Summary: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.

Top Publications

  1. Schegg B, Hülsmeier A, Rutschmann C, Maag C, Hennet T. Core glycosylation of collagen is initiated by two beta(1-O)galactosyltransferases. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:943-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We have identified two collagen galactosyltransferases using affinity chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry protein sequencing...
  2. Poeta M, Massi E, Parrella P, Pellegrini P, De Robertis M, Copetti M, et al. Aberrant promoter methylation of beta-1,4 galactosyltransferase 1 as potential cancer-specific biomarker of colorectal tumors. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2012;51:1133-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the glycogene B4GALT1 represent a valuable candidate biomarker of invasive phenotype of colorectal cancer. ..
  3. Villegas Comonfort S, Serna Marquez N, Galindo Hernandez O, Navarro Tito N, Salazar E. Arachidonic acid induces an increase of ?-1,4-galactosyltransferase I expression in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. J Cell Biochem. 2012;113:3330-41 pubmed publisher
  4. Fu J, Wei B, Wen T, Johansson M, Liu X, Bradford E, et al. Loss of intestinal core 1-derived O-glycans causes spontaneous colitis in mice. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:1657-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest what we believe to be a new molecular mechanism for the pathogenesis of UC. ..
  5. Williams S, Stanley P. Premature ovarian failure in mice with oocytes lacking core 1-derived O-glycans and complex N-glycans. Endocrinology. 2011;152:1057-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The absence of developing follicles, ovary dysfunction, reduced testosterone and inhibin A, and elevated FSH in double-mutant females lacking C1galt1 and Mgat1 in oocytes represents a new mouse model for the study of follicular POF. ..
  6. Sui X, Meng F, Wang H, Wei Y, Li R, Wang Z, et al. Molecular cloning, characteristics and low temperature response of raffinose synthase gene in Cucumis sativus L. J Plant Physiol. 2012;169:1883-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The most notable increase was observed in the leaves. Similarly, the expression of CsRS was induced in cucumber leaves and fruits with 200 ?M and 150 ?M ABA treatments, respectively...
  7. Kobayashi K, Awai K, Nakamura M, Nagatani A, Masuda T, Ohta H. Type-B monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthases are involved in phosphate starvation-induced lipid remodeling, and are crucial for low-phosphate adaptation. Plant J. 2009;57:322-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The widespread distribution of type-B MGD genes in land plants suggests that membrane lipid remodeling mediated by type-B MGD enzymes is a potent adaptation to Pi deficiency for land plants. ..
  8. ARGUESO P, Guzman Aranguez A, Mantelli F, Cao Z, Ricciuto J, Panjwani N. Association of cell surface mucins with galectin-3 contributes to the ocular surface epithelial barrier. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:23037-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that galectin-3 plays a key role in maintaining mucosal barrier function through carbohydrate-dependent interactions with cell surface mucins. ..
  9. Satomaa T, Heiskanen A, Leonardsson I, Angstrom J, Olonen A, Blomqvist M, et al. Analysis of the human cancer glycome identifies a novel group of tumor-associated N-acetylglucosamine glycan antigens. Cancer Res. 2009;69:5811-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the identified terminal GlcNAc glycans should be recognized as a novel class of tumor markers. ..

More Information


  1. Masuda S, Harada J, Yokono M, Yuzawa Y, Shimojima M, Murofushi K, et al. A monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase found in the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum reveals important roles for galactolipids in photosynthesis. Plant Cell. 2011;23:2644-58 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations provide new insights regarding the importance of regulated MGDG synthesis in the physiology of higher plants...
  2. Ahn K, Kim Y, Kim M, Lee B, Heo S, Kang M, et al. Resurrection of an alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-targeted miniature pig by recloning using postmortem ear skin fibroblasts. Theriogenology. 2011;75:933-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Results from the present study demonstrate that loss of an invaluable animal, such as a gene-targeted miniature pig, may be rescued by recloning, with assurance of the desired genetic modification...
  3. Zhou H, Zhang Z, Liu C, Jin C, Zhang J, Miao X, et al. B4GALT1 gene knockdown inhibits the hedgehog pathway and reverses multidrug resistance in the human leukemia K562/adriamycin-resistant cell line. IUBMB Life. 2012;64:889-900 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that B4GALT1 is responsible for the overcoming multidrug resistance in human leukemia therapy via regulating the activity of the hedgehog signaling pathway. ..
