Summary: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.

Top Publications

  1. Seibel J, Moraru R, Götze S, Buchholz K, Na amnieh S, Pawlowski A, et al. Synthesis of sucrose analogues and the mechanism of action of Bacillus subtilis fructosyltransferase (levansucrase). Carbohydr Res. 2006;341:2335-49 pubmed
    ..In those conformations, the L-glycopyranosides are stabilized by the same hydrogen network. Structures of the acceptor products were determined by NMR and mass spectrometry analysis. ..
  2. Kawakami A, Yoshida M. Fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase, a key enzyme for biosynthesis of graminan oligomers in hardened wheat. Planta. 2005;223:90-104 pubmed publisher
    ..In combination with sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST; EC and 6-SFT, 1-FFT is necessary for fructan synthesis in hardened wheat...
  3. Ruiz Canada C, Kelleher D, Gilmore R. Cotranslational and posttranslational N-glycosylation of polypeptides by distinct mammalian OST isoforms. Cell. 2009;136:272-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These distinct and complementary roles for the OST isoforms allow sequential scanning of polypeptides for acceptor sites to insure the maximal efficiency of N-glycosylation. ..
  4. Kowarik M, Young N, Numao S, Schulz B, Hug I, Callewaert N, et al. Definition of the bacterial N-glycosylation site consensus sequence. EMBO J. 2006;25:1957-66 pubmed
    ..Thus, bacterial N-glycosylation site selection is more specific than the eukaryotic equivalent with respect to the polypeptide acceptor sequence. ..
  5. Spirig U, Bodmer D, Wacker M, Burda P, Aebi M. The 3.4-kDa Ost4 protein is required for the assembly of two distinct oligosaccharyltransferase complexes in yeast. Glycobiology. 2005;15:1396-406 pubmed
    ..Ost3p and Ost6p are not absolutely required for OTase activity, but modulate the affinity of the enzyme toward different protein substrates. ..
  6. Ritsema T, Hernández L, Verhaar A, Altenbach D, Boller T, Wiemken A, et al. Developing fructan-synthesizing capability in a plant invertase via mutations in the sucrose-binding box. Plant J. 2006;48:228-37 pubmed
    ..These relatively small changes that increase the transglycosylation capacity of invertases might explain the polyphyletic origin of the fructan accumulation trait. ..
  7. Igura M, Kohda D. Selective control of oligosaccharide transfer efficiency for the N-glycosylation sequon by a point mutation in oligosaccharyltransferase. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:13255-60 pubmed publisher
    ..This mutational approach is potentially applicable to eukaryotic and eubacterial OSTs for the production of homogenous glycoproteins in engineered mammalian and Escherichia coli cells. ..
  8. Harada Y, Li H, Li H, Lennarz W. Oligosaccharyltransferase directly binds to ribosome at a location near the translocon-binding site. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:6945-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on existing data and our findings, we propose that cotranslational translocation and N-glycosylation of nascent polypeptides are mediated by a ternary supramolecular complex consisting of OT, the Sec61 complex, and ribosomes. ..
  9. Ritsema T, Verhaar A, Vijin I, Smeekens S. Fructosyltransferase mutants specify a function for the beta-fructosidase motif of the sucrose-binding box in specifying the fructan type synthesized. Plant Mol Biol. 2004;54:853-63 pubmed
    ..This is in agreement with the observed activities of the chimerical proteins and indicates that the beta -fructosidase motif of the sucrose-binding box is specifying the fructan type synthesized. ..

More Information


  1. Shibatani T, David L, McCormack A, Frueh K, Skach W. Proteomic analysis of mammalian oligosaccharyltransferase reveals multiple subcomplexes that contain Sec61, TRAP, and two potential new subunits. Biochemistry. 2005;44:5982-92 pubmed
    ..Our results identify two potential new subunits of mammalian OST and demonstrate a remarkable heterogeneity in OST composition that may reflect a means for controlling nascent chain glycosylation. ..
  2. Gayen S, Kang C. Solution structure of a human minimembrane protein Ost4, a subunit of the oligosaccharyltransferase complex. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;409:572-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Ost4 was demonstrated that the residues 5-30 adopt an ?-helical structure. A kink structure was observed in the transmembrane domain, which may be important for its function. ..
  3. Nyirenda J, Matsumoto S, Saitoh T, Maita N, Noda N, Inagaki F, et al. Crystallographic and NMR evidence for flexibility in oligosaccharyltransferases and its catalytic significance. Structure. 2013;21:32-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest the necessity of multiple conformational states in the reaction. The dynamic nature of the Ser/Thr pocket could facilitate the efficient scanning of N-glycosylation sequons along nascent polypeptide chains...
