gamma glutamyltransferase


Summary: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.

Top Publications

  1. Strasak A, Pfeiffer R, Klenk J, Hilbe W, Oberaigner W, Gregory M, et al. Prospective study of the association of gamma-glutamyltransferase with cancer incidence in women. Int J Cancer. 2008;123:1902-6 pubmed publisher
    ..006). Our study is the first to demonstrate in a large population-based cohort that high GGT levels significantly increased cancer risk in women. ..
  2. Ohkama Ohtsu N, Oikawa A, Zhao P, Xiang C, Saito K, Oliver D. A gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-independent pathway of glutathione catabolism to glutamate via 5-oxoproline in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2008;148:1603-13 pubmed publisher
    ..This discovery led us to propose a new pathway for GSH turnover in plants where GSH is converted to 5OP and then to Glu by the combined action of gamma-glutamyl cyclotransferase and 5-oxoprolinase in the cytoplasm. ..
  3. Lee D, Jacobs D. Is serum gamma-glutamyltransferase a marker of exposure to various environmental pollutants?. Free Radic Res. 2009;43:533-7 pubmed publisher
    ..As a marker of the amount of conjugated xenobiotics, recent epidemiological findings about serum GGT imply the possibility of harmful effects of various environmental pollutants at background levels currently regarded as safe. ..
  4. Corti A, Duarte T, Giommarelli C, De Tata V, Paolicchi A, Jones G, et al. Membrane gamma-glutamyl transferase activity promotes iron-dependent oxidative DNA damage in melanoma cells. Mutat Res. 2009;669:112-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings reported indicate that GGT activity is able to promote iron-dependent DNA oxidative damage, thus potentially representing an important mechanism in initiation/progression of neoplastic transformation. ..
  5. Oda E, Kawai R, Watanabe K, Sukumaran V. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome increases with the increase in blood levels of gamma glutamyltransferase and alanine aminotransferase in Japanese men and women. Intern Med. 2009;48:1343-50 pubmed
    b>Gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is reported to be an independent risk factor of diabetes and cardiovascular disease and proposed as a component of metabolic syndrome (MS)...
  6. Liu L, Wang Z, Wang X, Zhu Q, Wang J. ABCB11 gene mutations in Chinese children with progressive intrahepatic cholestasis and low gamma glutamyltransferase. Liver Int. 2010;30:809-15 pubmed publisher
    ..ABCB11 gene mutations causing PFIC2 have been reported in some population groups, but not in mainland Chinese...
  7. Ford E, Schulze M, Bergmann M, Thamer C, Joost H, Boeing H. Liver enzymes and incident diabetes: findings from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study. Diabetes Care. 2008;31:1138-43 pubmed publisher
    ..307). Concentrations of GGT and ALT were significant predictors of incident diabetes in this study, even at concentrations still considered to be within the normal range. ..
  8. Ruhl C, Everhart J. Elevated serum alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase and mortality in the United States population. Gastroenterology. 2009;136:477-85.e11 pubmed publisher
    ..3; 95% CI, 0.80-2.0). In the US population, elevated GGT was associated with mortality from all causes, liver disease, cancer, and diabetes, while ALT was associated only with liver disease mortality. ..
  9. Fraser A, Harris R, Sattar N, Ebrahim S, Davey Smith G, Lawlor D. Alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, and incident diabetes: the British Women's Heart and Health Study and meta-analysis. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:741-50 pubmed publisher
    ..GGT may be a better diabetes predictor than ALT, but additional studies with directly determined liver fat content, ALT, and GGT are needed to confirm this finding. ..

More Information


  1. Yavuz B, Yavuz B, Halil M, Cankurtaran M, Ulger Z, Cankurtaran E, et al. Serum elevated gamma glutamyltransferase levels may be a marker for oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease. Int Psychogeriatr. 2008;20:815-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) plays a role in cellular glutathione uptake, which is an important element of antioxidant mechanisms. An increase in serum GGT is thought to be an early and sensitive marker of oxidative stress...
  2. Devers M, Campbell S, Shaw J, Zimmet P, Simmons D. Should liver function tests be included in definitions of metabolic syndrome? Evidence from the association between liver function tests, components of metabolic syndrome and prevalent cardiovascular disease. Diabet Med. 2008;25:523-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that including a raised GGT in the criteria for MS could increase its predictive nature for CVD. Prospective studies are needed to confirm this finding. ..
  3. Andre P, Balkau B, Vol S, Charles M, Eschwege E. Gamma-glutamyltransferase activity and development of the metabolic syndrome (International Diabetes Federation Definition) in middle-aged men and women: Data from the Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome (DESIR) cohort. Diabetes Care. 2007;30:2355-61 pubmed
    ..GGT, a predictor of type 2 diabetes, was associated with a risk of incident MetS. This association was mainly related with insulin resistance but was independent of other confounding factors. ..
