glycerol 3 phosphate o acyltransferase


Summary: An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC

Top Publications

  1. Neschen S, Morino K, Hammond L, Zhang D, Liu Z, Romanelli A, et al. Prevention of hepatic steatosis and hepatic insulin resistance in mitochondrial acyl-CoA:glycerol-sn-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1 knockout mice. Cell Metab. 2005;2:55-65 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that mtGPAT1 might serve as a novel target for treatment of hepatic steatosis and hepatic insulin resistance and that long chain acyl-CoA's do not mediate fat-induced hepatic insulin resistance in this model. ..
  2. Shin D, Paulauskis J, Moustaid N, Sul H. Transcriptional regulation of p90 with sequence homology to Escherichia coli glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:23834-9 pubmed
    ..On-going protein synthesis was necessary for this increase. ..
  3. Hammond L, Gallagher P, Wang S, Hiller S, Kluckman K, Posey Marcos E, et al. Mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase-deficient mice have reduced weight and liver triacylglycerol content and altered glycerolipid fatty acid composition. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:8204-14 pubmed
    ..The increase in arachidonate may be functionally significant in terms of eicosanoid production. ..
  4. Lindén D, William Olsson L, Rhedin M, Asztély A, Clapham J, Schreyer S. Overexpression of mitochondrial GPAT in rat hepatocytes leads to decreased fatty acid oxidation and increased glycerolipid biosynthesis. J Lipid Res. 2004;45:1279-88 pubmed
    ..Overall, these results support the concept that increased hepatic mtGPAT activity associated with obesity positively contributes to lipid disorders by reducing oxidative processes and promoting de novo glycerolipid synthesis. ..
  5. Nagle C, An J, Shiota M, Torres T, Cline G, Liu Z, et al. Hepatic overexpression of glycerol-sn-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1 in rats causes insulin resistance. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:14807-15 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that increased flux through the pathway of hepatic de novo triacylglycerol synthesis can cause hepatic and systemic insulin resistance in the absence of obesity or a lipogenic diet. ..
  6. Hammond L, Neschen S, Romanelli A, Cline G, Ilkayeva O, Shulman G, et al. Mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase-1 is essential in liver for the metabolism of excess acyl-CoAs. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:25629-36 pubmed
  7. Wendel A, Lewin T, Coleman R. Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases: rate limiting enzymes of triacylglycerol biosynthesis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1791:501-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Much work remains to fully delineate the regulation of each GPAT isoform and its individual role in triacylglycerol synthesis. ..
  8. Nishida I, Tasaka Y, Shiraishi H, Murata N. The gene and the RNA for the precursor to the plastid-located glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Mol Biol. 1993;21:267-77 pubmed
    ..The enzymatic activity of a gene product that was over-produced in Escherichia coli confirmed the identity of the gene. ..
  9. Yazdi M, Ahnmark A, William Olsson L, Snaith M, Turner N, Osla F, et al. The role of mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase-1 in regulating lipid and glucose homeostasis in high-fat diet fed mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;369:1065-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, GPAT1-deficiency does not protect against HFD-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis or whole body glucose intolerance. ..

More Information


  1. Xu H, Wilcox D, Nguyen P, Voorbach M, Suhar T, Morgan S, et al. Hepatic knockdown of mitochondrial GPAT1 in ob/ob mice improves metabolic profile. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;349:439-48 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that acute reduction of mtGPAT1 in liver of ob/ob mice reduces TAG synthesis, which points to a role for mtGPAT1 in the correction of obesity and related disorders. ..
  2. GONZALEZ BARO M, Lewin T, Coleman R. Regulation of Triglyceride Metabolism. II. Function of mitochondrial GPAT1 in the regulation of triacylglycerol biosynthesis and insulin action. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007;292:G1195-9 pubmed
  3. Tan X, Huang Z, Li L, Nie D, Zhong C, Fu J, et al. Molecular cloning and preliminary function study of a novel human gene, TSARG7, related to spermatogenesis. Yi Chuan Xue Bao. 2006;33:294-303 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our study suggests that we have cloned a novel human gene and this gene may play an important role in human spermatogenesis and sexual maturation. ..