  4. Hara H, Long C, Lin Y, Tai H, Ezzelarab M, Ayares D, et al. In vitro investigation of pig cells for resistance to human antibody-mediated rejection. Transpl Int. 2008;21:1163-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Organs from GTKO/CD46 pigs are likely to be significantly less susceptible to CDC...
  5. Ekser B, Long C, Echeverri G, Hara H, Ezzelarab M, Lin C, et al. Impact of thrombocytopenia on survival of baboons with genetically modified pig liver transplants: clinical relevance. Am J Transplant. 2010;10:273-85 pubmed publisher
    ..If this problem can be resolved, we would anticipate that a pig liver could provide a period during which a patient in liver failure could be successfully bridged to allotransplantation...
  6. Miyagawa S, Takeishi S, Yamamoto A, Ikeda K, Matsunari H, Yamada M, et al. Survey of glycoantigens in cells from alpha1-3galactosyltransferase knockout pig using a lectin microarray. Xenotransplantation. 2010;17:61-70 pubmed publisher
    ..It is possible that the T-antigen and Tn-antigen related to GalNAc are non-Gal antigens, but, fortunately, not only alpha-Gal but also GalNAc were found to be decreased in the KO-pig. ..
  7. Pesnot T, Palcic M, Wagner G. A novel fluorescent probe for retaining galactosyltransferases. Chembiochem. 2010;11:1392-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of UDP-galactose (UDP-Gal) that are recognised as donor analogues by several different retaining galactosyltransferases (GalTs)...
  8. Yamada K, Kobayashi N, Ikeda T, Suzuki Y, Tsuge T, Horikoshi S, et al. Down-regulation of core 1 beta1,3-galactosyltransferase and Cosmc by Th2 cytokine alters O-glycosylation of IgA1. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010;25:3890-7 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-4 stimulation was clearly blocked by recombinant human IL-4 soluble receptor. It appears that Th2 cytokine IL-4 may play a key role in controlling glycosylation of the IgA1 hinge region. ..
  9. Liang Y, Faik A, Kieliszewski M, Tan L, Xu W, Showalter A. Identification and characterization of in vitro galactosyltransferase activities involved in arabinogalactan-protein glycosylation in tobacco and Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2010;154:632-42 pubmed publisher
  10. Descroix K, Pesnot T, Yoshimura Y, Gehrke S, Wakarchuk W, Palcic M, et al. Inhibition of galactosyltransferases by a novel class of donor analogues. J Med Chem. 2012;55:2015-24 pubmed publisher
    b>Galactosyltransferases (GalT) are important molecular targets in a range of therapeutic areas, including infection, inflammation, and cancer. GalT inhibitors are therefore sought after as potential lead compounds for drug discovery...
  11. Gabius H, Van de Wouwer M, Andre S, Villalobo A. Down-regulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor by altering N-glycosylation: emerging role of ?1,4-galactosyltransferases. Anticancer Res. 2012;32:1565-72 pubmed
    ..In contrast, EGFR expression in a mutant with reduced presence of ?1,4-galactosyltransferases-I-VI was markedly reduced. Misrouting or defects in transfection/transcription were excluded...
  12. Talhaoui I, Bui C, Oriol R, Mulliert G, Gulberti S, Netter P, et al. Identification of key functional residues in the active site of human {beta}1,4-galactosyltransferase 7: a major enzyme in the glycosaminoglycan synthesis pathway. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:37342-58 pubmed publisher
    ..A better understanding of the mechanism underlying GAG assembly paves the way toward GAG-based therapeutics...
  13. Philippe R, Ralph S, Mansfield S, Bohlmann J. Transcriptome profiles of hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa × deltoides) reveal rapid changes in undamaged, systemic sink leaves after simulated feeding by forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria). New Phytol. 2010;188:787-802 pubmed publisher
    ..Systemic transcriptome changes of SSi leaves have signatures of rapid change of metabolism and signaling, followed by later induction of defense genes...
  14. Peanne R, Legrand D, Duvet S, Mir A, Matthijs G, Rohrer J, et al. Differential effects of lobe A and lobe B of the Conserved Oligomeric Golgi complex on the stability of {beta}1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 and {alpha}2,6-sialyltransferase 1. Glycobiology. 2011;21:864-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Lobe B would be crucial in preventing these two Golgi glycosyltransferases from inappropriate retrograde trafficking to the ER, whereas lobe A appears to be essential for maintaining the overall Golgi structure. ..