  4. Leroy V, Hilleret M, Sturm N, Trocme C, Renversez J, Faure P, et al. Prospective comparison of six non-invasive scores for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C. J Hepatol. 2007;46:775-82 pubmed
    ..Current non-invasive scores give reliable information on liver fibrosis in one-third of chronic hepatitis C patients, especially when used in combination. ..
  5. Martin M, Saladores P, Lambert E, HUDSON A, Leustek T. Localization of members of the gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase family identifies sites of glutathione and glutathione S-conjugate hydrolysis. Plant Physiol. 2007;144:1715-32 pubmed
    ..Protoplasting experiments indicated that both GGT1 and GGT2 are localized extracellularly but have different physical or chemical associations. ..
  6. Lee D, Evans J, Robins S, Wilson P, Albano I, Fox C, et al. Gamma glutamyl transferase and metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and mortality risk: the Framingham Heart Study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007;27:127-33 pubmed
    ..67, 95%CI; 1.25 to 2.22). An increase in serum GGT predicts onset of metabolic syndrome, incident CVD, and death suggesting that GGT is a marker of metabolic and cardiovascular risk. ..
  7. Lee D, Jacobs D. Association between serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and gamma glutamyltransferase: results from the National Health and Examination Survey 1999-2002. Clin Chem. 2006;52:1825-7 pubmed
  8. Patel D, Srinivasan S, Xu J, Chen W, Berenson G. Persistent elevation of liver function enzymes within the reference range is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Metabolism. 2007;56:792-8 pubmed
    ..Elevations in liver enzymes ALT and GGT, within "reference" range, persist over time and relate to clinically relevant adverse CV risk profile in young adults. ..
  9. Ohkama Ohtsu N, Radwan S, Peterson A, Zhao P, Badr A, Xiang C, et al. Characterization of the extracellular gamma-glutamyl transpeptidases, GGT1 and GGT2, in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2007;49:865-77 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that GGT1 is important in preventing oxidative stress by metabolizing extracellular GSSG, while GGT2 might be important in transporting glutathione into developing seeds. ..
  10. Ohkama Ohtsu N, Zhao P, Xiang C, Oliver D. Glutathione conjugates in the vacuole are degraded by gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase GGT3 in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2007;49:878-88 pubmed
    ..This identifies GGT3 as catalyzing the obligate initial step in GSH conjugate metabolism, and suggests that it has an important role in protecting plants from some xenobiotic chemicals. ..
  11. Shibayama K, Wachino J, Arakawa Y, Saidijam M, Rutherford N, Henderson P. Metabolism of glutamine and glutathione via gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and glutamate transport in Helicobacter pylori: possible significance in the pathophysiology of the organism. Mol Microbiol. 2007;64:396-406 pubmed publisher
  12. Schmees C, Prinz C, Treptau T, Rad R, Hengst L, Voland P, et al. Inhibition of T-cell proliferation by Helicobacter pylori gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Gastroenterology. 2007;132:1820-33 pubmed
    ..GGT is a novel immunosuppressive factor of H pylori inhibiting T-cell proliferation by induction of a cell cycle arrest in the G(1) phase. ..
  13. Lim J, Lee D, Park J, Jin S, Jacobs D. A strong interaction between serum gamma-glutamyltransferase and obesity on the risk of prevalent type 2 diabetes: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Clin Chem. 2007;53:1092-8 pubmed
    ..Practically, this interaction can be useful in clinical settings to identify individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes. ..
  14. Grzam A, Martin M, Hell R, Meyer A. gamma-Glutamyl transpeptidase GGT4 initiates vacuolar degradation of glutathione S-conjugates in Arabidopsis. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:3131-8 pubmed
    ..GGT4:green fluorescent protein fusions were used to demonstrate that GGT4 is localized in the lumen of the vacuole. ..
  15. Kang Y, Min H, Son S, Kim I, Kim Y. The association of serum gamma glutamyltransferase with components of the metabolic syndrome in the Korean adults. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2007;77:306-13 pubmed
    ..Recently, serum gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) has been proposed as a marker of oxidative stress and is associated with a marked increase in the ..
  16. Kazemi Shirazi L, Endler G, Winkler S, Schickbauer T, Wagner O, Marsik C. Gamma glutamyltransferase and long-term survival: is it just the liver?. Clin Chem. 2007;53:940-6 pubmed
    Increased gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) is associated with cardiovascular disease. To date, however, few studies with sufficient sample size and follow-up have investigated the association of GGT with all-cause mortality...
