carnitine o acetyltransferase


Summary: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of O-acetylcarnitine from acetyl-CoA plus carnitine. EC

Top Publications

  1. Takeyama N, Takagi D, Matsuo N, Kitazawa Y, Tanaka T. Altered hepatic fatty acid metabolism in endotoxicosis: effect of L-carnitine on survival. Am J Physiol. 1989;256:E31-8 pubmed
    ..Further studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanism of the effect of carnitine on post-LPS survival. ..
  2. Dostal L, Weaver R, Schwetz B. Transfer of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate through rat milk and effects on milk composition and the mammary gland. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1987;91:315-25 pubmed
    ..The results show that exposure to high doses of DEHP during lactation in rats can result in changes in milk quality and quantity and can lead to DEHP and MEHP exposure in the suckling rat pups. ..
  3. Morillas M, López Viñas E, Valencia A, Serra D, Gomez Puertas P, Hegardt F, et al. Structural model of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I based on the carnitine acetyltransferase crystal. Biochem J. 2004;379:777-84 pubmed
    ..e. Lys455, Lys505, Lys560 and Lys561, were also mutated. Only mutants K455A and K560A showed decreases in activity of 50%. The model rationalizes the finding of nine natural mutations in patients with hereditary L-CPT I deficiencies. ..
  4. Dirven H, van den Broek P, Jongeneelen F. Effect of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate on enzyme activity levels in liver and serum of rats. Toxicology. 1990;65:199-207 pubmed
    ..The liver is a more sensitive target for DEHP exposure compared to the biochemical effects in serum, but determination of the serum parameters can be used to determine early biological effects of exposure to DEHP. ..
  5. Hsiao Y, Jogl G, Tong L. Structural and biochemical studies of the substrate selectivity of carnitine acetyltransferase. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:31584-9 pubmed
    ..8-A resolution. The F565A mutation has minor effects on the structure or the substrate preference of the enzyme. ..
  6. Sastry B, Jaiswal N, Janson V, Day P, Naukam R. Relationships between chemical structure and inhibition of choline acetyltransferase by 2-(alpha-naphthoyl)ethyltrimethylammonium and related compounds. Pharmacol Res Commun. 1988;20:751-71 pubmed
    ..They exhibited fluorescent characteristics of the alpha-naphthyl moiety. Their ChA inhibition was not reversible by dialysis. They were considerably more potent for inhibiting ChA than cholinesterases and carnitine acetyltransferase. ..
  7. Horie S, Kurusu T, Watanabe T, Suga T. Existence of fatty acyl-CoA oxidizing system in (micro)peroxisomes of rabbit aorta. Biochem Med Metab Biol. 1987;38:252-7 pubmed
    ..38 to 2.54 nmole/min/g aorta. These results show that the aortic catalase-positive particles have a capacity to oxidize fatty acyl-CoA and participate in fatty acid metabolism. ..
  8. Alhomida A, Duhaiman A, Al Jafari A, Junaid M. Purification of carnitine acetyltransferase from skeletal muscle of the camel (Camelus dromedarius). Mol Cell Biochem. 1996;165:95-101 pubmed
    ..2. The enzyme displayed maximum activity with propionyl-Co A. Apparent Km for acetyl-, propionyl- and butyryl-Co A were 27.7, 17.3 and 29 microM respectively, while palmitoyl-Co A was not a substrate. ..
  9. Aharinejad S, Schafer R, Hofbauer R, Abraham D, Blumer R, Miksovsky A, et al. Impact of cardiac transplantation on molecular pathology of ET-1, VEGF-C, and mitochondrial metabolism and morphology in dilated versus ischemic cardiomyopathic patients. Transplantation. 2001;72:1043-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it is more likely that these changes are the cause rather than a consequence of DCM. ..

More Information


  1. Lohninger A, Radler U, Jinniate S, Lohninger S, Karlic H, Lechner S, et al. Relationship between carnitine, fatty acids and insulin resistance. Gynakol Geburtshilfliche Rundsch. 2009;49:230-5 pubmed publisher
  2. Szutowicz A, Lysiak W. Regional and subcellular distribution of ATP-citrate lyase and other enzymes of acetyl-CoA metabolism in rat brain. J Neurochem. 1980;35:775-85 pubmed
    ..These data indicate preferential localization of ATP-citrate lyase in cholinergic nerve endings, and indicate that this enzyme is not a rate limiting step in the synthesis of the acetyl moiety of ACh in brain. ..