  4. Castillo E, López Munguía A. Synthesis of levan in water-miscible organic solvents. J Biotechnol. 2004;114:209-17 pubmed
  5. Schulz B, Stirnimann C, Grimshaw J, Brozzo M, Fritsch F, Mohorko E, et al. Oxidoreductase activity of oligosaccharyltransferase subunits Ost3p and Ost6p defines site-specific glycosylation efficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:11061-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that eukaryotic oligosaccharyltransferase is a multifunctional enzyme that acts at the crossroads of protein modification and protein folding. ..
  6. Lasseur B, Schroeven L, Lammens W, Le Roy K, Spangenberg G, Manduzio H, et al. Transforming a fructan:fructan 6G-fructosyltransferase from perennial ryegrass into a sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase. Plant Physiol. 2009;149:327-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these insights contribute to our knowledge of structure/function relationships within plant family 32 glycosyl hydrolases and open the way to the production of tailor-made fructans on a larger scale. ..
  7. Ortiz Soto M, Rivera M, Rudiño Piñera E, Olvera C, López Munguía A. Selected mutations in Bacillus subtilis levansucrase semi-conserved regions affecting its biochemical properties. Protein Eng Des Sel. 2008;21:589-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Some of these mutations resulted in LS with a broad range of specificities and new biochemical properties. ..
  8. Roboti P, High S. Keratinocyte-associated protein 2 is a bona fide subunit of the mammalian oligosaccharyltransferase. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:220-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data strongly support the proposal that KCP2 is a newly identified subunit of the N-glycosylation machinery present in a subset of eukaryotes. ..
  9. Denny P, Shams Eldin H, Price H, Smith D, Schwarz R. The protozoan inositol phosphorylceramide synthase: a novel drug target that defines a new class of sphingolipid synthase. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:28200-9 pubmed
    ..The identification and characterization of the protozoan IPC synthase, an enzyme with no mammalian equivalent, will raise the possibility of developing anti-protozoal drugs with minimal toxic side affects. ..
  10. Totani K, Ihara Y, Matsuo I, Ito Y. Effects of macromolecular crowding on glycoprotein processing enzymes. J Am Chem Soc. 2008;130:2101-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that the kinetics of glycan processing under crowded conditions may be quite different from those measured in dilute buffers. ..
  11. Banguela A, Arrieta J, Rodriguez R, Trujillo L, Menendez C, Hernández L. High levan accumulation in transgenic tobacco plants expressing the Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus levansucrase gene. J Biotechnol. 2011;154:93-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The lsdA-expressing tobacco represents an alternative source of highly polymerized levan...
  12. Wilson C, Magnaudeix A, Yardin C, Terro F. DC2 and keratinocyte-associated protein 2 (KCP2), subunits of the oligosaccharyltransferase complex, are regulators of the gamma-secretase-directed processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP). J Biol Chem. 2011;286:31080-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal that components of the OST complex for the first time can interact with the ?-secretase and affect the APP processing pathway. ..
  13. Baciu I, Jördening H, Seibel J, Buchholz K. Investigations of the transfructosylation reaction by fructosyltransferase from B. subtilis NCIMB 11871 for the synthesis of the sucrose analogue galactosyl-fructoside. J Biotechnol. 2005;116:347-57 pubmed
    ..This is also the first report about the equilibrium of the transfructosylation reaction, its activation energy determination, the structure of the product and its preparative scale isolation. ..
  14. Homann A, Biedendieck R, Götze S, Jahn D, Seibel J. Insights into polymer versus oligosaccharide synthesis: mutagenesis and mechanistic studies of a novel levansucrase from Bacillus megaterium. Biochem J. 2007;407:189-98 pubmed
    ..Two crucial structural differences localized at amino acid residues Arg370 and Asn252 were of high relevance in polymer compared with oligosaccharide synthesis...
  15. Kusch U, Greiner S, Steininger H, Meyer A, Corbière Divialle H, Harms K, et al. Dissecting the regulation of fructan metabolism in chicory (Cichorium intybus) hairy roots. New Phytol. 2009;184:127-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, this study has established chicory HRCs as a convenient experimental system with which to study the regulation of fructan active enzyme (FAZY) expression in heterotrophic cells. ..
