Summary: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an aminoacyl group from donor to acceptor resulting in the formation of an ester or amide linkage. EC 2.3.2.

Top Publications

  1. Manetti A, Zingaretti C, Falugi F, Capo S, Bombaci M, Bagnoli F, et al. Streptococcus pyogenes pili promote pharyngeal cell adhesion and biofilm formation. Mol Microbiol. 2007;64:968-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support the role of pili in GAS adherence and colonization and suggest a general role of pili in all pathogenic streptococci...
  2. Nallapareddy S, Singh K, Sillanp J, Garsin D, H k M, Erlandsen S, et al. Endocarditis and biofilm-associated pili of Enterococcus faecalis. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:2799-807 pubmed publisher
    ..These biologically important surface pili, which are antigenic in humans during endocarditis and encoded by a ubiquitous E. faecalis operon, may be a useful immunotarget for studies aimed at prevention and/or treatment of this pathogen...
  3. Dieye Y, Oxaran V, Ledue Clier F, Alkhalaf W, Buist G, Juillard V, et al. Functionality of sortase A in Lactococcus lactis. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:7332-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here on the functionality of SrtA to anchor five LPXTG substrates to the cell wall, thus suggesting that SrtA is the housekeeping sortase in L. lactis IL1403...
  4. Bentley M, Gaweska H, Kielec J, McCafferty D. Engineering the substrate specificity of Staphylococcus aureus Sortase A. The beta6/beta7 loop from SrtB confers NPQTN recognition to SrtA. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:6571-81 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the beta6/beta7 loop is an important site for substrate recognition in sortases. ..
  5. Marraffini L, Dedent A, Schneewind O. Sortases and the art of anchoring proteins to the envelopes of gram-positive bacteria. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2006;70:192-221 pubmed
    ..This review focuses on the mechanisms of surface protein anchoring to the cell wall envelope by sortases and the role that these enzymes play in bacterial physiology and pathogenesis. ..
  6. Antos J, Popp M, Ernst R, Chew G, Spooner E, Ploegh H. A straight path to circular proteins. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:16028-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that circular proteins can be made reversibly with excellent efficiency by means of a sortase-catalyzed cyclization reaction, requiring only minimal modification of the protein to be circularized. ..
  7. Parthasarathy R, Subramanian S, Boder E. Sortase A as a novel molecular "stapler" for sequence-specific protein conjugation. Bioconjug Chem. 2007;18:469-76 pubmed
    ..The highly specific and mild Sortase A-catalyzed reaction, based on small recognition tags unlikely to interfere with protein expression, thus represents a useful addition to the protein immobilization and modification tool kit. ..
  8. Wong C, Xu T, Rai R, Bailey A, Yates J, Wolf Y, et al. Global analysis of posttranslational protein arginylation. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e258 pubmed
    ..The results of our study suggest that protein arginylation is a general mechanism for regulation of protein structure and function and outline the potential role of protein arginylation in cell metabolism and embryonic development. ..
  9. Linke C, Young P, Kang H, Bunker R, Middleditch M, Caradoc Davies T, et al. Crystal structure of the minor pilin FctB reveals determinants of Group A streptococcal pilus anchoring. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:20381-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results indicate distinct structural elements in the pilin proteins that play a role in selecting for the appropriate sortases and thereby help orchestrate the ordered assembly of the pilus. ..

More Information


  1. Ramos J, Naya L, Gay M, Abian J, Becana M. Functional characterization of an unusual phytochelatin synthase, LjPCS3, of Lotus japonicus. Plant Physiol. 2008;148:536-45 pubmed publisher
  2. Marraffini L, Schneewind O. Targeting proteins to the cell wall of sporulating Bacillus anthracis. Mol Microbiol. 2006;62:1402-17 pubmed
    ..anthracis strain Ames. Unlike wild-type bacilli, srtC mutants do not readily form spores in guinea pig tissue or sheep blood unless their vegetative forms are exposed to air. ..
  3. Neiers F, Madhurantakam C, Fälker S, Manzano C, Dessen A, Normark S, et al. Two crystal structures of pneumococcal pilus sortase C provide novel insights into catalysis and substrate specificity. J Mol Biol. 2009;393:704-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Solving two crystal structures for SrtC suggests that an opening of a flexible lid and a concomitant cysteine rotation are important for catalysis and the activation of the catalytic cysteine of pilus-associated sortases. ..