  3. Johnson T, Kocher H, Anderson R, Nemecek G. Cloning, sequencing and heterologous expression of a cDNA encoding pigeon liver carnitine acetyltransferase. Biochem J. 1995;305 ( Pt 2):439-44 pubmed
    ..Like the native enzyme, rCAT was capable of acylating carnitine with a preference for small-chain acyl-CoAs of carbon chain lengths C2-C4. ..
  4. Gao H, Zhang J, Hua Y, Li C, Cao Z. [Effects of carnitine acetyltransferase gene knockout on long chain dicarboxylic acid production and metabolism of Candida tropicalis]. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2005;45:102-5 pubmed
    ..Comparing with the wild type, the recombinant increased DCA13 yield and molar conversion of alkane by 13.0% and 11.8%, respectively, and decreased unnecessary consumption of DCAs in beta-oxidation. ..
  5. Costell M, O Connor J, Grisolia S. Age-dependent decrease of carnitine content in muscle of mice and humans. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1989;161:1135-43 pubmed
    ..Analysis of muscle samples of healthy humans of different ages showed a drastic reduction of carnitine and acetyl carnitine in the older subjects with a strong reverse correlation between age and carnitine levels. ..
  6. Hulsmann W, Dubelaar M. Carnitine requirement of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells in imminent ischemia. Mol Cell Biochem. 1992;116:125-9 pubmed
    ..Endothelial incompetence in flow regulation could be delayed by the presence of carnitine and fatty acids in pre-ischemia. It is speculated how activated fatty acids could protect endothelium. ..
  7. van Roermund C, Hettema E, Van den Berg M, Tabak H, Wanders R. Molecular characterization of carnitine-dependent transport of acetyl-CoA from peroxisomes to mitochondria in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and identification of a plasma membrane carnitine transporter, Agp2p. EMBO J. 1999;18:5843-52 pubmed
  8. Kispal G, Cseko J, Alkonyi I, Sandor A. Isolation and characterization of carnitine acetyltransferase from S. cerevisiae. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1991;1085:217-22 pubmed
    ..Based on these results carnitine acetyltransferase can be considered as an enzyme necessary for acetate metabolism by transporting the activated acetyl group from the cytosol into the mitochondrial matrix. ..
  9. Skorin C, Necochea C, Johow V, Soto U, Grau A, Bremer J, et al. Peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation and inhibitors of the mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase I in isolated rat hepatocytes. Biochem J. 1992;281 ( Pt 2):561-7 pubmed
  10. Alhomida A, Al Jafari A, Duhaiman A, Rabbani N, Junaid M. Kinetic properties of purified carnitine acetyltransferase from the skeletal muscle of Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius). Biochimie. 1996;78:204-8 pubmed
    ..The low Km obtained for acetyl-DL-carnitine suggests an adaptive mechanism in this desert species for enduring prolonged dry spells without food and water. ..
  11. Ganning A, Olsson M, Brunk U, Dallner G. Effects of prolonged treatment with phthalate ester on rat liver. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1990;67:392-401 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate the complex nature of the effects caused by prolonged treatment with DEHP with cumulative increases at low doses. ..
  12. Corti O, DiDonato S, Finocchiaro G. Divergent sequences in the 5' region of cDNA suggest alternative splicing as a mechanism for the generation of carnitine acetyltransferases with different subcellular localizations. Biochem J. 1994;303 ( Pt 1):37-41 pubmed
    ..An intron is located where sequences diverge, suggesting that mitochondrial, peroxisomal and possibly endoplasmic reticulum CAT mRNAs derive from alternative splicing of the CAT gene. ..
  13. Cha Y, Kim H, Daily J. Exercise-trained but not untrained rats maintain free carnitine reserves during acute exercise. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2003;12:120-6 pubmed
    ..This study suggests that free carnitine reserves may be reduced during exercise in untrained rats, an effect that has the potential to impair both carbohydrate and fat metabolism during exercise. ..
  14. Noland R, Koves T, Seiler S, Lum H, Lust R, Ilkayeva O, et al. Carnitine insufficiency caused by aging and overnutrition compromises mitochondrial performance and metabolic control. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:22840-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These results implicate carnitine insufficiency and reduced CrAT activity as reversible components of the metabolic syndrome. ..