  16. Izumikawa T, Uyama T, Okuura Y, Sugahara K, Kitagawa H. Involvement of chondroitin sulfate synthase-3 (chondroitin synthase-2) in chondroitin polymerization through its interaction with chondroitin synthase-1 or chondroitin-polymerizing factor. Biochem J. 2007;403:545-52 pubmed
    ..Altogether these results suggest that chondroitin polymerization is achieved by multiple combinations of ChSy-1, CSS3 and ChPF. Based on these characteristics, we have renamed CSS3 ChSy-2 (chondroitin synthase-2). ..
  17. Mina J, Okada Y, Wansadhipathi Kannangara N, Pratt S, Shams Eldin H, Schwarz R, et al. Functional analyses of differentially expressed isoforms of the Arabidopsis inositol phosphorylceramide synthase. Plant Mol Biol. 2010;73:399-407 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression profiling revealed that the genes encoding these orthologues are differentially expressed in various tissue types isolated from Arabidopsis. ..
  18. Itaya N, Asega A, Carvalho M, Figueiredo Ribeiro R. Hydrolase and fructosyltransferase activities implicated in the accumulation of different chain size fructans in three Asteraceae species. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2007;45:647-56 pubmed
    ..Differences in fructan enzymes of the three Asteraceae provide new information towards the understanding of fructan metabolism and control of carbon flow between low and high DP fructans. ..
  19. Sato T, Sako Y, Sho M, Momohara M, Suico M, Shuto T, et al. STT3B-dependent posttranslational N-glycosylation as a surveillance system for secretory protein. Mol Cell. 2012;47:99-110 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence we postulate that STT3B-dependent posttranslational N-glycosylation is part of a triage-salvage system recognizing cryptic N-glycosylation sites of secretory proteins to preserve protein homeostasis. ..
  20. Osawa T, Sugiura N, Shimada H, Hirooka R, Tsuji A, Shirakawa T, et al. Crystal structure of chondroitin polymerase from Escherichia coli K4. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;378:10-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The present K4CP structures have provided the structural basis for further investigating the molecular mechanism of biosynthesis of chondroitin chain. ..
  21. Maita N, Nyirenda J, Igura M, Kamishikiryo J, Kohda D. Comparative structural biology of eubacterial and archaeal oligosaccharyltransferases. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:4941-50 pubmed publisher
    ..This novel classification will provide a useful framework for understanding the enzymatic properties of the OST enzymes from Eukarya, Archaea, and Bacteria. ..
  22. Francki M, Walker E, Forster J, Spangenberg G, Appels R. Fructosyltransferase and invertase genes evolved by gene duplication and rearrangements: rice, perennial ryegrass, and wheat gene families. Genome. 2006;49:1081-91 pubmed
    ..Gene orthologs were largely static after duplication during evolution of the wheat lineage. This study details evolutionary events that contribute to fructosyltransferase and invertase gene variation in grasses. ..
  23. Roboti P, High S. The oligosaccharyltransferase subunits OST48, DAD1 and KCP2 function as ubiquitous and selective modulators of mammalian N-glycosylation. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:3474-84 pubmed publisher
  24. Gadegaard G, Didion T, Folling M, Storgaard M, Andersen C, Nielsen K. Improved fructan accumulation in perennial ryegrass transformed with the onion fructosyltransferase genes 1-SST and 6G-FFT. J Plant Physiol. 2008;165:1214-25 pubmed
    ..Further, the high fructan content was stable during the growth period, whereas the fructan content in an elite variety, marketed as a high sugar variety, dropped rapidly after reaching its maximum and subsequently remained low. ..
  25. Mohorko E, Glockshuber R, Aebi M. Oligosaccharyltransferase: the central enzyme of N-linked protein glycosylation. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2011;34:869-78 pubmed publisher
  26. Wilson C, Roebuck Q, High S. Ribophorin I regulates substrate delivery to the oligosaccharyltransferase core. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:9534-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We show for the first time that ribophorin I can regulate the delivery of precursor proteins to the OST complex by capturing substrates and presenting them to the catalytic core. ..
  27. Velázquez Hernández M, Baizabal Aguirre V, Bravo Patiño A, Cajero Juárez M, Chávez Moctezuma M, Valdez Alarcón J. Microbial fructosyltransferases and the role of fructans. J Appl Microbiol. 2009;106:1763-78 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result of the biological and industrial importance of fructans, fructosyltransferases have been the subject of extensive research, conducted to improve their enzymatic activity or to elucidate their biological role in nature. ..
  28. Chiang C, Wang J, Chen P, Chao Y. Enhanced levan production using chitin-binding domain fused levansucrase immobilized on chitin beads. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;82:445-51 pubmed publisher
    ..It is apparent that this approach offers a promising way for levan production by Z. mobilis levansucrase immobilized on chitin beads. ..