  4. Chandra Shekara A, Venugopal S, Barman S, Kachroo A, Kachroo P. Plastidial fatty acid levels regulate resistance gene-dependent defense signaling in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:7277-82 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the 18:1-regulated pathway may be specifically targeted during pathogen infection and that altering 18:1 levels may serve as a unique strategy for promoting disease resistance...
  5. Aygun Sunar S, Bilaloglu R, Goldfine H, Daldal F. Rhodobacter capsulatus OlsA is a bifunctional enzyme active in both ornithine lipid and phosphatidic acid biosynthesis. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:8564-74 pubmed
    ..This study therefore revealed for the first time that some OlsA enzymes, like the enzyme of R. capsulatus, are bifunctional and involved in both membrane ornithine lipid and glycerophospholipid biosynthesis. ..
  6. Bratschi M, Burrowes D, Kulaga A, Cheung J, Alvarez A, Kearley J, et al. Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases gat1p and gat2p are microsomal phosphoproteins with differential contributions to polarized cell growth. Eukaryot Cell. 2009;8:1184-96 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, our studies also uncovered a dynamic posttranslational regulation of Gat1p and Gat2p and a compensation mechanism through phosphorylation that responds to a cellular GPAT imbalance. ..
  7. Zhu S, Zhao H, Zhou R, Ji B, Dan X. Substrate selectivity of glycerol-3-phosphate acyl transferase in rice. J Integr Plant Biol. 2009;51:1040-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The substrate selectivity of acyltransferase of rice can be improved by enlarging the substrate-binding pocket using molecular biological methods. ..
  8. Chakraborty T, Vancura A, Balija V, Haldar D. Phosphatidic acid synthesis in mitochondria. Topography of formation and transmembrane migration. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:29786-90 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the results suggest that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and PA are synthesized on the outer surface of the MOM and that PA moves to the inner membrane presumably for cardiolipin formation. ..
  9. Murray A, Denis R, Speake B. Acyltransferase activities in the yolk sac membrane of the chick embryo. Lipids. 1999;34:929-35 pubmed
    ..The results also suggest that the YSM has the capacity to perform simultaneously beta-oxidation at a high rate in order to provide energy for the lipid transfer process. ..
  10. Zheng Z, Xia Q, Dauk M, Shen W, Selvaraj G, Zou J. Arabidopsis AtGPAT1, a member of the membrane-bound glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase gene family, is essential for tapetum differentiation and male fertility. Plant Cell. 2003;15:1872-87 pubmed
    ..Deficiency in AtGPAT1 correlates with several fatty acid composition changes in flower tissues and seeds. Unexpectedly, however, a loss of AtGPAT1 causes no significant change in seed oil content. ..
  11. Turnbull A, Rafferty J, Sedelnikova S, Slabas A, Schierer T, Kroon J, et al. Analysis of the structure, substrate specificity, and mechanism of squash glycerol-3-phosphate (1)-acyltransferase. Structure. 2001;9:347-53 pubmed
  12. Améen C, Lindén D, Larsson B, Mode A, Holmang A, Oscarsson J. Effects of gender and GH secretory pattern on sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c and its target genes in rat liver. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004;287:E1039-48 pubmed
    ..This regulation is not a direct effect of GH on hepatocytes and does not involve changed expression of SREBP-1c or LXRalpha mRNA but is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity. ..
  13. Slabas A, Kroon J, Scheirer T, Gilroy J, Hayman M, Rice D, et al. Squash glycerol-3-phosphate (1)-acyltransferase. Alteration of substrate selectivity and identification of arginine and lysine residues important in catalytic activity. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:43918-23 pubmed
    ..The mutant proteins retained the ability to bind stoichiometric quantities of acyl-ACPs supporting the potential role of these residues in glycerol 3-phosphate binding. ..
  14. You M, Liang X, Ajmo J, Ness G. Involvement of mammalian sirtuin 1 in the action of ethanol in the liver. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2008;294:G892-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, SIRT1 may represent a novel therapeutic target for treatment of human alcoholic fatty liver disease. ..