  15. Seko A, Kataoka F, Aoki D, Sakamoto M, Nakamura T, Hatae M, et al. Beta1,3-galactosyltransferases-4/5 are novel tumor markers for gynecological cancers. Tumour Biol. 2009;30:43-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The stage I uterine corpus cancers had particularly high beta3Gal-T4/T5-positive rates (57%). beta3Gal-T4/T5 is a novel tumor marker for uterine corpus cancer and other gynecological cancers. ..
  16. Brown J, Yang F, Sinha A, Ramakrishnan B, Tor Y, Qasba P, et al. Deoxygenated disaccharide analogs as specific inhibitors of beta1-4-galactosyltransferase 1 and selectin-mediated tumor metastasis. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:4952-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that nonsubstrate disaccharides have therapeutic potential through their ability to bind to glycosyltransferases in vivo and to alter glycan-dependent pathologic processes. ..
  17. Choi H, Chung T, Kim C, Jeong H, Joo M, Youn B, et al. Estrogen induced ?-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 expression regulates proliferation of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;426:620-5 pubmed publisher
  18. Wei Y, Zhou F, Ge Y, Chen H, Cui C, Liu D, et al. Regulation of the beta1,4-Galactosyltransferase I promoter by E2F1. J Biochem. 2010;148:263-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, beta1,4GalT I is an important E2F1 target gene that is required for cell cycle progression in mammalian cells, which elicits a new mechanism of cell growth and a new mechanism of beta1,4GalT I transcription. ..
  19. Liefhebber J, Punt S, Spaan W, van Leeuwen H. The human collagen beta(1-O)galactosyltransferase, GLT25D1, is a soluble endoplasmic reticulum localized protein. BMC Cell Biol. 2010;11:33 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate overlapping localization patterns of GLT25D1, MBL and LH3. Taken together our data indicate that galactosylation of collagenous proteins by the soluble GLT25D1 occurs in the early secretory pathway. ..
  20. Ezzelarab M, Garcia B, Azimzadeh A, Sun H, Lin C, Hara H, et al. The innate immune response and activation of coagulation in alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout xenograft recipients. Transplantation. 2009;87:805-12 pubmed publisher
  21. Oka T, Saito F, Shimma Y, Yoko o T, Nomura Y, Matsuoka K, et al. Characterization of endoplasmic reticulum-localized UDP-D-galactose: hydroxyproline O-galactosyltransferase using synthetic peptide substrates in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2010;152:332-40 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first characterization of HGT, and the data provide evidence that arabinogalactan biosynthesis occurs in the protein transport pathway. ..
  22. Wei Y, Zhou F, Ge Y, Chen H, Cui C, Li Q, et al. Beta1,4-galactosyltransferase V regulates self-renewal of glioma-initiating cell. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;396:602-7 pubmed publisher
  23. Han Y, Zhou X, Ji Y, Shen A, Sun X, Hu Y, et al. Expression of beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase-I affects cellular adhesion in human peripheral blood CD4+ T cells. Cell Immunol. 2010;262:11-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, the data suggest that beta-1,4-GalT-I plays a role in the cellular adhesion of CD4(+) T cells. ..
  24. Hara H, Campanile N, Tai H, Long C, Ekser B, Yeh P, et al. An in vitro model of pig liver xenotransplantation--pig complement is associated with reduced lysis of wild-type and genetically modified pig cells. Xenotransplantation. 2010;17:370-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In the absence of pig antibodies directed to human tissues, pig complement is unlikely to cause problems after liver xenotransplantation, especially if GTKO/CD46 pigs are used as the source of the livers. ..
  25. Chen J, Burke J, Xin Z, Xu C, Velten J. Characterization of the Arabidopsis thermosensitive mutant atts02 reveals an important role for galactolipids in thermotolerance. Plant Cell Environ. 2006;29:1437-48 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the DGDG level and/or the ratio of DGDG to MGDG may play an important role in basal as well as acquired thermotolerance in Arabidopsis. ..
  26. Yamada K, Yazawa K, Shimizu A, Iwanaga T, Hisashi Y, Nuhn M, et al. Marked prolongation of porcine renal xenograft survival in baboons through the use of alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout donors and the cotransplantation of vascularized thymic tissue. Nat Med. 2005;11:32-4 pubmed
    ..We have achieved life-supporting pig-to-baboon renal xenograft survivals of up to 83 d with normal creatinine levels. ..
  27. Kuwaki K, Tseng Y, Dor F, Shimizu A, Houser S, Sanderson T, et al. Heart transplantation in baboons using alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout pigs as donors: initial experience. Nat Med. 2005;11:29-31 pubmed
    ..There were no infectious complications directly related to the immunosuppressive regimen. The transplantation of hearts from GalT-KO pigs increased graft survival over previous studies. ..