  4. Seifert F, Schulz K, Koch B, Manhart S, Demuth H, Schilling S. Glutaminyl cyclases display significant catalytic proficiency for glutamyl substrates. Biochemistry. 2009;48:11831-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, glutaminyl cyclases are enzymes with only modest specificity for cyclization of their primary glutaminyl substrates and may provide a link between glutamate cyclization and pathophysiology. ..
  5. Scott J, Zahner D. Pili with strong attachments: Gram-positive bacteria do it differently. Mol Microbiol. 2006;62:320-30 pubmed
    ..This enzyme is encoded elsewhere on the genome. Because pili of Gram-positive bacteria have not been extensively investigated yet, we hope that this MicroReview will help to pinpoint the areas most in need of further study. ..
  6. Frankel B, Tong Y, Bentley M, Fitzgerald M, McCafferty D. Mutational analysis of active site residues in the Staphylococcus aureus transpeptidase SrtA. Biochemistry. 2007;46:7269-78 pubmed
    ..Potential explanations for these results are discussed, and a revised model for SrtA catalysis is presented. ..
  7. Schilling S, Appl T, Hoffmann T, Cynis H, Schulz K, Jagla W, et al. Inhibition of glutaminyl cyclase prevents pGlu-Abeta formation after intracortical/hippocampal microinjection in vivo/in situ. J Neurochem. 2008;106:1225-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The approach per se offers a strategy for a rapid evaluation of compounds targeting a reduction of pGlu formation at the N-terminus of amyloid peptides. ..
  8. Gasic K, Korban S. Expression of Arabidopsis phytochelatin synthase in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) plants enhances tolerance for Cd and Zn. Planta. 2007;225:1277-85 pubmed
    ..Moderate expression levels of phytochelatin synthase improved the ability of Indian mustard to tolerate certain levels of heavy metals, but at the same time did not increase the accumulation potential for Cd and Zn. ..
  9. Wu C, Mishra A, Reardon M, Huang I, Counts S, Das A, et al. Structural determinants of Actinomyces sortase SrtC2 required for membrane localization and assembly of type 2 fimbriae for interbacterial coaggregation and oral biofilm formation. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:2531-9 pubmed publisher
  10. Cozzi R, Malito E, Nuccitelli A, D Onofrio M, Martinelli M, Ferlenghi I, et al. Structure analysis and site-directed mutagenesis of defined key residues and motives for pilus-related sortase C1 in group B Streptococcus. FASEB J. 2011;25:1874-86 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, kinetic characterizations of recombinant enzymes indicate that the lid mutants can still recognize and cleave the substrate-mimicking peptide at least as well as the wild-type protein. ..
  11. Wojas S, Ruszczynska A, Bulska E, Clemens S, Antosiewicz D. The role of subcellular distribution of cadmium and phytochelatins in the generation of distinct phenotypes of AtPCS1- and CePCS3-expressing tobacco. J Plant Physiol. 2010;167:981-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that the key role of the PCs in Cd tolerance is temporary binding of Cd2+ in the cytosol, and contrary to the current view, their contribution to cadmium sequestration seems to be less important. ..
  12. Pritz S, Wolf Y, Kraetke O, Klose J, Bienert M, Beyermann M. Synthesis of biologically active peptide nucleic acid-peptide conjugates by sortase-mediated ligation. J Org Chem. 2007;72:3909-12 pubmed
    ..The synthesized conjugate exhibits dose-dependent antisense activity. ..
  13. Nobbs A, Rosini R, Rinaudo C, Maione D, Grandi G, Telford J. Sortase A utilizes an ancillary protein anchor for efficient cell wall anchoring of pili in Streptococcus agalactiae. Infect Immun. 2008;76:3550-60 pubmed publisher
  14. Tanaka T, Yamamoto T, Tsukiji S, Nagamune T. Site-specific protein modification on living cells catalyzed by Sortase. Chembiochem. 2008;9:802-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, site-specific protein-protein conjugation was successfully demonstrated on a living cell surface by the Sortase-catalyzed reaction. This strategy provides a powerful tool for cell biology and cell surface engineering. ..
  15. Fälker S, Nelson A, Morfeldt E, Jonas K, Hultenby K, Ries J, et al. Sortase-mediated assembly and surface topology of adhesive pneumococcal pili. Mol Microbiol. 2008;70:595-607 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, SrtD does not act as a pilus subunit polymerase, but instead is required for wild-type focal presentation of the pilus at the cell surface...