  15. Stålberg K, Neal A, Ronne H, Stahl U. Identification of a novel GPCAT activity and a new pathway for phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae. J Lipid Res. 2008;49:1794-806 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that GPCAT can provide an alternative pathway for PC biosynthesis in vivo. ..
  16. Yoshida M, Harada N, Yamamoto H, Taketani Y, Nakagawa T, Yin Y, et al. Identification of cis-acting promoter sequences required for expression of the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1 gene in mice. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1791:39-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, promoter 1a was exclusively activated by routine feeding in vivo. Our results indicate differential roles of the two promoters in the regulation of hepatic GPAT1 gene expression in mice. ..
  17. Lewin T, Wang P, Coleman R. Analysis of amino acid motifs diagnostic for the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase reaction. Biochemistry. 1999;38:5764-71 pubmed
  18. Cooper C, Jackowski S, Rock C. Fatty acid metabolism in sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (plsB) mutants. J Bacteriol. 1987;169:605-11 pubmed
  19. Hara Y, Seki M, Matsuoka S, Hara H, Yamashita A, Matsumoto K. Involvement of PlsX and the acyl-phosphate dependent sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase PlsY in the initial stage of glycerolipid synthesis in Bacillus subtilis. Genes Genet Syst. 2008;83:433-42 pubmed
    ..Two-hybrid examinations suggested that PlsY is associated with PlsX and that each may exist in multimeric form...
  20. Griffin M, Wong R, Pandya N, Sul H. Direct interaction between USF and SREBP-1c mediates synergistic activation of the fatty-acid synthase promoter. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:5453-67 pubmed
    ..Closely positioned E-boxes and sterol regulatory elements found in the promoters of several lipogenic genes suggest a common mechanism of induction by feeding/insulin. ..
  21. Murata N, Tasaka Y. Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase in plants. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997;1348:10-6 pubmed
    ..Genetic engineering of the unsaturation of fatty acids has been achieved by manipulation of the cDNA for the GPAT found in chloroplasts and has allowed modification of the ability of tobacco to tolerate chilling temperatures. ..
  22. Petrescu A, Huang H, Hostetler H, Schroeder F, Kier A. Structural and functional characterization of a new recombinant histidine-tagged acyl coenzyme A binding protein (ACBP) from mouse. Protein Expr Purif. 2008;58:184-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, C-terminal his-tagged-ACBP maintained very similar structural and functional features of the untagged native protein and can be used in further in vitro experiments that require pure recombinant ACBP. ..
  23. Dobrzyn A, Dobrzyn P, Miyazaki M, Sampath H, Chu K, Ntambi J. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 deficiency increases CTP:choline cytidylyltransferase translocation into the membrane and enhances phosphatidylcholine synthesis in liver. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:23356-62 pubmed
    ..Our study revealed that SCD1 deficiency specifically increases CCT activity by promoting its translocation into membrane and enhances PC biosynthesis in liver. ..
  24. Huang H, Atshaves B, Frolov A, Kier A, Schroeder F. Acyl-coenzyme A binding protein expression alters liver fatty acyl-coenzyme A metabolism. Biochemistry. 2005;44:10282-97 pubmed
    ..Thus, these data show for the first time in a physiological context that ACBP expression may play a role in LCFA-CoA metabolism. ..
  25. Roy R, Gautier M, Hayes H, Laurent P, Zaragoza P, Eggen A, et al. Assignment of mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAM) gene to bovine chromosome 26 (26q22) by in situ hybridization and confirmation by somatic cell hybrid mapping. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2002;97:276F pubmed
  26. Lindén D, William Olsson L, Ahnmark A, Ekroos K, Hallberg C, Sjögren H, et al. Liver-directed overexpression of mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase results in hepatic steatosis, increased triacylglycerol secretion and reduced fatty acid oxidation. FASEB J. 2006;20:434-43 pubmed
  27. Balija V, Chakraborty T, Nikonov A, Morimoto T, Haldar D. Identification of two transmembrane regions and a cytosolic domain of rat mitochondrial glycerophosphate acyltransferase. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:31668-73 pubmed
  28. Gidda S, Shockey J, Rothstein S, Dyer J, Mullen R. Arabidopsis thaliana GPAT8 and GPAT9 are localized to the ER and possess distinct ER retrieval signals: functional divergence of the dilysine ER retrieval motif in plant cells. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2009;47:867-79 pubmed publisher
  29. Tang C, Engel R, Tropp B. L-Glyceraldehude 3-phosphate, a bactericidal agent. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1977;11:147-53 pubmed
    ..In vivo, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol accumulation are inhibited to the same extent by the addition of dl-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to a culture of E. coli...