  15. Uziel G, Garavaglia B, Di Donato S. Carnitine stimulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) in isolated human skeletal muscle mitochondria. Muscle Nerve. 1988;11:720-4 pubmed
    ..The stimulatory effect of carnitine on PDHC activity in human mitochondria is mediated by the modulation of the intramitochondrial acetyl-CoA/CoASH ratio. ..
  16. Yamada J, Sakuma M, Suga T. Induction of peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzymes by dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1992;1137:231-6 pubmed
  17. Horie S, Fukumori N, Suga T. Induction of hepatic peroxisomes by a new, non-carboxylate-containing drug, bifonazole. Toxicol Lett. 1991;55:249-54 pubmed
    ..Electron microscopic observation showed that peroxisome proliferation had been induced by bifonazole treatment. Thus, a compound which does not contain a carboxylate moiety can induce peroxisomes in rodent liver. ..
  18. Alhomida A. Evaluation of the impact of theophylline treatment on carnitine acetyltransferase activity in rat kidney. In Vivo. 1998;12:553-8 pubmed
  19. Horie S, Suga T. Participation of peroxisomes in lipid biosynthesis in the harderian gland of guinea pig. Biochem J. 1989;262:677-80 pubmed
  20. Cordente A, López Viñas E, Vázquez M, Swiegers J, Pretorius I, Gomez Puertas P, et al. Redesign of carnitine acetyltransferase specificity by protein engineering. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:33899-908 pubmed
    ..Three-dimensional models of wild-type and mutated CrAT and COT support this hypothesis. We show for the first time that a single amino acid is able to determine the substrate specificity of CrAT and COT. ..
  21. Ramsay R. The carnitine acyltransferases: modulators of acyl-CoA-dependent reactions. Biochem Soc Trans. 2000;28:182-6 pubmed
    ..In this article, I describe the location and properties of the components to show how they can modulate acyl-CoA-dependent reactions in the cell. ..
  22. Kozulic B, Käppeli O, Meussdoerffer F, Fiechter A. Characterization of a soluble carnitine acetyltransferase from Candida tropicalis. Eur J Biochem. 1987;168:245-50 pubmed
    ..tropicalis ATCC 32113 formed precipitation lines with extracts from several Candida species but not with extracts of Candida utilis, Candida ethanothermophilum and an another strain of C. tropicalis. ..
  23. Lian W, Govindasamy L, Gu Y, Kukar T, Agbandje McKenna M, McKenna R, et al. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies on recombinant human carnitine acetyltransferase. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2002;58:1193-4 pubmed
    ..65, b = 84.76, c = 57.65 A and one molecule per asymmetric unit. The intensity data were collected from a cryocooled crystal to 1.6 A resolution using a conventional X-ray source. ..
  24. Wainwright M, Kohli R, Whitington P, Chace D. Carnitine treatment inhibits increases in cerebral carnitine esters and glutamate detected by mass spectrometry after hypoxia-ischemia in newborn rats. Stroke. 2006;37:524-30 pubmed
    ..Carnitine metabolic pathways are compromised in HI and hypoxia. The protective effect of carnitine treatment on HI injury may be attributable to maintaining mitochondrial function. ..
  25. Moret C, Pastrie I, Briley M. Carnitine acetyltransferase activity is not changed with age in rat brain and human platelets. Neurobiol Aging. 1990;11:57-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the determination of carnitine acetyltransferase activity in platelets from healthy volunteers showed no significant difference with age. ..
  26. Farrell S, Fiol C, Reddy J, Bieber L. Properties of purified carnitine acyltransferases of mouse liver peroxisomes. J Biol Chem. 1984;259:13089-95 pubmed
  27. van der Klei I, Veenhuis M. PTS1-independent sorting of peroxisomal matrix proteins by Pex5p. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1763:1794-800 pubmed
    ..In this contribution we present an overview of these so-called non-PTS1 proteins and discuss the current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in their sorting. ..
  28. Franken J, Kroppenstedt S, Swiegers J, Bauer F. Carnitine and carnitine acetyltransferases in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a role for carnitine in stress protection. Curr Genet. 2008;53:347-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggest that carnitine protects cells from oxidative and organic acid stress, while CAT2 contributes to the response to oxidative stress. ..
