:705-13 pubmed
    ..Importantly, TC formation can be stimulated or inhibited by protein kinase and phosphatase inhibitors, showing regulation by intracellular signalling pathways. ..
  33. Hinton D, Evans S, Shur B. Altering the expression of cell surface beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase modulates cell growth. Exp Cell Res. 1995;219:640-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, the expression of surface GalTase directly affects cell proliferation rate and may do so by modulating the ability of the EGF receptor to transduce EGF-dependent signals. ..
  34. Mohan S, Kelly T, Eveland S, Raetz C, Anderson M. An Escherichia coli gene (FabZ) encoding (3R)-hydroxymyristoyl acyl carrier protein dehydrase. Relation to fabA and suppression of mutations in lipid A biosynthesis. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:32896-903 pubmed
    ..The orf17 gene (which we now designate fabZ) is not regulated by fadR. However, orf17 may be related to sefA, a suppressor of certain lesions in the cell division/lipid A biosynthesis gene, envA. ..
  35. Yeoh K, Butters T, Wilkinson B, Fairbanks A. Probing replacement of pyrophosphate via click chemistry; synthesis of UDP-sugar analogues as potential glycosyl transferase inhibitors. Carbohydr Res. 2009;344:586-91 pubmed publisher
    ..None of the compounds accessed displayed significant inhibitory activity at concentrations of up to 4.5mM in an assay against bovine milk beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase. ..
  36. Misra A, Ujita M, Fukuda M, Hindsgaul O. Synthesis and enzymatic evaluation of mucin type core 4 O-glycan. Carbohydr Lett. 2001;4:71-6 pubmed
    ..The core-2 and core-4 tetrasaccharides were evaluated as acceptors for the beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (iGnT), beta-1,4-Galactosyltransferase IV(beta4GalTIV) and beta-1,4-Galactosyltransferase I(beta4GalTI). ..
  37. Braundmeier A, Breed W, Miller D. Spermatozoa from a marsupial, the brushtail possum, contain beta1,4-galactosyltransferase. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2008;20:402-7 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that GalTase-I is indeed present in possum spermatozoa and thus it may be a gamete receptor molecule on the sperm surface of marsupials as well as those of eutherian mammals. ..
  38. Joosten J, Kamerling J, Vliegenthart J. Chemo-enzymatic synthesis of a tetra- and octasaccharide fragment of the capsular polysaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 14. Carbohydr Res. 2003;338:2611-27 pubmed
    ..Both title oligosaccharides will be conjugated to carrier proteins to be tested as potential vaccines in animal models. ..
  39. Gastinel L, Cambillau C, Bourne Y. Crystal structures of the bovine beta4galactosyltransferase catalytic domain and its complex with uridine diphosphogalactose. EMBO J. 1999;18:3546-57 pubmed
    ..They suggest a mechanism possibly involved in galactose transfer and enable identification of the critical amino acids involved in alpha-lactalbumin interactions. ..
  40. Asano M, Furukawa K, Kido M, Matsumoto S, Umesaki Y, Kochibe N, et al. Growth retardation and early death of beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase knockout mice with augmented proliferation and abnormal differentiation of epithelial cells. EMBO J. 1997;16:1850-7 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that GalT plays critical roles in the regulation of proliferation and differentiation of epithelial cells after birth, although this enzyme is dispensable during embryonic development. ..
  41. Benau D, Schumacher W, McGuire E, Fitzpatrick McElligott S, Storey B, Roth S. Light microscopic localization of glycosyltransferase activities in cells and tissues. J Histochem Cytochem. 1990;38:23-30 pubmed
    ..With the appropriate sugar donor and acceptor, this assay should detect any transferase, other than the glucosyltransferases, that utilizes UDP sugars. ..