  30. Sprague G, Bell R, Cronan J. A mutant of Escherichia coli auxotrophic for organic phosphates: evidence for two defects in inorganic phosphate transport. Mol Gen Genet. 1975;143:71-7 pubmed
    ..The mapping data indicate that the genetic distance between malA and xyl is greater than that now allowed. ..
  31. Hammond L, Albright C, He L, Rusyn I, Watkins S, Doughman S, et al. Increased oxidative stress is associated with balanced increases in hepatocyte apoptosis and proliferation in glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase-1 deficient mice. Exp Mol Pathol. 2007;82:210-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, Gpat1-/- liver exhibits increased oxidative stress and sensitivity of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, and a balanced increase in apoptosis and proliferation. ..
  32. Zhao M, Rua D, Hajra A, Greenberg M. Enzymatic synthesis of [3H]Cytidine 5'-diphospho-1, 2-diacyl-sn-glycerol. Anal Biochem. 1998;258:48-52 pubmed
    ..This procedure is considerably less labor intensive and less expensive than is chemical synthesis, and the yield is at least 30%. ..
  33. Yang W, Pollard M, Li Beisson Y, Beisson F, Feig M, Ohlrogge J. A distinct type of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase with sn-2 preference and phosphatase activity producing 2-monoacylglycerol. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:12040-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide insight into the biosynthetic assembly of cutin and suberin, the two most abundant glycerolipid polymers in nature. ..
  34. Coleman R. How do I fatten thee? Let me count the ways. Cell Metab. 2007;5:87-9 pubmed
    ..The recent identification of a new GPAT isoform (Cao et al., 2006) suggests a role for GPAT isoforms in nutrient-mediated signaling. ..
  35. Shan D, Li J, Wu L, Li D, Hurov J, Tobin J, et al. GPAT3 and GPAT4 are regulated by insulin-stimulated phosphorylation and play distinct roles in adipogenesis. J Lipid Res. 2010;51:1971-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal a link between the lipogenic effects of insulin and microsomal GPAT3 and GPAT4, implying their importance in glycerolipid biosynthesis. ..
  36. Scheideler M, Bell R. Characterization of active and latent forms of the membrane-associated sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:14321-7 pubmed
    ..The physiological significance of these findings is discussed. ..
  37. Chao H, Martin G, Russell W, Waghela S, Russell D, Schroeder F, et al. Membrane charge and curvature determine interaction with acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) and fatty acyl-CoA targeting. Biochemistry. 2002;41:10540-53 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data indicated for the first time that mrACBP interacted preferentially with anionic phospholipid-rich, highly curved membranes to facilitate transfer of ACBP-bound ligands. ..
  38. Harada N, Hara S, Yoshida M, Zenitani T, Mawatari K, Nakano M, et al. Molecular cloning of a murine glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase-like protein 1 (xGPAT1). Mol Cell Biochem. 2007;297:41-51 pubmed
    ..xGPAT1 was distributed in the membrane fraction and showed GPAT activity when epitope-tagged xGPAT1 was expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells. ..
  39. Zaremberg V, McMaster C. Differential partitioning of lipids metabolized by separate yeast glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases reveals that phospholipase D generation of phosphatidic acid mediates sensitivity to choline-containing lysolipids and drugs. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:39035-44 pubmed
    ..Our results are consistent with a model whereby phosphatidic acid generated from phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis by Spo14p regulates susceptibility to choline-containing lysolipid analogs and drugs. ..