  17. Monami M, Bardini G, Lamanna C, Pala L, Cresci B, Francesconi P, et al. Liver enzymes and risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease: results of the Firenze Bagno a Ripoli (FIBAR) study. Metabolism. 2008;57:387-92 pubmed publisher
    ..5-28.1]), but not diabetes. Elevated gamma-GT or AST is an independent predictor of CVD. An increase of gamma-GT levels above the reference range, or also in the upper reference range, is an independent predictor of incident diabetes. ..
  18. Odunola O, Uka E, Akinwumi K, Gbadegesin M, Osifeso O, Ibegbu M. Exposure of laboratory mice to domestic cooking gas: implications for toxicity. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2008;5:172-6 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that the domestic cooking gas has some degree of clastogenic and hepatotoxic activities in mice. Health risks may therefore be associated with long-term occupational and/or domestic exposure in humans. ..
  19. Lykavieris P, Ducot B, Lachaux A, Dabadie A, Broue P, Sarles J, et al. Liver disease associated with ZZ alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency and ursodeoxycholic acid therapy in children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2008;47:623-9 pubmed publisher
    ..No beneficial effect of UDCA was shown in children with the most severe liver involvement. Initial levels of GGT and total bilirubin may be of prognostic value for therapy effectiveness. ..
  20. Iavicoli I, Fontana L, Iavicoli S. [Modifications of hepatic transaminases in workers exposed to low doses of isopropanol]. G Ital Med Lav Ergon. 2007;29:271-2 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the results of this study show that the removal of IPA from the industry had a positive health effect improving the hepatic function of the workers...
  21. Chávez E, Segovia J, Shibayama M, Tsutsumi V, Vergara P, Castro Sanchez L, et al. Antifibrotic and fibrolytic properties of celecoxib in liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in the rat. Liver Int. 2010;30:969-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that celecoxib exerts strong antifibrogenic and fibrolytic effects in the CCl(4) model of cirrhosis. ..
  22. Dong Y, Lv Q, Li S, Wu Y, Li L, Li J, et al. Efficacy and safety of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol. 2017;41:284-295 pubmed publisher
    ..Benefits of GLP-1RAs are considered to outweigh the risks in NAFLD/NASH patients with or without diabetes. ..
  23. Busuioc M, Gusbeth Tatomir P, Covic A. [Acute renal failure--the present and perspectives]. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2009;113:984-90 pubmed
    ..There has been increasing interest in the identification and validation of novel biomarkers of acute kidney injury that permit earlier and more accurate diagnosis. ..
  24. Bashandy S, Alaamer A, Moussa S, Omara E. Role of zinc oxide nanoparticles in alleviating hepatic fibrosis and nephrotoxicity induced by thioacetamide in rats. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggested that ZnO-NPs may attenuate TAA-toxicity via suppression of oxidative stress. ..
  25. Sun S, Zheng S, Lu X, Chen G, Ma Y, Chen L, et al. Clinical and pathological features of patients with biliary atresia who survived for more than 5 years with native liver. Pediatr Surg Int. 2018;34:381-386 pubmed publisher
    ..The development of bile plugs may be an indicator of favorable prognosis. ..
  26. Ratziu V, Giral P, Jacqueminet S, Charlotte F, Hartemann Heurtier A, Serfaty L, et al. Rosiglitazone for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: one-year results of the randomized placebo-controlled Fatty Liver Improvement with Rosiglitazone Therapy (FLIRT) Trial. Gastroenterology. 2008;135:100-10 pubmed publisher
    ..In patients with NASH, rosiglitazone improves steatosis and transaminase levels despite weight gain, an effect related to an improvement in insulin sensitivity. However, there is no improvement in other parameters of liver injury. ..
  27. Balldin J, Berggren U, Berglund K, Blennow K, Fahlke C, Zetterberg H. Gamma-glutamyltransferase in alcohol use disorders: Modification of decision limits in relation to treatment goals?. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2010;70:71-4 pubmed publisher
    ..40 microkat/L. Goals of non-harmful drinking (< 100 grams weekly) suggest higher limits (0.62 microkat/L). Thirty percent increase of GGT should be suggestive of relapse. ..
  28. Tahan V, Canbakan B, Balci H, Dane F, Akin H, Can G, et al. Serum gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase distinguishes non-alcoholic fatty liver disease at high risk. Hepatogastroenterology. 2008;55:1433-8 pubmed
    ..74 (95% CI: 0.54-0.94). The serum GGT cut-off value for the prediction of advanced fibrosis was 96.5 U/L; with 83% sensitivity and 69% specificity. ..