  29. Hubinger A, Knode O, Susanto F, Reinauer H, Gries F. Effects of the carnitine-acyltransferase inhibitor etomoxir on insulin sensitivity, energy expenditure and substrate oxidation in NIDDM. Horm Metab Res. 1997;29:436-9 pubmed
    ..80 mg/ kg x min). Thus, we could demonstrate a decrease in fat and increase in glucose oxidation by etomoxir, but non-oxidative glucose utilisation was decreased. No significant changes could be demonstrated under clamp conditions. ..
  30. Ueda M, Kawachi H, Atomi H, Tanaka A. Peroxisomal and mitochondrial carnitine acetyltransferase isozymes of the n-alkane-assimilating yeast, Candida tropicalis, occurred by alternative initiation of translation from the transcripts of a single gene. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1397:213-22 pubmed
  31. Beamand J, Price R, Cunninghame M, Lake B. Culture of precision-cut liver slices: effect of some peroxisome proliferators. Food Chem Toxicol. 1993;31:137-47 pubmed
    ..Precision-cut liver slices may therefore be a useful alternative in vitro system to hepatocyte cultures for screening compounds for effects on enzyme activities and for assessing species differences in response. ..
  32. Diaz M, Chinje E, Kentish P, Jarnot B, George M, Gibson G. Chlorotrifluoroethylene trimer and tetramer are inducers of the CYP4A subfamily. Biochem Pharmacol. 1993;46:1076-80 pubmed
    ..These results are discussed with respect to both the differential hepatotoxicity, and biotransformation/disposition of the two polyhalogenated oligomers. ..
  33. White H, Scates P. Acetyl-L-carnitine as a precursor of acetylcholine. Neurochem Res. 1990;15:597-601 pubmed
    ..They are also consistent with a possible utility of acetyl-L-carnitine in the treatment of age-related cholinergic deficits. ..
  34. Sharma S, Sud N, Wiseman D, Carter A, Kumar S, Hou Y, et al. Altered carnitine homeostasis is associated with decreased mitochondrial function and altered nitric oxide signaling in lambs with pulmonary hypertension. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2008;294:L46-56 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction may play a role in the development of endothelial dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension and increased pulmonary blood flow. ..
  35. Singh Y, Liu G, Krishna G. Valproic acid-induced increase in carnitine acetyltransferase in rat hepatocytes is not due to an induction of peroxisomes. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1987;22:459-69 pubmed
  36. Ganning A, Brunk U, Edlund C, Elhammer A, Dallner G. Effects of prolonged administration of phthalate ester on the liver. Environ Health Perspect. 1987;73:251-8 pubmed
    ..Phthalate ester seems to interfere with protein turnover, so that the half-life of total mitochondrial and microsomal protein is considerably increased...
  37. Hertz R, Bar Tana J, Sujatta M, Pill J, Schmidt F, Fahimi H. The induction of liver peroxisomal proliferation by beta,beta'-methyl-substituted hexadecanedioic acid (MEDICA 16). Biochem Pharmacol. 1988;37:3571-7 pubmed
    ..The prevention of peroxisomal proliferation by carnitine acyltransferase inhibitors may implicate the involvement of this acyltransferase in the induction of peroxisomal proliferation by xenobiotic or native amphipathic carboxylates. ..
  38. Sheridan R, Ratledge C, Chalk P. Pathways to acetyl-CoA formation in Candida albicans. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1990;57:165-9 pubmed
    ..albicans in both the mycelial and yeast forms. There appears to be no other active translocation of acetate or acetyl groups except via the action of carnitine acetyltransferase. ..
  39. Govindasamy L, Kukar T, Lian W, Pedersen B, Gu Y, Agbandje McKenna M, et al. Structural and mutational characterization of L-carnitine binding to human carnitine acetyltransferase. J Struct Biol. 2004;146:416-24 pubmed
    ..Site-directed mutagenesis and kinetic characterization reveals that Tyr(431), Thr(444), Arg(497), and Phe(545) are essential for high affinity binding of L-carnitine. ..
  40. Buglino J, Onwueme K, Ferreras J, Quadri L, Lima C. Crystal structure of PapA5, a phthiocerol dimycocerosyl transferase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:30634-42 pubmed
    ..PapA5 represents the first structure solved for a protein involved in polyketide synthesis in Mycobacteria. ..
  41. Wynn J, Ratledge C. Evidence that the rate-limiting step for the biosynthesis of arachidonic acid in Mortierella alpina is at the level of the 18:3 to 20:3 elongase. Microbiology. 2000;146 ( Pt 9):2325-31 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the data strongly implicate the elongation of 18:3(n-6) to 20:3(n-6) as the limiting step in arachidonic acid biosynthesis by Mort. alpina. ..