  40. Green P, Vanaman T, Modrich P, Bell R. Partial NH2- and COOH-terminal sequence and cyanogen bromide peptide analysis of Escherichia coli sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase. J Biol Chem. 1983;258:10862-6 pubmed
    ..The partial sequence analysis of the homogeneous sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase is fully in accord with the primary structure inferred from the DNA sequence. ..
  41. Assifi M, Suchankova G, Constant S, Prentki M, Saha A, Ruderman N. AMP-activated protein kinase and coordination of hepatic fatty acid metabolism of starved/carbohydrate-refed rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2005;289:E794-800 pubmed
    ..They also suggest that the changes in these enzymes, and later occurring increases in enzymes regulating fatty acid and glycerolipid synthesis, could be coordinated by AMPK. ..
  42. Gonzalez Baro M, Granger D, Coleman R. Mitochondrial glycerol phosphate acyltransferase contains two transmembrane domains with the active site in the N-terminal domain facing the cytosol. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:43182-8 pubmed
    ..Based on these data, we propose a GPAT topography model with two transmembrane domains in which both the N (aa 1-471) and C (aa 593-end) termini face the cytosol and a single loop (aa 494-575) faces the intermembrane space. ..
  43. Tank D, Sang T. Phylogenetic utility of the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase gene: evolution and implications in Paeonia (Paeoniaceae). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2001;19:421-9 pubmed
  44. Kuchler K, Daum G, Paltauf F. Subcellular and submitochondrial localization of phospholipid-synthesizing enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Bacteriol. 1986;165:901-10 pubmed
    ..Data concerning susceptibility to various inhibitors, heat sensitivity, and the pH optima indicate that there is a close similarity of the mitochondrial and microsomal enzymes that catalyze the same reaction. ..
  45. Nagle C, Vergnes L, Dejong H, Wang S, Lewin T, Reue K, et al. Identification of a novel sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase isoform, GPAT4, as the enzyme deficient in Agpat6-/- mice. J Lipid Res. 2008;49:823-31 pubmed publisher
  46. Yan K, Chen N, Qu Y, Dong X, Meng Q, Zhao S. Overexpression of sweet pepper glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase gene enhanced thermotolerance of photosynthetic apparatus in transgenic tobacco. J Integr Plant Biol. 2008;50:613-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Conclusively, we proposed that the increase in saturated extent of thylakoid membrane lipids in transgenic plants enhanced the stability of photosynthetic apparatus under high temperature stress. ..
  47. McPherson S, Jonsson J, Barrie H, O Rourke P, Clouston A, Powell E. Investigation of the role of SREBP-1c in the pathogenesis of HCV-related steatosis. J Hepatol. 2008;49:1046-54 pubmed publisher
    ..HCV-infected patients with HOMA>2 had significantly higher expression of FAS mRNA than HCV-infected subjects with HOMA2 (p=0.006) and NDL (p=0.016). SREBP-1c may not play a prominent role in the pathogenesis of HCV-related steatosis. ..
  48. Thuresson E. Inhibition of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase as a potential treatment for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2004;5:411-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, its reduction by pharmacological treatment is an attractive strategy to treat type 2 diabetes. Potential methods to identify inhibitors for acyltransferases suitable for treatment of human diseases are described. ..
  49. Lin E. Glycerol dissimilation and its regulation in bacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1976;30:535-78 pubmed
  50. Webber K, Datta N, Hajra A. Properties of the enzymes catalyzing the biosynthesis of lysophosphatidate and its ether analog in cultured fibroblasts from Zellweger syndrome patients and normal controls. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1987;254:611-20 pubmed
    ..Also, with the exception of dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase they had similar patterns of inactivation by heat in both cell types. ..
  51. Schenk S, Horowitz J. Acute exercise increases triglyceride synthesis in skeletal muscle and prevents fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:1690-8 pubmed
  52. Zhang Y, Rock C. Thematic review series: Glycerolipids. Acyltransferases in bacterial glycerophospholipid synthesis. J Lipid Res. 2008;49:1867-74 pubmed publisher
    ..This unique activated fatty acid is formed from the acyl-ACP end products of the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway by PlsX, an acyl-ACP:phosphate transacylase. ..