  28. Strasser R, Bondili J, Vavra U, Schoberer J, Svoboda B, Glössl J, et al. A unique beta1,3-galactosyltransferase is indispensable for the biosynthesis of N-glycans containing Lewis a structures in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell. 2007;19:2278-92 pubmed
  29. Ito H, Kameyama A, Sato T, Sukegawa M, Ishida H, Narimatsu H. Strategy for the fine characterization of glycosyltransferase specificity using isotopomer assembly. Nat Methods. 2007;4:577-82 pubmed
    ..We demonstrated the analysis of substrate specificities of five beta4-galactosyltransferases (beta4GalT-I, -II, -III, -IV and -V) using our strategy.
  30. Fischer Lougheed J, Tarantal A, Shulkin I, Mitsuhashi N, Kohn D, Lee C, et al. Gene therapy to inhibit xenoantibody production using lentiviral vectors in non-human primates. Gene Ther. 2007;14:49-57 pubmed
    ..This study is the first to report the application of gene therapy to achieve low-level, long-term gal chimerism sufficient to inhibit production of anti-gal antibodies after immunization with porcine cells in rhesus macaques. ..
  31. Evans J, Doki T, Fischer Lougheed J, Davicioni E, Kearns Jonker M. Expression changes in tolerant murine cardiac allografts after gene therapy with a lentiviral vector expressing alpha1,3 galactosyltransferase. Transplant Proc. 2006;38:3172-80 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that tolerance may be associated with activation of immunomodulatory and survival pathways. ..
  32. Nishie T, Miyaishi O, Azuma H, Kameyama A, Naruse C, Hashimoto N, et al. Development of immunoglobulin A nephropathy- like disease in beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase-I-deficient mice. Am J Pathol. 2007;170:447-56 pubmed
    ..We propose that carbohydrates of serum IgA are involved in the development of IgAN, whether the carbohydrates are O-glycans or N-glycans. ..
  33. Porubsky S, Speak A, Luckow B, Cerundolo V, Platt F, Grone H. Normal development and function of invariant natural killer T cells in mice with isoglobotrihexosylceramide (iGb3) deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:5977-82 pubmed
    ..Our results strongly suggest that iGb3 is unlikely to be an endogenous CD1d lipid ligand determining thymic iNKT selection. ..
  34. Jiang J, Shen J, Wu T, Wei Y, Chen X, Zong H, et al. Down-regulation of beta1,4-galactosyltransferase V is a critical part of etoposide-induced apoptotic process and could be mediated by decreasing Sp1 levels in human glioma cells. Glycobiology. 2006;16:1045-51 pubmed
  35. Faiyaz Ul Haque M, Zaidi S, Al Ali M, Al Mureikhi M, Kennedy S, Al Thani G, et al. A novel missense mutation in the galactosyltransferase-I (B4GALT7) gene in a family exhibiting facioskeletal anomalies and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome resembling the progeroid type. Am J Med Genet A. 2004;128A:39-45 pubmed
  36. Rajesh M, Kolmakova A, Chatterjee S. Novel role of lactosylceramide in vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated angiogenesis in human endothelial cells. Circ Res. 2005;97:796-804 pubmed
    ..This finding and the reagents developed in our report may be useful as anti-angiogenic drugs for further studies in vitro and in vivo. ..
  37. Gaude N, Tippmann H, Flemetakis E, Katinakis P, Udvardi M, D rmann P. The galactolipid digalactosyldiacylglycerol accumulates in the peribacteroid membrane of nitrogen-fixing nodules of soybean and Lotus. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:34624-30 pubmed publisher
    ..e. nucleic acid synthesis in bacteroids and host cells...
  38. Xia L, Ju T, Westmuckett A, An G, Ivanciu L, McDaniel J, et al. Defective angiogenesis and fatal embryonic hemorrhage in mice lacking core 1-derived O-glycans. J Cell Biol. 2004;164:451-9 pubmed
    ..These data reveal an unexpected requirement for core 1-derived O-glycans during angiogenesis. ..