  29. Wilhelm E, Jesse C, Nogueira C, Savegnago L. Introduction of trifluoromethyl group into diphenyl diselenide molecule alters its toxicity and protective effect against damage induced by 2-nitropropane in rats. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2009;61:197-203 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the chemical alteration into (PhSe)(2) molecule introduced toxicity and altered its protective effect against damage induced by 2-NP in rats. ..
  30. Sobeh M, Mahmoud M, Sabry O, Adel R, Dmirieh M, El Shazly A, et al. HPLC-PDA-MS/MS Characterization of Bioactive Secondary Metabolites from Turraea fischeri Bark Extract and Its Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities In Vivo. Molecules. 2017;22: pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, T. fischeri is apromising candidate for health-promoting and for pharmaceutical applications. ..
  31. Tada Y, Kanazawa I, Notsu M, Tanaka K, Kiyohara N, Sasaki M, et al. Long-term Efficacy and Safety of Sitagliptin in Elderly Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Intern Med. 2016;55:1275-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Conclusion Sitagliptin treatment continually decreases the HbA1c level for 24 months and is useful to reduce the dose of sulfonylurea in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes. ..
  32. Shahin N, Mohamed M. Nano-sized titanium dioxide toxicity in rat prostate and testis: Possible ameliorative effect of morin. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2017;334:129-141 pubmed publisher
  33. Poojari R, Gupta S, Maru G, Khade B, Bhagwat S. Sida rhombifolia ssp. retusa seed extract inhibits DEN induced murine hepatic preneoplasia and carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2009;10:1107-12 pubmed
    ..The chemopreventive and hepatoprotective potentials of seed extract are due to free radical scavenging activity and restoration of cellular structural integrity. ..
  34. Zhang M, Knisely A, Wang N, Gong J, Wang J. Fibrinogen storage disease in a Chinese boy with de novo fibrinogen Aguadilla mutation: Incomplete response to carbamazepine and ursodeoxycholic acid. BMC Gastroenterol. 2016;16:92 pubmed publisher
    ..This report expands the epidemiology of FSD and demonstrates idiosyncrasy in response to oral carbamazepine and/or ursodeoxycholic acid in FSD. ..
  35. Dobbins C, Brennan C, Wemyss Holden S, Cockburn J, Maddern G. Bimodal electric tissue ablation-long term studies of morbidity and pathological change. J Surg Res. 2008;148:251-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the positive electrode placement requires further consideration, bimodal electric tissue ablation appears to be safe and behaves in a similar fashion to other thermal therapies such as standard radiofrequency ablation. ..
  36. Skalnaya M, Skalny A, Serebryansky E, Yurasov V, Skalnaya A, Tinkov A. ICP-DRC-MS analysis of serum essential and toxic element levels in postmenopausal prediabetic women in relation to glycemic control markers. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Prediabetic postmenopausal women are characterized by significantly lower levels of serum Zn concentration, whereas serum Zn and Sr levels were inversely associated with insulin resistance. ..
  37. Ferretti M, Destro T, Tosatto S, La Rocca N, Rascio N, Masi A. Gamma-glutamyl transferase in the cell wall participates in extracellular glutathione salvage from the root apoplast. New Phytol. 2009;181:115-26 pubmed publisher
    ..It is demonstrated that GGT activity helps to salvage extracellular glutathione and may contribute to redox control of the extracellular environment, thus providing evidence of a functional role for gamma-glutamyl cycle in roots. ..
  38. Soto L, Astesana D, Zbrun M, Blajman J, Salvetti N, Berisvil A, et al. Probiotic effect on calves infected with Salmonella Dublin: haematological parameters and serum biochemical profile. Benef Microbes. 2016;7:23-33 pubmed publisher
  39. Godsland I, Johnston D. Co-associations between insulin sensitivity and measures of liver function, subclinical inflammation, and hematology. Metabolism. 2008;57:1190-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, both GGT activity and uric acid concentrations correlated with insulin sensitivity and co-associated with insulin resistance-related risk factors and are therefore components of a true risk factor cluster. ..
  40. Diergaarde B, Brand R, Lamb J, Cheong S, Stello K, Barmada M, et al. Pooling-based genome-wide association study implicates gamma-glutamyltransferase 1 (GGT1) gene in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Pancreatology. 2010;10:194-200 pubmed publisher
    ..GGT is expressed in the pancreas and plays a key role in glutathione metabolism. Our results suggest that common variation in the GGT1 gene may affect the risk of pancreatic cancer. . ..