  42. Swiegers J, Dippenaar N, Pretorius I, Bauer F. Carnitine-dependent metabolic activities in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: three carnitine acetyltransferases are essential in a carnitine-dependent strain. Yeast. 2001;18:585-95 pubmed
  43. Brass E. Interaction of carnitine and propionate with pyruvate oxidation by hepatocytes from clofibrate-treated rats: importance of coenzyme A availability. J Nutr. 1992;122:234-40 pubmed
    ..Metabolic toxicity of propionate is the result of both the increased cellular propionyl-CoA content and the depletion of cellular unesterified CoA...
  44. Wu D, Govindasamy L, Lian W, Gu Y, Kukar T, Agbandje McKenna M, et al. Structure of human carnitine acetyltransferase. Molecular basis for fatty acyl transfer. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:13159-65 pubmed
    ..Most significantly, this structure provides critical insights into the molecular basis for fatty acyl chain transfer and a possible common mechanism among a wide range of acyltransferases utilizing a catalytic dyad. ..
  45. Schafer J, Reichmann H. A spectrophotometric method for the determination of free and esterified carnitine. Clin Chim Acta. 1989;182:87-93 pubmed
    ..Via external standards the carnitine concentration can be determined. In a detailed study we proved the reproducibility, precision and specificity of the assay and its correspondence with the radiochemical test. ..
  46. Wawrzeńczyk A, Nałecz K, Nałecz M. Effect of externally added carnitine on the synthesis of acetylcholine in rat cerebral cortex cells. Neurochem Int. 1995;26:635-41 pubmed
    ..The observed differences in carnitine effect on acetylcholine synthesis suggested that high acetylcarnitine in cells capable of beta-oxidation might be correlated with the lower level of acetylcholine synthesis. ..
  47. Temple N, Martin P, Connock M. Intestinal peroxisomes of goldfish (Carassius auratus)--examination for hydrolase, dehydrogenase and carnitine acetyltransferase activities. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1979;64:57-63 pubmed
    ..4. Urate oxidase, allantoinase, allantoicase, xanthine oxidase and glycollate/lactate oxidase, activities were undetectable, and 1-naphthyl palmitate hydrolase was present only as a contaminant from pancreas. ..
  48. Strijbis K, van Roermund C, Visser W, Mol E, van den Burg J, MacCallum D, et al. Carnitine-dependent transport of acetyl coenzyme A in Candida albicans is essential for growth on nonfermentable carbon sources and contributes to biofilm formation. Eukaryot Cell. 2008;7:610-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data show that C. albicans has diverged considerably from S. cerevisiae with respect to the mechanism of intracellular acetyl-CoA transport and imply that carnitine dependence may be an important trait of this human fungal pathogen. ..
  49. Abbas A, Wu G, Schulz H. Carnitine acetyltransferase is not a cytosolic enzyme in rat heart and therefore cannot function in the energy-linked regulation of cardiac fatty acid oxidation. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1998;30:1305-9 pubmed
    ..This situation makes it unlikely that the energy-linked regulation of cardiac fatty acid oxidation proceeds by mechanisms which require the conversion of acetylcarnitine to acetyl coenzyme A in the cytosol. ..
  50. Vamecq J, Draye J, Brison J. Rat liver metabolism of dicarboxylic acids. Am J Physiol. 1989;256:G680-8 pubmed
  51. Gandour R, Colucci W, Stelly T, Brady P, Brady L. Hemipalmitoylcarnitinium, a strong competitive inhibitor of purified hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1988;267:515-20 pubmed
    ..D. Gandour et al. (1986) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 138, 735-741] that hemiacetylcarnitinium inhibits CAT but not CPT. The combined data demonstrate further differences between the carnitine recognition sites in CPT and CAT. ..
  52. Makar T, Hungund B, Cook G, Kashfi K, Cooper A. Lipid metabolism and membrane composition are altered in the brains of type II diabetic mice. J Neurochem. 1995;64:2159-68 pubmed
    ..The present findings emphasize the potentially serious alteration of brain metabolism in uncontrolled type II diabetes. ..
  53. Alhomida A. Investigations of the effects of theophylline administration on carnitine acetyltransferase activity of rat heart. J Enzyme Inhib. 1997;12:291-302 pubmed
    ..Accumulations of acyl-carnitine groups in heart mitochondria may increase the catalytic action of CAT and possible mechanisms are discussed. ..