  16. Yamamura Y, Hirakawa H, Yamaguchi S, Nagamune T. Enhancement of sortase A-mediated protein ligation by inducing a ?-hairpin structure around the ligation site. Chem Commun (Camb). 2011;47:4742-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We successfully enhanced SrtA-mediated protein ligation through the formation of a ?-hairpin around the ligation site. ..
  17. Persson K. Structure of the sortase AcSrtC-1 from Actinomyces oris. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2011;67:212-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The asymmetric unit contains five AcSrtC-1 molecules and their catalytic Cys-His-Arg triads are trapped in two different conformations. It is also shown that the thermostability of the enzyme is increased by the presence of calcium...
  18. Popp M, Antos J, Ploegh H. Site-specific protein labeling via sortase-mediated transpeptidation. Curr Protoc Protein Sci. 2009;Chapter 15:Unit 15.3 pubmed publisher
  19. Ernst C, Staubitz P, Mishra N, Yang S, Hornig G, Kalbacher H, et al. The bacterial defensin resistance protein MprF consists of separable domains for lipid lysinylation and antimicrobial peptide repulsion. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000660 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study unravels crucial details on the molecular basis of an important bacterial immune evasion mechanism and it may help to employ MprF as a target for new anti-virulence drugs. ..
  20. Klein S, Lorenzo C, Hoffmann S, Walther J, Storbeck S, Piekarski T, et al. Adaptation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to various conditions includes tRNA-dependent formation of alanyl-phosphatidylglycerol. Mol Microbiol. 2009;71:551-65 pubmed publisher
    ..aeruginosa using lacZ reporter gene fusion under various pH conditions indicated a 4.4-fold acid-activated transcription. A phenotype microarray analysis was used to identify further conditions for A-PG function...
  21. Yang S, Nast C, Mishra N, Yeaman M, Fey P, Bayer A. Cell wall thickening is not a universal accompaniment of the daptomycin nonsusceptibility phenotype in Staphylococcus aureus: evidence for multiple resistance mechanisms. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:3079-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These data confirm that CW thickening is neither universal to DAPr S. aureus nor sufficient to yield the DAPr phenotype among S. aureus strains. ..
  22. Nobbs A, Vajna R, Johnson J, Zhang Y, Erlandsen S, Oli M, et al. Consequences of a sortase A mutation in Streptococcus gordonii. Microbiology. 2007;153:4088-97 pubmed
    ..These data therefore imply that in addition to its role in processing LPXTG-containing adhesins, sortase A has the novel function of contributing to transcriptional regulation of adhesin gene expression. ..
  23. Swaminathan A, Mandlik A, Swierczynski A, Gaspar A, Das A, Ton That H. Housekeeping sortase facilitates the cell wall anchoring of pilus polymers in Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Mol Microbiol. 2007;66:961-74 pubmed
  24. Hirakawa H, Ishikawa S, Nagamune T. Design of Ca2+-independent Staphylococcus aureus sortase A mutants. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2012;109:2955-61 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach will allow us to develop SaSrtA variants suitable for various applications, including in vivo site-specific protein modification and labeling. ..
  25. Jawhar S, Wirths O, Schilling S, Graubner S, Demuth H, Bayer T. Overexpression of glutaminyl cyclase, the enzyme responsible for pyroglutamate A{beta} formation, induces behavioral deficits, and glutaminyl cyclase knock-out rescues the behavioral phenotype in 5XFAD mice. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:4454-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These data clearly demonstrate that QC is crucial for modulating A?pE3-42 levels in vivo and prove on a genetic base the concept that reduction of QC activity is a promising new therapeutic approach for AD. ..
  26. Morawski M, Hartlage Rübsamen M, Jäger C, Waniek A, Schilling S, Schwab C, et al. Distinct glutaminyl cyclase expression in Edinger-Westphal nucleus, locus coeruleus and nucleus basalis Meynert contributes to pGlu-Abeta pathology in Alzheimer's disease. Acta Neuropathol. 2010;120:195-207 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results may explain the high vulnerability of defined subcortical neuronal populations and their central target areas in AD as a consequence of QC expression and pE-Abeta formation. ..