  41. Shelat V, Chia C, Yeo C, Qiao W, Woon W, Junnarkar S. Pyogenic Liver Abscess: Does Escherichia Coli Cause more Adverse Outcomes than Klebsiella Pneumoniae?. World J Surg. 2015;39:2535-42 pubmed publisher
    ..7 %) but this was not significant (p = 0.272). In the setting of multimodal care, outcomes of ECPLA are comparable to KPPLA. ..
  42. Strasak A, Goebel G, Concin H, Pfeiffer R, Brant L, Nagel G, et al. Prospective study of the association of serum gamma-glutamyltransferase with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia III and invasive cervical cancer. Cancer Res. 2010;70:3586-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Effects did not differ by age, body mass index, or socioeconomic status. Our findings implicate GGT in the progression of premalignant cervical lesions to invasive cancer. ..
  43. Tateno C, Carreiro M, Hixson D. Endogenous and transplanted small hepatocytes in retrorsine-treated/partially hepatectomized rat liver show differences in growth, phenotype, and proximity to clusters of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-positive host hepatocytes. J Histochem Cytochem. 2010;58:61-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Although significantly smaller at 5 and 7 days after PH, by day 21, SH-R3 colonies were similar in size to those formed by SHPs. The present results suggest that endogenous SHPs are derived, at least in part, from SHPs. ..
  44. Dos Santos Perez G, Santana dos Santos L, dos Santos Cordeiro G, Matos Paraguassú G, Abensur Athanazio D, Couto R, et al. MATERNAL AND POST-WEANING EXPOSURE TO A HIGH FAT DIET PROMOTES VISCERAL OBESITY AND HEPATIC STEATOSIS IN ADULT RATS. Nutr Hosp. 2015;32:1653-8 pubmed publisher
  45. Popov V, Thompson C, Kumar N, Ciarleglio M, Deng Y, Laine L. Effect of Intragastric Balloons on Liver Enzymes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Dig Dis Sci. 2016;61:2477-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Larger, more rigorous trials are needed to confirm the effect of IGBs on NAFLD. ..
  46. Ricci G, Bersani G, Rossi A, Pigò F, De Fabritiis G, Alvisi V. Bariatric therapy with intragastric balloon improves liver dysfunction and insulin resistance in obese patients. Obes Surg. 2008;18:1438-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Weight loss induced by intragrastric balloon reduces IR. The ALT and GGT decrease suggests an improvement in hepatic damage. The benefit depends on the decrease of BMI higher than 10%. ..
  47. Degiorgio D, Crosignani A, Colombo C, Bordo D, Zuin M, Vassallo E, et al. ABCB4 mutations in adult patients with cholestatic liver disease: impact and phenotypic expression. J Gastroenterol. 2016;51:271-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In PSC and ICC phenotypes, patients with MDR3 deficiency have early onset of disease. ..
  48. Emdin M, Passino C, Michelassi C, Donato L, Pompella A, Paolicchi A. Additive prognostic value of gamma-glutamyltransferase in coronary artery disease. Int J Cardiol. 2009;136:80-5 pubmed publisher
    ..GGT, CRP, fasting glucose show an additive prognostic value, whereas low values of these biomarkers identify a subset of patients with the lowest risk of cardiac death. ..
  49. Schulze M, Boeing H, Haring H, Fritsche A, Joost H. [Validation of the German Diabetes Risk Score with metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2008;133:878-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that the DRS allows to detect persons with prediabetes with high sensitivity and specificity. Thus the DRS could be used as a routine medical checkup in programs for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. ..
  50. Malnick S, Maor Y, Melzer E, Ziv Sokolowskaia N, Neuman M. Severe hepatocytotoxicity linked to denosumab. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2017;21:78-85 pubmed
    ..We suggest that RANKL inhibition can produce severe hepatic necrosis together with an increase in proinflammatory cytokines. ..
  51. Simão A, Dichi J, Barbosa D, Cecchini R, Dichi I. Influence of uric acid and gamma-glutamyltransferase on total antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress in patients with metabolic syndrome. Nutrition. 2008;24:675-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study confirmed that GGT is a strong predictor of MS and that lipid peroxide measured by tert-butyl hydroperoxide-initiated chemiluminescence and GGT activity are reliable markers of oxidative stress in this syndrome. ..
  52. Yasui K, Uegaki M, Shiraki K, Ishimizu T. Enhanced solubilization of membrane proteins by alkylamines and polyamines. Protein Sci. 2010;19:486-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, addition of alkylamines and polyamines to solubilization buffer is a generally applicable method for effective solubilization of membrane proteins. The mechanism of the enhancement of solubilization is discussed. ..