  42. Huang K, Wu B, Lin C, Luo S, Chen C, Wong C, et al. Multi-enzyme one-pot strategy for the synthesis of sialyl Lewis X-containing PSGL-1 glycopeptide. Carbohydr Res. 2006;341:2151-5 pubmed
    ..The method provided an efficient way to afford complex glycopeptides in a semi-preparative scale without further complicated and time-consuming purification process in each glycosylation step. ..
  43. Jeddi P, Keusch J, Lydyard P, Delves P. The stability of lymphocytic beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase expression during pregnancy and lactation. Scand J Immunol. 1997;45:145-50 pubmed
    ..Thus the increased IgG galactose levels seen in pregnancy are regulated by mechanisms which are independent of transcriptional control of beta 1,4-GalTase expression. ..
  44. Breitbach K, Jarvis D. Improved glycosylation of a foreign protein by Tn-5B1-4 cells engineered to express mammalian glycosyltransferases. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2001;74:230-9 pubmed
    ..The results show that both of the engineered insect cell lines have improved glycoprotein-processing capabilities, relative to the parental cell line. ..
  45. Nishida Y, Tamakoshi H, Kobayashi K, Thiem J. The first bovine beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase reaction with an acyclic acceptor substrate, 3-acetamido-1,2-propanediol, to yield a 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol skeleton. Org Lett. 2001;3:1-3 pubmed
    ..The product was determined to be 1-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(R)-3-acetamido-1,2-propanediol (2). Glycerol without the acetamido group was inactive, indicating that this functional group plays a key role in the enzyme reaction. ..
  46. Fukuta K, Abe R, Yokomatsu T, Minowa M, Takeuchi M, Asanagi M, et al. The widespread effect of beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase on N-glycan processing. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2001;392:79-86 pubmed
  47. Uehara K, Thelu J. Stage- and tissue-specific expression of a beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase in the embryonic epidermis. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2001;37:613-7 pubmed
    ..AKI is also expressed in mouse melanoma and leukemia cell lines and in human basal cell carcinoma specimens. The GP130 Gal acceptor once galactosylated by AKI may be directly involved in epidermal differentiation and oncogenesis. ..
  48. Vadaie N, Hulinsky R, Jarvis D. Identification and characterization of a Drosophila melanogaster ortholog of human beta1,4-galactosyltransferase VII. Glycobiology. 2002;12:589-97 pubmed
  49. Appeddu P, Shur B. Molecular analysis of cell surface beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase function during cell migration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:2095-9 pubmed
    ..These results show that the rate of cell migration on basal lamina is directly dependent upon the expression of surface GalTase and the ability of this protein to associate with a limiting number of cytoskeleton-binding sites. ..
  50. Schwardt O, Baisch G, Ohrlein R. Synthesis of linear-B saccharopeptides via enzymatic galactosylation of non-natural glucosamide acceptors. Bioorg Med Chem. 2001;9:1857-69 pubmed
  51. Hathaway H, Evans S, Dubois D, Foote C, Elder B, Shur B. Mutational analysis of the cytoplasmic domain of beta1,4-galactosyltransferase I: influence of phosphorylation on cell surface expression. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:4319-30 pubmed
    ..Thus, the 13 amino acid extension unique to the long GalT I isoform is required for GalT I expression on the cell surface, the function of which is regulated by phosphorylation. ..
  52. Sugita Y, Fujiwara Y, Hoon D, Miyamoto A, Sakon M, Kuo C, et al. Overexpression of beta 1,4N-acetylgalactosaminyl- transferase mRNA as a molecular marker for various types of cancers. Oncology. 2002;62:149-56 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the RT-PCR assay for GalNAcT mRNA could be a potentially useful molecular marker for detecting cancer dissemination in blood circulation of patients with malignancy. ..
  53. Stults C, Macher B. Measurement of beta-galactosyltransferase activity in cell extracts with an ELISA-based assay. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1990;280:20-6 pubmed
    ..The results from this study demonstrate the utility of the ELISA-based assay for measuring glycosyltransferase activity in detergent-solubilized whole cells and microsome preparations. ..