  27. Blum R, Meyer K, Wünschmann J, Lendzian K, Grill E. Cytosolic action of phytochelatin synthase. Plant Physiol. 2010;153:159-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, PCS contributes specifically to the cytosolic turnover of GS conjugates, and AtPCS1 plays the prominent role. We discuss a potential function of PCS in the cytosolic turnover of GS conjugates. ..
  28. Bräutigam A, Schaumlöffel D, Preud homme H, Thondorf I, Wesenberg D. Physiological characterization of cadmium-exposed Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Plant Cell Environ. 2011;34:2071-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, possible physiological reasons for the high abundance of CysPC compared with their canonic precursors are discussed. ..
  29. Ramos J, Clemente M, Naya L, Loscos J, Pérez Rontomé C, Sato S, et al. Phytochelatin synthases of the model legume Lotus japonicus. A small multigene family with differential response to cadmium and alternatively spliced variants. Plant Physiol. 2007;143:1110-8 pubmed
    ..These results unveil complex regulatory mechanisms of PCS expression in legume tissues in response to heavy metals and probably to other developmental and environmental factors. ..
  30. Ta H, Prabhu S, Leitner E, Jia F, von Elverfeldt D, Jackson K, et al. Enzymatic single-chain antibody tagging: a universal approach to targeted molecular imaging and cell homing in cardiovascular disease. Circ Res. 2011;109:365-73 pubmed publisher
    ..This unique biotechnological approach provides a versatile and broadly applicable tool for procuring targeted regenerative cell therapy and targeted molecular imaging in cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases and beyond. ..
  31. Schilling S, Wasternack C, Demuth H. Glutaminyl cyclases from animals and plants: a case of functionally convergent protein evolution. Biol Chem. 2008;389:983-91 pubmed publisher
    ..It is possible that the requirement for catalysis of pGlu formation under physiological conditions may have triggered separate evolution of QCs in plants and animals. ..
  32. Antos J, Miller G, Grotenbreg G, Ploegh H. Lipid modification of proteins through sortase-catalyzed transpeptidation. J Am Chem Soc. 2008;130:16338-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Lipoproteins prepared using these procedures were subsequently shown to associate with mammalian cells in a lipid tail-dependent fashion and localized to the plasma membrane and endosomes. ..
  33. Yamaguchi M, Terao Y, Ogawa T, Takahashi T, Hamada S, Kawabata S. Role of Streptococcus sanguinis sortase A in bacterial colonization. Microbes Infect. 2006;8:2791-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, they demonstrate that SrtA of S. sanguinis plays important roles in bacterial colonization. ..
  34. Stephan A, Wermann M, von Bohlen A, Koch B, Cynis H, Demuth H, et al. Mammalian glutaminyl cyclases and their isoenzymes have identical enzymatic characteristics. FEBS J. 2009;276:6522-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The functions of QCs and isoQC probably complement each other, suggesting a pivotal role of pyroglutamate modification for protein and peptide maturation. ..
  35. Konto Ghiorghi Y, Mairey E, Mallet A, Dumenil G, Caliot E, Trieu Cuot P, et al. Dual role for pilus in adherence to epithelial cells and biofilm formation in Streptococcus agalactiae. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000422 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, the VWA domain involved in adherence to epithelial cells was not required for biofilm formation...
  36. Hendrickx A, Budzik J, Oh S, Schneewind O. Architects at the bacterial surface - sortases and the assembly of pili with isopeptide bonds. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2011;9:166-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these isopeptide bonds endow these sortase products with adhesive properties and resistance to host proteases. ..
  37. LeMieux J, Hava D, Basset A, Camilli A. RrgA and RrgB are components of a multisubunit pilus encoded by the Streptococcus pneumoniae rlrA pathogenicity islet. Infect Immun. 2006;74:2453-6 pubmed
    ..Using transmission electron microscopy, cell fractionation, cell wall sorting signal domain swapping, and Western blotting, we show that RrgA and RrgB are incorporated into a multisubunit pilus in S. pneumoniae. ..
  38. Race P, Bentley M, Melvin J, Crow A, Hughes R, Smith W, et al. Crystal structure of Streptococcus pyogenes sortase A: implications for sortase mechanism. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:6924-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These new insights into sortase structure and function could have important consequences for inhibitor design. ..