  53. Liu L, Lan Q, Lin L, Lu J, Ye C, Tao Q, et al. Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-to-platelet ratio predicts the prognosis in HBV-associated acute-on-chronic liver failure. Clin Chim Acta. 2018;476:92-97 pubmed publisher
    ..19) had a poor prognosis (P<0.01). For ACLF patients without liver cirrhosis, MELD-GPR<0.95 predicted a poor prognosis. Incorporating GPR into MELD may provide more accurate survival prediction in patients with HBV-ACLF. ..
  54. Carallo C, Mancuso G, Mauro G, Laghi F, Madafferi B, Irace C, et al. Hepatic steatosis, carotid atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome: the STEATO Study. J Gastroenterol. 2009;44:1156-61 pubmed publisher
  55. Repiso Ortega A, Gómez Rodríguez R, González de Frutos C, de la Cruz Pérez G, Navajas J, Pérez Grueso M, et al. [Utility of endoscopic ultrasonography in the etiological diagnosis of patients with acute idiopathic pancreatitis]. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;31:207-12 pubmed
    ..This technique should be used in the first episode of acute idiopathic pancreatitis. ..
  56. Langford M, Redmond P, Chanis R, Misra R, Redens T. Glutamate, excitatory amino acid transporters, Xc- antiporter, glutamine synthetase, and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase in human corneal epithelium. Curr Eye Res. 2010;35:202-11 pubmed publisher
  57. Ashour E, Samy N, Sayed M, Imam A. The relationship between serum adiponectin and steatosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype-4. Clin Lab. 2010;56:103-10 pubmed
    ..Further molecular and genetic studies with larger numbers of patients are required to confirm these results. ..
  58. Grieco A, Miele L, Pompili M, Biolato M, Vecchio F, Grattagliano I, et al. Acute hepatitis caused by a natural lipid-lowering product: when "alternative" medicine is no "alternative" at all. J Hepatol. 2009;50:1273-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Physicians should keep in mind that "alternative" medicine is not always the safest alternative and sometimes it is not even "alternative." ..
  59. Chang H, Liang W, Lyu R, Chi M, Wang T, Su K, et al. Effects of C-terminal truncation on autocatalytic processing of Bacillus licheniformis gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2010;75:919-29 pubmed
    ..18. Taken together, these results provide direct evidence for the functional role of the C-terminal region in the autocatalytic processing of BlGGT. ..
  60. Ryu S, Chang Y, Woo H, Yoo S, Choi N, Lee W, et al. Longitudinal increase in gamma-glutamyltransferase within the reference interval predicts metabolic syndrome in middle-aged Korean men. Metabolism. 2010;59:683-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A longitudinal increase in the GGT level, even within the GGT reference interval, may be an independent predictor for MetS, regardless of the baseline GGT. ..
  61. Uemura K, Shintani Ishida K, Saka K, Nakajima M, Ikegaya H, Kikuchi Y, et al. Biochemical blood markers and sampling sites in forensic autopsy. J Forensic Leg Med. 2008;15:312-7 pubmed publisher
    ..For clinical forensic diagnosis of biochemical blood markers, we must determine the "forensic abnormal value" after collecting more cases by known causes with more information about the population. ..
  62. Pissaia A, Borderie D, Bernard D, Scatton O, Calmus Y, Conti F. APRI and FIB-4 Scores Are Useful After Liver Transplantation Independently of Etiology. Transplant Proc. 2009;41:679-81 pubmed publisher
    ..In the nonhepatitis C subgroup, we found similar predictive performances. These simple scores may be applied in clinical practice in the context of follow-up after OLT independent of hepatitis C status. ..
  63. Musso G, Gambino R, De Michieli F, Biroli G, Faga E, Pagano G, et al. Association of liver disease with postprandial large intestinal triglyceride-rich lipoprotein accumulation and pro/antioxidant imbalance in normolipidemic non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Ann Med. 2008;40:383-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Modulating postprandial lipoprotein metabolism may be beneficial in NASH, even if normolipidemic. ..
  64. Williams K, Cullati S, Sand A, Biterova E, Barycki J. Crystal structure of acivicin-inhibited gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase reveals critical roles for its C-terminus in autoprocessing and catalysis. Biochemistry. 2009;48:2459-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutational analysis reveals that Arg 475 is critical for the proper placement of the C-terminal region, the Tyr 433 containing loop, and the proposed oxyanion hole...
  65. Labruna G, Pasanisi F, Nardelli C, Tarantino G, Vitale D, Bracale R, et al. UCP1 -3826 AG+GG genotypes, adiponectin, and leptin/adiponectin ratio in severe obesity. J Endocrinol Invest. 2009;32:525-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on our data, polymorphic UCP1 (AG+GG) obese patients with low adiponectin levels appear to be high-risk subjects for worsening of liver steatosis, a NAFLD, possibly requiring a second-step evaluation by liver biopsy. ..