  54. Cordente A, Swiegers J, Hegardt F, Pretorius I. Modulating aroma compounds during wine fermentation by manipulating carnitine acetyltransferases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007;267:159-66 pubmed
    ..Carnitine acetyltransferase expression could potentially to be used successfully in order to modulate wine flavour. ..
  55. Singer S, Andersen M, George M. Perfluoro-N-decanoic acid effects on enzymes of fatty acid metabolism. Toxicol Lett. 1990;54:39-46 pubmed
    ..C-2 to C-8 transfer from acyl-CoAs was inhibited similarly by PFDA. Inhibitions of C-2 and C-8 transfer were competitive and non-competitive, respectively, KIs 111 +/- 15 and 76 +/- 28 microM. ..
  56. Kispal G, Sumegi B, Dietmeier K, Bock I, Gajdos G, Tomcsanyi T, et al. Cloning and sequencing of a cDNA encoding Saccharomyces cerevisiae carnitine acetyltransferase. Use of the cDNA in gene disruption studies. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:1824-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest diminished flux through the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in the absence of mitochondrial CAT in yeast cells. ..
  57. Prigneau O, Porta A, Maresca B. Candida albicans CTN gene family is induced during macrophage infection: homology, disruption and phenotypic analysis of CTN3 gene. Fungal Genet Biol. 2004;41:783-93 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we showed the existence of two additional C. albicans CTN encoding sequences, which are also induced during macrophage infection. ..
  58. Hanna Mitchell A, Beckel J, Barbadora S, Kanai A, de Groat W, Birder L. Non-neuronal acetylcholine and urinary bladder urothelium. Life Sci. 2007;80:2298-302 pubmed
    ..These observations indicate that acetylcholine release from urothelial cells is mediated by different mechanisms than those such as vesicular storage and exocytosis that underlie the release of neurotransmitters from nerves. ..
  59. Baltazar M, Dickinson F, Ratledge C. Oxidation of medium-chain acyl-CoA esters by extracts of Aspergillus niger: enzymology and characterization of intermediates by HPLC. Microbiology. 1999;145 ( Pt 1):271-8 pubmed
    ..Octanoyl-CoA accumulated as the decanoyl-CoA was oxidized. Beta-oxidation enzymes in isolated mitochondrial fractions were also studied. The results are discussed in the context of methyl ketone production by fungi. ..
  60. Makar T, Cooper A, Tofel Grehl B, Thaler H, Blass J. Carnitine, carnitine acetyltransferase, and glutathione in Alzheimer brain. Neurochem Res. 1995;20:705-11 pubmed
    ..04 +/- 0.82 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively). However, carnitine acetyltransferase activity of AD CBL (n = 7) was significantly lower than that of control CBL (n = 6) (1.33 +/- 0.88 versus 2.26 +/- 0.66 nmol/min/mg protein; p = 0.05). ..
  61. Cattley R, Smith Oliver T, Butterworth B, Popp J. Failure of the peroxisome proliferator WY-14,643 to induce unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat hepatocytes following in vivo treatment. Carcinogenesis. 1988;9:1179-83 pubmed
    ..In summary, a highly carcinogenic peroxisome proliferator did not induce UDS in the target cell for carcinogenesis in spite of peroxisome proliferation following in vivo treatment. ..
  62. Vogel K, Stark L, Mishra P, Yang W, Drueckhammer D. Investigating the role of the geminal dimethyl groups of coenzyme A: synthesis and studies of a didemethyl analogue. Bioorg Med Chem. 2000;8:2451-60 pubmed
    ..3- to 10-fold increased Km values and 2.5- to 11-fold decreases in Vmax. The combined results indicate that the geminal dimethyl groups of CoA have modest effects on function and minimal effects on conformation. ..
  63. Ramos Pamplona M, Naqvi N. Host invasion during rice-blast disease requires carnitine-dependent transport of peroxisomal acetyl-CoA. Mol Microbiol. 2006;61:61-75 pubmed
    ..Thus, carnitine-dependent metabolic activities associated with the peroxisomes, cooperatively facilitate the appressorial function of host invasion during rice-blast infections. ..