  39. Schilling S, Zeitschel U, Hoffmann T, Heiser U, Francke M, Kehlen A, et al. Glutaminyl cyclase inhibition attenuates pyroglutamate Abeta and Alzheimer's disease-like pathology. Nat Med. 2008;14:1106-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The reduction of brain pE-Abeta by inhibition of glutaminyl cyclase offers a new therapeutic option for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and provides implications for other amyloidoses, such as familial Danish dementia. ..
  40. Dramsi S, Magnet S, Davison S, Arthur M. Covalent attachment of proteins to peptidoglycan. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2008;32:307-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on the role of enzymes that covalently link surface proteins to the peptidoglycan, the well-known sortases in Gram-positive bacteria, and the recently characterized l,d-transpeptidases in Gram-negative bacteria. ..
  41. O Callaghan J, Buttó L, Macsharry J, Nally K, O Toole P. Influence of adhesion and bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus salivarius on the intestinal epithelial cell transcriptional response. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:5196-203 pubmed publisher
    ..Sortase-anchored cell surface proteins of L. salivarius UCC118 have a central role in promoting the interaction between the bacterium and epithelial cells. ..
  42. Cynis H, Hoffmann T, Friedrich D, Kehlen A, Gans K, Kleinschmidt M, et al. The isoenzyme of glutaminyl cyclase is an important regulator of monocyte infiltration under inflammatory conditions. EMBO Mol Med. 2011;3:545-58 pubmed publisher
    ..The application of small, orally available inhibitors of glutaminyl cyclases represents an alternative therapeutic strategy to treat CCL2-driven disorders such as atherosclerosis/restenosis and fibrosis. ..
  43. Bolscher J, Oudhoff M, Nazmi K, Antos J, Guimaraes C, Spooner E, et al. Sortase A as a tool for high-yield histatin cyclization. FASEB J. 2011;25:2650-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The sortase-based cyclization technology provides a general method for easy and efficient manufacturing of large cyclic peptides. ..
  44. Weidenmaier C, KOKAI KUN J, Kulauzovic E, Kohler T, Thumm G, Stoll H, et al. Differential roles of sortase-anchored surface proteins and wall teichoic acid in Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization. Int J Med Microbiol. 2008;298:505-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies should be useful in the development of new preventive and therapeutic strategies. ..
  45. Rai R, Wong C, Xu T, Leu N, Dong D, Guo C, et al. Arginyltransferase regulates alpha cardiac actin function, myofibril formation and contractility during heart development. Development. 2008;135:3881-9 pubmed publisher
  46. Spirig T, Weiner E, Clubb R. Sortase enzymes in Gram-positive bacteria. Mol Microbiol. 2011;82:1044-59 pubmed publisher
    ..We also review recent data that suggest that sortases are targeted to specific sites on the cell surface where they work with other sortases and accessory factors to properly function. ..
  47. Schilling S, Kohlmann S, Bäuscher C, Sedlmeier R, Koch B, Eichentopf R, et al. Glutaminyl cyclase knock-out mice exhibit slight hypothyroidism but no hypogonadism: implications for enzyme function and drug development. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:14199-208 pubmed publisher
    ..The absence of significant abnormalities in QC knock-out mice suggests the presence of a therapeutic window for suppression of QC activity in current drug development. ..
  48. Clow F, Fraser J, Proft T. Immobilization of proteins to biacore sensor chips using Staphylococcus aureus sortase A. Biotechnol Lett. 2008;30:1603-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, the high specificity of the sortase allows immobilization of proteins from less than pure protein samples allowing short cuts in protein purification protocols. ..
  49. Bentley M, Lamb E, McCafferty D. Mutagenesis studies of substrate recognition and catalysis in the sortase A transpeptidase from Staphylococcus aureus. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:14762-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This model contradicts the previously proposed mechanism of binding predicted by the x-ray crystal structure of SrtA. ..
  50. Ogawa S, Yoshidomi T, Yoshimura E. Cadmium(II)-stimulated enzyme activation of Arabidopsis thaliana phytochelatin synthase 1. J Inorg Biochem. 2011;105:111-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A two-site mathematical model was applied successfully to account for the observed phenomena, supporting the suggestion that rAtPCS1 possesses two Cd(II) binding sites. ..
  51. Levary D, Parthasarathy R, Boder E, Ackerman M. Protein-protein fusion catalyzed by sortase A. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18342 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe use of this enzyme for in vitro protein ligation and report the successful fusion of 10 pairs of protein domains with preserved functionality--demonstrating the robust and facile nature of this reaction. ..