  66. Patsenker E, Popov Y, Stickel F, Schneider V, Ledermann M, Sägesser H, et al. Pharmacological inhibition of integrin alphavbeta3 aggravates experimental liver fibrosis and suppresses hepatic angiogenesis. Hepatology. 2009;50:1501-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Angiogenesis inhibitors should be used with caution in patients with hepatic fibrosis. ..
  67. Strasak A, Rapp K, Brant L, Hilbe W, Gregory M, Oberaigner W, et al. Association of gamma-glutamyltransferase and risk of cancer incidence in men: a prospective study. Cancer Res. 2008;68:3970-7 pubmed publisher
    ..001), revealing markedly stronger associations in participants ages </=65 years. Our findings, for the first time, show that elevated GGT is significantly associated with increased cancer risk in men. ..
  68. Xia R, Tang Y, Huang Y, Yao D, Zhou Y, Chen B, et al. TNFSF9 expression in primary biliary cirrhosis and its clinical significance. Cytokine. 2010;50:311-6 pubmed publisher
    ..levels were compared with Mayo risk scores, PBC stages, IL-18 serum levels, total bilirubin (TBIL), and gamma glutamyltransferase (gamma-GT)...
  69. Meng Q, Duan Z, Lin Z, Yu H, Li J, Liu Y. Serum level of adiponectin correlated with gender and genotype in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Dig Dis Sci. 2009;54:1120-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, serum adiponectin was associated with gender, genotype, liver steatosis, and TNF-alpha in a Chinese population with CHC. ..
  70. Zhang X, Chen L, Zhang J, Tian H, Zhang X, Zhou Y, et al. Effect of salvia miltiorrhizae on apoptosis and NF-kappaB p65 expression in the liver of rats with severe acute pancreatitis or obstructive jaundice. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009;24:841-52 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the therapeutic effects and mechanism of salvia miltiorrhizae in the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) or obstructive jaundice (OJ)...
  71. Elshorbagy A, Refsum H, Smith A, Graham I. The association of plasma cysteine and gamma-glutamyltransferase with BMI and obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009;17:1435-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We also suggest that the association of serum GGT with BMI and obesity is unrelated to the role of GGT in cysteine turnover. The potential link between cysteine and fat metabolism should be further evaluated. ..
  72. Arase Y, Suzuki F, Ikeda K, Kumada H, Tsuji H, Kobayashi T. Multivariate analysis of risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. J Gastroenterol. 2009;44:1064-70 pubmed publisher
    ..25-2.00; P < 0.001). The improvement of prediabetes status and physical activity, and the normalization of mean GGT and TG levels during follow up are important to prevent the development of T2DM in patients with NAFLD. ..
  73. Hozawa A, Okamura T, Tanaka T, Miura K, Kikuchi Y, Kadowaki T, et al. Relation of Gamma-glutamyltransferase and alcohol drinking with incident diabetes: the HIPOP-OHP study. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2010;17:195-202 pubmed
    ..Although a U-shaped relation between alcohol drinking and incident diabetes was observed, the risk to light to moderate drinkers was not low if they were either overweight or had higher GGT. ..
  74. Hwang Y, Lee E, Lee W, Cha B, Yoon K, Park K, et al. Effects of rosiglitazone on body fat distribution and insulin sensitivity in Korean type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Metabolism. 2008;57:479-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The RSG treatment improved the glucose control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, it is important to determine whether the glucose-lowering effect of RSG occurs mainly through direct enhancement of insulin sensitivity. ..
  75. Zhang F, Zheng Q, Jiao Q, Liu J, Zhao G. Synthesis of theanine from glutamic acid gamma-methyl ester and ethylamine catalyzed by Escherichia coli having gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase activity. Biotechnol Lett. 2010;32:1147-50 pubmed publisher
    ..2-fold higher than with glutamine as substrate. The reaction was optimal at pH 10 and 45 degrees C, and the optimal substrate ratio of GAME to ethylamine was 1:10 (mol/mol). With GAME at 100 mmol, 95 mmol theanine was obtained after 8 h. ..
  76. Schulze M, Weikert C, Pischon T, Bergmann M, Al Hasani H, Schleicher E, et al. Use of multiple metabolic and genetic markers to improve the prediction of type 2 diabetes: the EPIC-Potsdam Study. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:2116-9 pubmed publisher
    ..002). Twenty SNPs did not improve discrimination beyond these characteristics (P = 0.69). Metabolic markers, but not genotyping for 20 diabetogenic SNPs, improve discrimination of incident type 2 diabetes beyond lifestyle risk factors. ..