  29. Schulz B, Aebi M. Analysis of glycosylation site occupancy reveals a role for Ost3p and Ost6p in site-specific N-glycosylation efficiency. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2009;8:357-64 pubmed publisher
  30. Olvera C, Centeno Leija S, Ruiz Leyva P, López Munguía A. Design of chimeric levansucrases with improved transglycosylation activity. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:1820-5 pubmed publisher
  31. Ueno K, Onodera S, Kawakami A, Yoshida M, Shiomi N. Molecular characterization and expression of a cDNA encoding fructan:fructan 6G-fructosyltransferase from asparagus (Asparagus officinalis). New Phytol. 2005;165:813-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The ratio of 6G-FFT activity to 1-FFT activity was calculated to be 13. The characteristics of the recombinant protein closely resemble those of the 6G-FFT from asparagus roots, except for a difference in accompanying 1-FFT activity...
  32. Faridmoayer A, Fentabil M, Haurat M, Yi W, Woodward R, Wang P, et al. Extreme substrate promiscuity of the Neisseria oligosaccharyl transferase involved in protein O-glycosylation. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:34596-604 pubmed publisher
    ..The unique characteristics of PglL make this enzyme a promising tool for glycoengineering novel glycan-based vaccines and therapeutics. ..
  33. Fujishima M, Sakai H, Ueno K, Takahashi N, Onodera S, Benkeblia N, et al. Purification and characterization of a fructosyltransferase from onion bulbs and its key role in the synthesis of fructo-oligosaccharides in vivo. New Phytol. 2005;165:513-24 pubmed
    ..The enzyme tentatively classified as fructan: fructan 6(G)-fructosyltransferase (6G-FFT). The enzyme is proposed to play an important role in the synthesis of inulin and inulinneo-series fructo-oligosaccharides in onion bulbs. ..
  34. Schwarz F, Aebi M. Mechanisms and principles of N-linked protein glycosylation. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2011;21:576-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on structural, functional, and phylogenetic approaches, this review discusses the highly conserved processes that are at the basis of this unique general protein modification system. ..
  35. Nita Lazar M, Wacker M, Schegg B, Amber S, Aebi M. The N-X-S/T consensus sequence is required but not sufficient for bacterial N-linked protein glycosylation. Glycobiology. 2005;15:361-7 pubmed
    ..jejuni glycoprotein, HisJ. Export of the polypeptide to the periplasm was required for glycosylation. Our data support the hypothesis that eukaryotic and bacterial N-linked protein glycosylation are homologous processes. ..
  36. Li L, Woodward R, Ding Y, Liu X, Yi W, Bhatt V, et al. Overexpression and topology of bacterial oligosaccharyltransferase PglB. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;394:1069-74 pubmed publisher
  37. Gerber S, Lizak C, Michaud G, Bucher M, Darbre T, Aebi M, et al. Mechanism of bacterial oligosaccharyltransferase: in vitro quantification of sequon binding and catalysis. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:8849-61 pubmed publisher
    ..2-fold higher glycosylation rate. The interaction of the +2 sequon position with PglB is modulated by isoleucine 572. Our study demonstrates an intricate interplay of peptide and metal binding as the first step of protein N-glycosylation...
  38. Jaffee M, Imperiali B. Exploiting topological constraints to reveal buried sequence motifs in the membrane-bound N-linked oligosaccharyl transferases. Biochemistry. 2011;50:7557-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The described approach allowed detection of the catalytic motifs prior to availability of structural data and reveals additional catalytically relevant residues that are not predicted by structural data alone. ..
  39. Morales Arrieta S, Rodriguez M, Segovia L, López Munguía A, Olvera Carranza C. Identification and functional characterization of levS, a gene encoding for a levansucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B-512 F. Gene. 2006;376:59-67 pubmed
    ..mesenteroides demonstrates that they group together into a novel putative sub-family of genes and evolved long before all other glucosyltransferases, while their catalytic domain structure is species related...
  40. Ozimek L, Euverink G, van der Maarel M, Dijkhuizen L. Mutational analysis of the role of calcium ions in the Lactobacillus reuteri strain 121 fructosyltransferase (levansucrase and inulosucrase) enzymes. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:1124-8 pubmed
    ..Sequence alignments of family GH68 proteins showed that this Ca2+ ion-binding site is (largely) present only in proteins of Gram-positive origin. ..