  52. Clancy K, Melvin J, McCafferty D. Sortase transpeptidases: insights into mechanism, substrate specificity, and inhibition. Biopolymers. 2010;94:385-96 pubmed publisher
    ..This review covers the current knowledge of the mechanism, substrate specificity, and inhibitory studies of the Gram-positive bacterial [corrected] enzyme sortase. ..
  53. Wu Z, Guo X, Wang Q, Swarts B, Guo Z. Sortase A-catalyzed transpeptidation of glycosylphosphatidylinositol derivatives for chemoenzymatic synthesis of GPI-anchored proteins. J Am Chem Soc. 2010;132:1567-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, this synthetic strategy may be useful for the preparation of more complex GPI-anchored peptides, glycopeptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. ..
  54. Egan S, Kurian D, Ward P, Hunt L, Leigh J. Identification of sortase A (SrtA) substrates in Streptococcus uberis: evidence for an additional hexapeptide (LPXXXD) sorting motif. J Proteome Res. 2010;9:1088-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of these sequences implied the presence of two anchoring motifs for S. uberis, the classical LPXTG motif and an additional LPXXXD motif...
  55. Guo J, Dai X, Xu W, Ma M. Overexpressing GSH1 and AsPCS1 simultaneously increases the tolerance and accumulation of cadmium and arsenic in Arabidopsis thaliana. Chemosphere. 2008;72:1020-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that such a stacking of modified genes is capable of increasing Cd and As tolerance and accumulation in transgenic lines, and represents a highly promising new tool for use in phytoremediation efforts. ..
  56. Carpio M, López Sambrooks C, Durand E, Hallak M. The arginylation-dependent association of calreticulin with stress granules is regulated by calcium. Biochem J. 2010;429:63-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that post-translational arginylation of retrotranslocated CRT, together with the decrease in intracellular Ca2+, promotes the association of CRT to SGs. ..
  57. Brulle F, Cocquerelle C, Wamalah A, Morgan A, Kille P, Leprêtre A, et al. cDNA cloning and expression analysis of Eisenia fetida (Annelida: Oligochaeta) phytochelatin synthase under cadmium exposure. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2008;71:47-55 pubmed
    ..Temporal- and dose-profiling of the transcriptional regulation of phytochelatin synthase and MT in response to cadmium was performed by using real-time PCR...
  58. Rosini R, Rinaudo C, Soriani M, Lauer P, Mora M, Maione D, et al. Identification of novel genomic islands coding for antigenic pilus-like structures in Streptococcus agalactiae. Mol Microbiol. 2006;61:126-41 pubmed
    ..We propose that pilus-like structures are important virulence factors and potential vaccine candidates. ..
  59. Proft T. Sortase-mediated protein ligation: an emerging biotechnology tool for protein modification and immobilisation. Biotechnol Lett. 2010;32:1-10 pubmed publisher
  60. LeMieux J, Woody S, Camilli A. Roles of the sortases of Streptococcus pneumoniae in assembly of the RlrA pilus. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:6002-13 pubmed publisher
  61. Cynis H, Schilling S, Bodnar M, Hoffmann T, Heiser U, Saido T, et al. Inhibition of glutaminyl cyclase alters pyroglutamate formation in mammalian cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1764:1618-25 pubmed
    ..Thus, QC-inhibition should impact bioactivity, stability or even toxicity of pyroglutamyl peptides preventing glutamine and glutamate cyclization. ..
  62. Cynis H, Kehlen A, Haegele M, Hoffmann T, Heiser U, Fujii M, et al. Inhibition of Glutaminyl Cyclases alleviates CCL2-mediated inflammation of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice. Int J Exp Pathol. 2013;94:217-25 pubmed publisher
  63. Yu W, Götz F. Cell wall antibiotics provoke accumulation of anchored mCherry in the cross wall of Staphylococcus aureus. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30076 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect is most likely due to antibiotic mediated increase of free anchoring sites (Lipid II) at the cross wall, the substrate of SrtA, leading to a preferential incorporation of anchored proteins at the cross wall...