  77. Pavel L, Manole A. [Utility of investigations by family physician of some biological parameters in chronic alcoholism]. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2007;111:885-8 pubmed
    ..A systematic assessment of all of these biological parameters, carried out by the family physician, may be a useful tool in the early detection of severe alterations caused by excessive alcohol consumption. ..
  78. Cross T, Calvaruso V, Maimone S, Carey I, Chang T, Pleguezuelo M, et al. Prospective comparison of Fibroscan, King's score and liver biopsy for the assessment of cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis C infection. J Viral Hepat. 2010;17:546-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The noninvasive markers and, particularly, FS were effective tests for the prediction of cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis C. Both KS and FS also had clinical utility for the prediction of Ishak fibrosis stages F3-F6. ..
  79. Awad A, Kamel R. Effect of rosuvastatin on cholestasis-induced hepatic injury in rat livers. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2010;24:89-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that RO ameliorates hepatic injury, inflammation, lipid peroxidation and increases antioxidant enzymes activity in rats subjected to BDL. RO may have a beneficial effect on treatment of cholestatic liver diseases. ..
  80. Hodson L, McQuaid S, Humphreys S, Milne R, Fielding B, Frayn K, et al. Greater dietary fat oxidation in obese compared with lean men: an adaptive mechanism to prevent liver fat accumulation?. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010;299:E584-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These alterations may represent further pathways for redirection of fatty acids into export from the liver or oxidation to prevent liver fat accumulation. ..
  81. Priora R, Coppo L, Margaritis A, Di Giuseppe D, Frosali S, Summa D, et al. The control of S-thiolation by cysteine via gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and thiol exchanges in erythrocytes and plasma of diamide-treated rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2010;242:333-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, reduced cysteine was found to be involved in deglutathionylation processes. Mechanisms of protein glutathionylation by diamide and deglutathionylation by cysteine were proposed. ..
  82. Zhang J, Zuo Z, He C, Cai J, Wang Y, Chen Y, et al. Effect of tributyltin on testicular development in Sebastiscus marmoratus and the mechanism involved. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2009;28:1528-35 pubmed publisher
  83. Driscoll D, Ling P, Silvestri A, Bistrian B. Fine vs. coarse complete all-in-one admixture infusions over 96 hours in rats: fat globule size and hepatic function. Clin Nutr. 2008;27:889-94 pubmed publisher
    ..F-AIOs (67+/-36 vs. 117+/-71, p=0.022), respectively. Coarse lipid emulsions that fail pharmacopeial limits produce less stable AIOs and are associated with evidence of worsened hepatic injury. ..
  84. Korantzopoulos P, Tzimas P, Kalantzi K, Kostapanos M, Vemmos K, Goudevenos J, et al. Association between serum gamma-glutamyltransferase and acute ischemic nonembolic stroke in elderly subjects. Arch Med Res. 2009;40:582-9 pubmed publisher
    ..001). There are positive associations between serum GGT and first ischemic/nonembolic stroke in individuals >70 years of age independent of established risk factors for cardiovascular disease and concurrent metabolic abnormalities. ..
  85. Ghouri N, Preiss D, Sattar N. Liver enzymes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and incident cardiovascular disease: a narrative review and clinical perspective of prospective data. Hepatology. 2010;52:1156-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of NAFLD should be a clear indication for diabetes screening, but cardiovascular risk screening should be performed with the use of existing risk calculators and should be guided by established cardiovascular risk factors. ..
  86. Chu L, Lai Y, Xu X, Eddy S, Yang S, Song L, et al. A 52-kDa leucyl aminopeptidase from treponema denticola is a cysteinylglycinase that mediates the second step of glutathione metabolism. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:19351-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results prove that T. denticola contains the entire three-step pathway to produce H2S from glutathione, which may be important for pathogenesis...
  87. Stojakovic T, Scharnagl H, Trauner M, Pieske B, Wellnitz B, Seelhorst U, et al. Serum gamma-glutamyl transferase and mortality in persons undergoing coronary angiography-The Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study. Atherosclerosis. 2010;208:564-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum GGT is predictive of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in individuals with CAD independently of other cardiovascular risk factors. ..
  88. Zoppini G, Targher G, Trombetta M, Lippi G, Muggeo M. Relationship of serum gamma-glutamyltransferase to atherogenic dyslipidemia and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009;17:370-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that obesity itself may not be a sufficient risk factor for atherogenic dyslipidemia or poor glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes. ..
  89. Vermeulen T, Marquardt T, Haberle J. Pseudodeficiency of glutamine in infant liver disease. Amino Acids. 2009;37:435-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, increased in vitro gamma-GT can cause pseudodeficiency of glutamine. To avoid pitfalls, physicians should inform the laboratory on accompanying pathologies. ..