  41. Van den Ende W, Clerens S, Vergauwen R, Boogaerts D, Le Roy K, Arckens L, et al. Cloning and functional analysis of a high DP fructan:fructan 1-fructosyl transferase from Echinops ritro (Asteraceae): comparison of the native and recombinant enzymes. J Exp Bot. 2006;57:775-89 pubmed
    ..1-FFT expression analysis correlates well with high DP fructan accumulation in vivo, suggesting that the enzyme is responsible for high DP fructan formation in planta. ..
  42. Patel M, Stadler M, Deal A, Kim H, Shores C, Zanation A. STT3A, C1orf24, TFF3: putative markers for characterization of follicular thyroid neoplasms from fine-needle aspirates. Laryngoscope. 2011;121:983-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Gene-expression data suggest a difference in expression between STT3A, Clorf24, and TFF3 in FAs versus carcinomas that may be detected from an FNA sample. Findings must be validated from preoperative FNAs in larger numbers. ..
  43. Feldman M, Wacker M, Hernandez M, Hitchen P, Marolda C, Kowarik M, et al. Engineering N-linked protein glycosylation with diverse O antigen lipopolysaccharide structures in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:3016-21 pubmed
    ..coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa O antigens. PglB-mediated transfer of polysaccharides might be valuable for in vivo production of O polysaccharides-protein conjugates for use as antibacterial vaccines. ..
  44. Yan A, Wu E, Lennarz W. Studies of yeast oligosaccharyl transferase subunits using the split-ubiquitin system: topological features and in vivo interactions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:7121-6 pubmed
    ..This finding is consistent with earlier work by others indicating that OT exhibits allosteric properties. ..
  45. Castro O, Movsichoff F, Parodi A. Preferential transfer of the complete glycan is determined by the oligosaccharyltransferase complex and not by the catalytic subunit. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:14756-60 pubmed
    ..Thus, preference for Glc(3)Man(9)GlcNAc(2) is a feature that is determined by the complex and not by the catalytic subunit. ..
  46. Verhaest M, Van den Ende W, Roy K, De Ranter C, Laere A, Rabijns A. X-ray diffraction structure of a plant glycosyl hydrolase family 32 protein: fructan 1-exohydrolase IIa of Cichorium intybus. Plant J. 2005;41:400-11 pubmed
  47. Yan A, Lennarz W. Unraveling the mechanism of protein N-glycosylation. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:3121-4 pubmed
  48. Kelleher D, Banerjee S, Cura A, Samuelson J, Gilmore R. Dolichol-linked oligosaccharide selection by the oligosaccharyltransferase in protist and fungal organisms. J Cell Biol. 2007;177:29-37 pubmed
  49. Ritsema T, Verhaar A, Vijn I, Smeekens S. Using natural variation to investigate the function of individual amino acids in the sucrose-binding box of fructan:fructan 6G-fructosyltransferase (6G-FFT) in product formation. Plant Mol Biol. 2005;58:597-607 pubmed
    ..This resulted in the preferential production of inulin-type fructans. Combining mutations showed that amino acid 84 determines product specificity of 6G-FFT irrespective of the amino acid at position 87. ..
  50. Wilson C, Kraft C, Duggan C, Ismail N, Crawshaw S, High S. Ribophorin I associates with a subset of membrane proteins after their integration at the sec61 translocon. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:4195-206 pubmed
    ..Alternatively ribophorin I may be multifunctional and facilitate additional processes, for example, ER quality control. ..
  51. Lasseur B, Lothier J, Djoumad A, De Coninck B, Smeekens S, Van Laere A, et al. Molecular and functional characterization of a cDNA encoding fructan:fructan 6G-fructosyltransferase (6G-FFT)/fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT) from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). J Exp Bot. 2006;57:2719-34 pubmed
    ..Regulation of Lp6G-FFT gene expression depends on the tissue according to its sink-source status. ..
  52. Van den Ende W, Coopman M, Clerens S, Vergauwen R, Le Roy K, Lammens W, et al. Unexpected presence of graminan- and levan-type fructans in the evergreen frost-hardy eudicot Pachysandra terminalis (Buxaceae): purification, cloning, and functional analysis of a 6-SST/6-SFT enzyme. Plant Physiol. 2011;155:603-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that the fructan syndrome in P. terminalis can be considered as a recent evolutionary event. Putative connections between abiotic stress and fructans are discussed...
  53. Altenbach D, Nüesch E, Meyer A, Boller T, Wiemken A. The large subunit determines catalytic specificity of barley sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase and fescue sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase. FEBS Lett. 2004;567:214-8 pubmed
    ..If the LSuB is expressed alone, it does not yield a functionally active enzyme, indicating that the small subunit is nevertheless essential. ..