  64. Madiraju P, Pande S, Prentki M, Madiraju S. Mitochondrial acetylcarnitine provides acetyl groups for nuclear histone acetylation. Epigenetics. 2009;4:399-403 pubmed
  65. Manninen A, Kroger S, Liesivuori J, Savolainen H. 2-Ethylhexanoic acid inhibits urea synthesis and stimulates carnitine acetyltransferase activity in rat liver mitochondria. Arch Toxicol. 1989;63:160-1 pubmed
    ..Our results compare very well with the toxicity of a structural congener of the 2-ethylhexanoic acid, i.e. valproate, an antiepileptic drug. ..
  66. Bajpai M, Gupta G, Jain S, Setty B. Lipid metabolising enzymes in isolated rat testicular germ cells and changes associated with meiosis. Andrologia. 1998;30:311-5 pubmed
    ..Long chain acyl-CoA synthetase activity was not detected in the two cell types. The study indicates a major reorganization of fatty acid turnover during meiosis with equilibrium shifting in favour of synthesis. ..
  67. de Sousa C, English N, Stacey T, Chalmers R. Measurement of L-carnitine and acylcarnitines in body fluids and tissues in children and in adults. Clin Chim Acta. 1990;187:317-28 pubmed
    ..These data provide a reliable basis for studies of patients with abnormal carnitine and acylcarnitine metabolism, distribution and excretion. ..
  68. Robic A, Faraut T, Liaubet L, Milan D. The carnitine acetyltransferase gene (CRAT): a characterization of porcine transcripts with insights into the 5'-end variants of mammalian transcripts and their possible sub-cellular localization. Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2009;14:90-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, it is not evident, in particular in porcine and dog species, that the second variant is associated with a different sub-cellular specificity. ..
  69. Yamada J, Sakuma M, Ikeda T, Fukuda K, Suga T. Characteristics of dehydroepiandrosterone as a peroxisome proliferator. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1991;1092:233-43 pubmed
  70. Gerondaes P, Alberti K, Agius L. Fatty acid metabolism in hepatocytes cultured with hypolipidaemic drugs. Role of carnitine. Biochem J. 1988;253:161-7 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that the increase in hepatic carnitine that occurs in vivo after fibrate feeding probably plays the major role in the changes in partitioning of fatty acid between beta-oxidation and esterification. ..
  71. Yan B, Mann W, Bell P. Effects of substrate binding and pH on the secondary structure of carnitine acetyltransferase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995;1253:175-80 pubmed
    ..Loss of alpha-helices and a reduction of thermal stability in CAT was detected at both acidic and basic pH. Thus, the reduced catalytic activity of CAT at acidic or basic pH may be due to pH-induced protein unfolding. ..
  72. DeAngelo A, Daniel F, McMillan L, Wernsing P, Savage R. Species and strain sensitivity to the induction of peroxisome proliferation by chloroacetic acids. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1989;101:285-98 pubmed
  73. Ikeda T, Ida Enomoto M, Mori I, Fukuda K, Iwabuchi H, Komai T, et al. Induction of peroxisome proliferation in rat liver by dietary treatment with 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane. Xenobiotica. 1988;18:1271-80 pubmed
    ..1-fold). 2. 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-Heptamethylnonane dicarboxylic acid, a non-beta-oxidizable fatty acid, was detected as the major metabolite in the liver, an example of an unmetabolizable lipophilic anion as a peroxisome proliferator. ..
  74. Liu J, Killilea D, Ames B. Age-associated mitochondrial oxidative decay: improvement of carnitine acetyltransferase substrate-binding affinity and activity in brain by feeding old rats acetyl-L- carnitine and/or R-alpha -lipoic acid. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:1876-81 pubmed
    ..Thus, feeding old rats high levels of key mitochondrial metabolites can ameliorate oxidative damage, enzyme activity, substrate-binding affinity, and mitochondrial dysfunction. ..
  75. Ohue M, Makita T. Localization of carnitine acetyltransferase activity in brown adipocytes of the rat. J Vet Med Sci. 1994;56:329-33 pubmed
    ..0-fold, female 2.0-fold) at two weeks of administration of bezafibrate except for castrated male and female rats. However, the localization of CAT activity in mitochondria was not altered by the administration of bezafibrate. ..
  76. Choong K, Clarke J, Cutz E, Pollit R, Olpin S. Lethal cardiac tachyarrhythmia in a patient with neonatal carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2001;4:573-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we speculate that the choice of anti-arrhythmic agent in this patient may paradoxically have contributed to his death. ..