  39. Ayre B, Blair J, Turgeon R. Functional and phylogenetic analyses of a conserved regulatory program in the phloem of minor veins. Plant Physiol. 2003;133:1229-39 pubmed
  40. Turcot Dubois A, Le Moullac Vaidye B, Despiau S, Roubinet F, Bovin N, Le Pendu J, et al. Long-term evolution of the CAZY glycosyltransferase 6 (ABO) gene family from fishes to mammals--a birth-and-death evolution model. Glycobiology. 2007;17:516-28 pubmed
    ..These observations indicate that individual GT6 genes have expanded and contracted by recurrent duplications and deletions during vertebrate evolution, following a birth-and-death evolution type. ..
  41. McCaskill A, Turgeon R. Phloem loading in Verbascum phoeniceum L. depends on the synthesis of raffinose-family oligosaccharides. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:19619-24 pubmed
    ..In plants with severe down-regulation, additional symptoms of reduced export were obvious, including impaired growth, leaf chlorosis, and necrosis and curling of leaf margins...
  42. Li Y, Teneberg S, Thapa P, Bendelac A, Levery S, Zhou D. Sensitive detection of isoglobo and globo series tetraglycosylceramides in human thymus by ion trap mass spectrometry. Glycobiology. 2008;18:158-65 pubmed
  43. Kobayashi K, Masuda T, Takamiya K, Ohta H. Membrane lipid alteration during phosphate starvation is regulated by phosphate signaling and auxin/cytokinin cross-talk. Plant J. 2006;47:238-48 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the observed global change in plant membranes during Pi starvation is not caused by Pi-starvation induced damage in plant cells but rather is strictly regulated by Pi signaling and auxin/cytokinin cross-talk. ..
  44. Zhou J, Wei Y, Liu D, Ge X, Zhou F, Jiang X, et al. Identification of beta1,4GalT II as a target gene of p53-mediated HeLa cell apoptosis. J Biochem. 2008;143:547-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results suggested that beta1,4GalT II might serve as a target gene of p53 transcription factor during adriamycin-induced HeLa cell apoptosis, which elucidated a new mechanism of p53-mediated cell apoptosis. ..
  45. Godfrey D, Pellicci D, Smyth M. Immunology. The elusive NKT cell antigen--is the search over?. Science. 2004;306:1687-9 pubmed
  46. Zhou D, Mattner J, Cantu C, Schrantz N, Yin N, Gao Y, et al. Lysosomal glycosphingolipid recognition by NKT cells. Science. 2004;306:1786-9 pubmed
    ..We suggest that expression of iGb3 in peripheral tissues may be involved in controlling NKT cell responses to infections and malignancy and in autoimmunity. ..
  47. Pannu R, Won J, Khan M, Singh A, Singh I. A novel role of lactosylceramide in the regulation of lipopolysaccharide/interferon-gamma-mediated inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression: implications for neuroinflammatory diseases. J Neurosci. 2004;24:5942-54 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge this is the first report of a role of LacCer in iNOS expression and the advantage of GSL depletion in attenuating post-SCI inflammation to improve the outcome of SCI. ..
  48. Williams S, Stanley P. Mouse fertility is enhanced by oocyte-specific loss of core 1-derived O-glycans. FASEB J. 2008;22:2273-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify novel roles for glycoproteins from the oocyte as suppressors of fertility and regulators of follicular integrity in the mouse. ..
  49. Deng C, Chen R. A pH-sensitive assay for galactosyltransferase. Anal Biochem. 2004;330:219-26 pubmed
    ..The assay was used to compare three galactosyltransferases in our collection...
  50. Buck K, Smith A, Molyneux K, El Barbary H, Feehally J, Barratt J. B-cell O-galactosyltransferase activity, and expression of O-glycosylation genes in bone marrow in IgA nephropathy. Kidney Int. 2008;73:1128-36 pubmed publisher
  51. Ramasamy V, Ramakrishnan B, Boeggeman E, Qasba P. The role of tryptophan 314 in the conformational changes of beta1,4-galactosyltransferase-I. J Mol Biol. 2003;331:1065-76 pubmed
    ..This study shows the crucial role Trp314 plays in the conformational state of the long loop, in the binding of substrates and in the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme. ..
  52. Shimizu A, Hisashi Y, Kuwaki K, Tseng Y, Dor F, Houser S, et al. Thrombotic microangiopathy associated with humoral rejection of cardiac xenografts from alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout pigs in baboons. Am J Pathol. 2008;172:1471-81 pubmed publisher
  53. Wei Y, Liu D, Ge Y, Zhou F, Xu J, Chen H, et al. Down-regulation of beta1,4GalT V at protein level contributes to arsenic trioxide-induced glioma cell apoptosis. Cancer Lett. 2008;267:96-105 pubmed publisher