  64. Dramsi S, Caliot E, Bonne I, Guadagnini S, Prevost M, Kojadinovic M, et al. Assembly and role of pili in group B streptococci. Mol Microbiol. 2006;60:1401-13 pubmed
    ..e. the putative anchor Gbs1474 or the adhesin Gbs1478. Adherence assays showed that Gbs1478 confers adhesive capacity to the pilus. This study provides the first evidence that adhesive pili are also present in Gram-positive pathogens. ..
  65. Suree N, Liew C, Villareal V, Thieu W, Fadeev E, Clemens J, et al. The structure of the Staphylococcus aureus sortase-substrate complex reveals how the universally conserved LPXTG sorting signal is recognized. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:24465-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the sortase-catalyzed anchoring reaction is required for the virulence of a number of bacterial pathogens, the results presented here may facilitate the development of new anti-infective agents. ..
  66. Grzam A, Tennstedt P, Clemens S, Hell R, Meyer A. Vacuolar sequestration of glutathione S-conjugates outcompetes a possible degradation of the glutathione moiety by phytochelatin synthase. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:6384-90 pubmed
    ..In the absence of elevated heavy metal concentrations glutathione-conjugates are therefore first sequestered to the vacuole and subsequently degraded with the initial breakdown step being rate-limiting. ..
  67. Huang K, Liaw S, Huang W, Chia C, Lo Y, Chen Y, et al. Structures of human Golgi-resident glutaminyl cyclase and its complexes with inhibitors reveal a large loop movement upon inhibitor binding. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:12439-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Because gQC and sQC may play different biological roles in vivo, the different inhibitor binding modes allow the design of specific inhibitors toward gQC and sQC. ..
  68. Chang C, Mandlik A, Das A, Ton That H. Cell surface display of minor pilin adhesins in the form of a simple heterodimeric assembly in Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Mol Microbiol. 2011;79:1236-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, C. diphtheriae employs a common sortase-catalysed mechanism involving lysine-mediated transpeptidation to generate both adhesive pilus and simple heterodimeric structures on the bacterial the cell wall...
  69. Gasic K, Korban S. Transgenic Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) plants expressing an Arabidopsis phytochelatin synthase (AtPCS1) exhibit enhanced As and Cd tolerance. Plant Mol Biol. 2007;64:361-9 pubmed
  70. Kline K, Kau A, Chen S, Lim A, Pinkner J, Rosch J, et al. Mechanism for sortase localization and the role of sortase localization in efficient pilus assembly in Enterococcus faecalis. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:3237-47 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that this positively charged domain can act as a localization retention signal for the focal compartmentalization of membrane proteins...
  71. Dedent A, McAdow M, Schneewind O. Distribution of protein A on the surface of Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:4473-84 pubmed
    ..A model is presented whereby protein A deposition at discrete sites coupled with cell wall synthesis enables distribution of protein A on the staphylococcal surface. ..
  72. Ferri Fioni M, Fromant M, Bouin A, Aubard C, Lazennec C, Plateau P, et al. Identification in archaea of a novel D-Tyr-tRNATyr deacylase. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:27575-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these observations suggest evolutionary links between the various hydrolases in charge of the recycling of metabolically inactive tRNAs during translation...
  73. Refaei M, Combs A, Kojetin D, Cavanagh J, CAPERELLI C, Rance M, et al. Observing selected domains in multi-domain proteins via sortase-mediated ligation and NMR spectroscopy. J Biomol NMR. 2011;49:3-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The resultant HSQC spectrum obtained from this domain-labeled conjugate demonstrates successful application of sortase A for segmental labeling of multi-domain proteins for solution NMR study. ..
  74. Karakozova M, Kozak M, Wong C, Bailey A, Yates J, Mogilner A, et al. Arginylation of beta-actin regulates actin cytoskeleton and cell motility. Science. 2006;313:192-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, posttranslational arginylation of a single protein target can regulate its intracellular function, inducing global changes on the cellular level, and may contribute to cardiovascular development and angiogenesis. ..
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    ..These results are important in understanding heavy metal detoxification mechanisms in higher plants, a step towards phytoremediated-applications. ..
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    ..In case of the L19 Fab fragment, it led to the covalent connection of the heavy and light chains. Both side reactions were effectively suppressed by sufficient concentrations of the oligoglycine probe. ..
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    ..These results suggested that SrPCS1 and SrPCS3 have potential applications in genetic engineering of plants for enhancing heavy metal tolerance and phytoremediation of contaminated soils. ..