  53. König B, Koch A, Spielmann J, Hilgenfeld C, Hirche F, Stangl G, et al. Activation of PPARalpha and PPARgamma reduces triacylglycerol synthesis in rat hepatoma cells by reduction of nuclear SREBP-1. Eur J Pharmacol. 2009;605:23-30 pubmed
    ..Thus, these data suggest that the triacylglycerol reducing effect of fibrates and thiazolidinediones is partially caused by inhibition of SREBP-1 activation via up-regulation of Insig. ..
  54. Thomas P, Poznansky M. Lipid peroxidation inactivates rat liver microsomal glycerol-3-phosphate acyl transferase. Effect of iron and copper salts and carbon tetrachloride. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:2684-91 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that the inactivation of GPAT by lipid peroxidation could accelerate the process of membrane disintegration caused by lipid peroxidation in pathological conditions involving free radical-mediated tissue injury. ..
  55. Lu B, Jiang Y, Man M, Brown B, Elias P, Feingold K. Expression and regulation of 1-acyl-sn-glycerol- 3-phosphate acyltransferases in the epidermis. J Lipid Res. 2005;46:2448-57 pubmed
    ..Because upregulation of mAGPAT mRNAs after tape-stripping could be partially reversed by artificial barrier restoration by occlusion, these studies suggest that an increase in the expression of AGPATs is linked to barrier requirements. ..
  56. Tomas A, ESTELLE J, Clop A, Gomez Raya L, Noguera J, Sanchez A, et al. Assignment of the mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) gene to porcine chromosome 14. Anim Genet. 2003;34:387 pubmed
  57. Ruderman N, Park H, Kaushik V, Dean D, Constant S, Prentki M, et al. AMPK as a metabolic switch in rat muscle, liver and adipose tissue after exercise. Acta Physiol Scand. 2003;178:435-42 pubmed
  58. Ganesh Bhat B, Wang P, Kim J, Black T, Lewin T, Fiedorek F, et al. Rat sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase: molecular cloning and characterization of the cDNA and expressed protein. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999;1439:415-23 pubmed
  59. Lu Y, Zhang Y, Grimes K, Qi J, Lee R, Rock C. Acyl-phosphates initiate membrane phospholipid synthesis in Gram-positive pathogens. Mol Cell. 2006;23:765-72 pubmed
    ..The PlsX/Y pathway defines the most widely distributed pathway for the initiation of phospholipid formation in bacteria and represents a new target for the development of antibacterial therapeutics. ..
  60. Heath R, Rock C. A missense mutation accounts for the defect in the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase expressed in the plsB26 mutant. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:1944-6 pubmed
    ..The PlsB26 protein had a significantly reduced glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase specific activity coupled with an elevated Km for glycerol-3-phosphate. ..
  61. Heath R, Rock C. A conserved histidine is essential for glycerolipid acyltransferase catalysis. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:1425-30 pubmed
    ..These data are consistent with a mechanism for glycerolipid acyltransferase catalysis where the invariant histidine functions as a general base to deprotonate the hydroxyl moiety of the acyl acceptor. ..
  62. Wydysh E, Medghalchi S, Vadlamudi A, Townsend C. Design and synthesis of small molecule glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase inhibitors. J Med Chem. 2009;52:3317-27 pubmed publisher
    ..In vitro testing of this series has led to the identification of several compounds, in particular 2-(nonylsulfonamido)benzoic acid (15g), possessing moderate GPAT inhibitory activity in an intact mitochondrial assay. ..
  63. Miyazaki M, Kim Y, Gray Keller M, Attie A, Ntambi J. The biosynthesis of hepatic cholesterol esters and triglycerides is impaired in mice with a disruption of the gene for stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:30132-8 pubmed
  64. Tamada T, Feese M, Ferri S, Kato Y, Yajima R, Toguri T, et al. Substrate recognition and selectivity of plant glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases (GPATs) from Cucurbita moscata and Spinacea oleracea. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2004;60:13-21 pubmed
    ..Structure analysis suggests that the size and character of the cavity that is formed from this region determines the specific recognition of acyl chains. ..