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    ..We discuss possible mechanisms by which carnitine inhibits the aggregation of cells. ..
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    ..Our data suggest that the induction of peroxisomal matrix enzymes, such as catalase and fatty acyl-CoA oxidase, does not influence the surfactant content. ..
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    ..8. The results obtained suggest that cetaben represents an exceptional type of peroxisome proliferator, specifically affecting peroxisomes, without having a negative influence on the processes of peroxisome biogenesis. ..
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    ..Since the observed Ki values are significantly larger than the Km for carnitine, the positive charge on carnitine must also be important, but not essential, for binding to the carnitine site on carnitine acyltransferases. ..
  81. Kawachi H, Atomi H, Ueda M, Tanaka A. Peroxisomal and mitochondrial carnitine acetyltransferases of the n-alkane-assimilating yeast Candida Tropicalis. Analysis of gene structure and translation products. Eur J Biochem. 1996;238:845-52 pubmed
    ..Concerning the peroxisomal enzyme, the evidence obtained indicated that in vivo the translation was initiated at the second methionine of the open reading frame. ..
  82. Sheridan R, Ratledge C. Changes in cell morphology and carnitine acetyltransferase activity in Candida albicans following growth on lipids and serum and after in vivo incubation in mice. Microbiology. 1996;142 ( Pt 11):3171-80 pubmed
    ..Two separate CAT proteins, partially purifed from isolated microchondria and peroxisomes, respectively, were identified, with different specificities and kinetic properties. ..
  83. Cox K, Johnson K, Wood P. Chromosomal locations of the mouse fatty acid oxidation genes Cpt1a, Cpt1b, Cpt2, Acadvl, and metabolically related Crat gene. Mamm Genome. 1998;9:608-10 pubmed
    ..8 cM proximal to Mpmv2. Cpt1a mapped to the centromeric region of Chr 19, 8.7 cM proximal to Pomc-ps1. Cpt1b mapped to Chr 15, 4.9 distal to Gpt1 and 3.5 cM proximal to Wnt1. Cpt2 mapped to Chr 4 near the locus Pmv19. ..
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    ..These results suggest that CLA does not act in the rat as a classical peroxisome proliferator and that there may be a species difference in the effects on rat and mice. ..
  86. Corti O, Finocchiaro G, Rossi E, Zuffardi O, DiDonato S. Molecular cloning of cDNAs encoding human carnitine acetyltransferase and mapping of the corresponding gene to chromosome 9q34.1. Genomics. 1994;23:94-9 pubmed
    ..CAT cDNA has also been used for fluorescence in situ hybridization on metaphase spreads of human chromosomes, and the corresponding gene, CAT1, has been mapped to chromosome 9q34.1. ..
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    ..We propose that in response to oleate, shorter transcripts are produced from which the peroxisomal form of CAT is translated, resulting in a CAT protein without a MTS, which can be targeted to peroxisomes. ..
  88. Backman L, Appelkvist E, Sundberg A, Teclebrhan H, Brunk U. Modulation of metabolism in HepG2 cells upon treatment with cyclosporin A and Nva2-cyclosporin. Exp Mol Pathol. 1991;54:242-54 pubmed
    ..HepG2 cells appear to be suitable for studying the effects of cyclosporins on cellular structure and metabolism and in this system the two drugs studied here exhibited similar effects. ..
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    ..The [11C]PLC is suitable for pharmacokinetic studies in human subjects with PET and the elucidation of the fate of the propionyl group of PLC in vivo. ..
  90. Kozulic B, Mosbach K, Meussdoerffer F. Biosynthesis of soluble carnitine acetyltransferases from the yeast Candida tropicalis. Biochem J. 1988;253:845-9 pubmed
    ..Formation of these oligomers depends apparently on growth conditions, since both oligomers were present in cells grown in continuous culture, but cells grown batchwise contained only the tetrameric form of carnitine acetyltransferase. ..
  91. Jaudzems K, Kuka J, Gutsaits A, Zinovjevs K, Kalvinsh I, Liepinsh E, et al. Inhibition of carnitine acetyltransferase by mildronate, a regulator of energy metabolism. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2009;24:1269-75 pubmed publisher
    ..1 mM, and the K(i) is 1.6 mM. The results suggest that the cardioprotective effect of mildronate might be partially mediated by CrAT inhibition and concomitant regulation of cellular energy metabolism pathways. ..