  65. Sui N, Li M, Zhao S, Li F, Liang H, Meng Q. Overexpression of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase gene improves chilling tolerance in tomato. Planta. 2007;226:1097-108 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that overexpression of LeGPAT increased the levels of PG cis-unsaturated fatty acids in thylakoid membrane, which was beneficial for the recovery of chilling-induced PS I photoinhibition in tomato. ..
  66. Pellon Maison M, Coleman R, GONZALEZ BARO M. The C-terminal region of mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase-1 interacts with the active site region and is required for activity. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2006;450:157-66 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the C-terminal domain is necessary for mtGPAT1 activity, and probably contributes to catalysis or substrate binding. ..
  67. Uchida T. Stimulation of phospholipid synthesis in HeLa cells by epidermal growth factor and insulin: activation of choline kinase and glycerophosphate acyltransferase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1996;1304:89-104 pubmed
    ..The present results provide evidence that one of the roles of EGF and insulin during cell growth is to stimulate the synthesis of phospholipids. ..
  68. Ariizumi T, Kishitani S, Inatsugi R, Nishida I, Murata N, Toriyama K. An increase in unsaturation of fatty acids in phosphatidylglycerol from leaves improves the rates of photosynthesis and growth at low temperatures in transgenic rice seedlings. Plant Cell Physiol. 2002;43:751-8 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate the practical importance of the present technology with GPAT in improvement of the chilling sensitivity of crops. ..
  69. Lu B, Kelher M, Lee D, Lewin T, Coleman R, Choy P, et al. Complex expression pattern of the Barth syndrome gene product tafazzin in human cell lines and murine tissues. Biochem Cell Biol. 2004;82:569-76 pubmed
    ..The presence of a mutation in this region in Barth syndrome patients indicates that this motif is essential for tafazzin function. ..
  70. Wang S, Lee D, Gong N, Schwerbrock N, Mashek D, GONZALEZ BARO M, et al. Cloning and functional characterization of a novel mitochondrial N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT2). Arch Biochem Biophys. 2007;465:347-58 pubmed
    ..In vitro translation showed a single product of 89 kDa. Unlike GPAT1, GPAT2 mRNA abundance in liver was not altered by fasting or refeeding. GPAT2 is likely to have a specialized function in testis. ..
  71. Lightner V, Larson T, Tailleur P, Kantor G, Raetz C, Bell R, et al. Membrane phospholipid synthesis in Escherichia coli. Cloning of a structural gene (plsB) of the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyl/transferase. J Biol Chem. 1980;255:9413-20 pubmed
    ..M. (1980) J. Biol. Chem. 255, 9421-9426). The size of the plsB polypeptide indicates that a major fraction of the DNA segment to which this gene has been localized is involved in coding for the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase. ..
  72. Li J, Nanayakkara A, Jun J, Savransky V, Polotsky V. Effect of deficiency in SREBP cleavage-activating protein on lipid metabolism during intermittent hypoxia. Physiol Genomics. 2007;31:273-80 pubmed
    ..We conclude that hyperlipidemia in response to IH is mediated via the SREBP-1 pathway. Our data suggest that the SREBP-1 pathway could be used as a therapeutic target in patients with both OSA and hyperlipidemia. ..
  73. Gimeno R, Cao J. Thematic review series: glycerolipids. Mammalian glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases: new genes for an old activity. J Lipid Res. 2008;49:2079-88 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on mammalian GPAT isoforms. ..
  74. Keating D, Carey M, Cronan J. The unmodified (apo) form of Escherichia coli acyl carrier protein is a potent inhibitor of cell growth. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:22229-35 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that acylation of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate is the major site of inhibition by apo-ACP. ..
  75. Gangar A, Raychaudhuri S, Rajasekharan R. Alteration in the cytosolic triacylglycerol biosynthetic machinery leads to decreased cell growth and triacylglycerol synthesis in oleaginous yeast. Biochem J. 2002;365:577-89 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrated that either by decreasing the nutrient content or mutating the enzymes of the soluble TAG biosynthetic pathway, TAG production was decreased with concomitant reduction in the cell growth. ..
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    ..The results imply that an increase of AN hydroxylation activity may involve the incorporation of unsaturated fatty acids into enzyme-associated PC and PE. ..
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