phosphate acetyltransferase


Summary: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of acetylphosphate from acetyl-CoA and inorganic phosphate. Acetylphosphate serves as a high-energy phosphate compound. EC

Top Publications

  1. Kakuda H, Hosono K, Shiroishi K, Ichihara S. Identification and characterization of the ackA (acetate kinase A)-pta (phosphotransacetylase) operon and complementation analysis of acetate utilization by an ackA-pta deletion mutant of Escherichia coli. J Biochem. 1994;116:916-22 pubmed
    ..Complementation analyses revealed that both the acetate kinase and phosphotransacetylase were required for the rapid growth in the acetate medium. ..
  2. Tripathi S, Olson D, Argyros D, Miller B, Barrett T, Murphy D, et al. Development of pyrF-based genetic system for targeted gene deletion in Clostridium thermocellum and creation of a pta mutant. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:6591-9 pubmed publisher
    ..thermocellum, a microbe that holds an exciting and promising future in the biofuel industry and development of sustainable energy resources...
  3. Wanner B, Wilmes Riesenberg M. Involvement of phosphotransacetylase, acetate kinase, and acetyl phosphate synthesis in control of the phosphate regulon in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:2124-30 pubmed
    ..Further, it provides a functional basis for the concept of cross-regulation in the PHO regulon. This is also the first evidence that acetyl phosphate may have a role as an effector of gene regulation. ..
  4. Gupta S, Clark D. Escherichia coli derivatives lacking both alcohol dehydrogenase and phosphotransacetylase grow anaerobically by lactate fermentation. J Bacteriol. 1989;171:3650-5 pubmed
    ..The growth properties of strains carrying various mutations affecting the enzymes of fermentation are discussed in terms of redox balance. ..
  5. Anfora A, Halladin D, Haugen B, Welch R. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli CFT073 is adapted to acetatogenic growth but does not require acetate during murine urinary tract infection. Infect Immun. 2008;76:5760-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we demonstrate that CFT073 is adapted to acetate metabolism as a result of requiring a proper cycling of the acetyl phosphate pathway for colonization of the upper urinary tract. ..
  6. Chang D, Shin S, Rhee J, Pan J. Acetate metabolism in a pta mutant of Escherichia coli W3110: importance of maintaining acetyl coenzyme A flux for growth and survival. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:6656-63 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that E. coli excretes acetate due to the pyruvate flux from PTS and that any method which alleviates the oversupply of acetyl CoA would restore normal growth to the pta mutant. ..
  7. Walter K, Nair R, Cary J, Bennett G, Papoutsakis E. Sequence and arrangement of two genes of the butyrate-synthesis pathway of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Gene. 1993;134:107-11 pubmed
    ..The ptb and buk genes appear to form an operon. A putative Rho-independent terminator structure was identified 26 bp downstream from buk...
  8. Brown T, Jones Mortimer M, Kornberg H. The enzymic interconversion of acetate and acetyl-coenzyme A in Escherichia coli. J Gen Microbiol. 1977;102:327-36 pubmed
    ..An inducible acetyl-CoA synthetase [acetate: CoA ligase (AMP-forming); EC] effects this uptake of acetate. ..
  9. El Mansi M. Flux to acetate and lactate excretions in industrial fermentations: physiological and biochemical implications. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2004;31:295-300 pubmed
    ..The long-held view that flux to acetate and lactate excretions is merely a function of an 'over-flow' in central metabolism should, therefore, be re-evaluated. ..

More Information


  1. Castaño Cerezo S, Pastor J, Renilla S, Bernal V, Iborra J, Cánovas M. An insight into the role of phosphotransacetylase (pta) and the acetate/acetyl-CoA node in Escherichia coli. Microb Cell Fact. 2009;8:54 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, at an adaptive level, pta deficiency makes the strain more sensitive to environmental changes and de-regulates the central metabolism. ..
  2. Bock A, Glasemacher J, Schmidt R, Sch nheit P. Purification and characterization of two extremely thermostable enzymes, phosphate acetyltransferase and acetate kinase, from the hyperthermophilic eubacterium Thermotoga maritima. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:1861-7 pubmed
    b>Phosphate acetyltransferase (PTA) and acetate kinase (AK) of the hyperthermophilic eubacterium Thermotoga maritima have been purified 1,500- and 250-fold, respectively, to apparent homogeneity...
  3. Prüss B, Wolfe A. Regulation of acetyl phosphate synthesis and degradation, and the control of flagellar expression in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1994;12:973-84 pubmed
    ..We propose that cells regulate intracellular acetyl phosphate concentrations relative to growth phase and temperature by modulating the availability of acetyl-CoA, the expression of ackA, and the activity of phosphotransacetylase. ..
  4. Kumari S, Tishel R, Eisenbach M, Wolfe A. Cloning, characterization, and functional expression of acs, the gene which encodes acetyl coenzyme A synthetase in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:2878-86 pubmed
    ..coli enzyme activated acetate across a wide range of concentrations in a coenzyme A-dependent manner. On the basis of these and other observations, we conclude that this open reading frame encodes the acetate-activating enzyme, Acs. ..
  5. Xu H, Caimano M, Lin T, He M, Radolf J, Norris S, et al. Role of acetyl-phosphate in activation of the Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS pathway in Borrelia burgdorferi. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1001104 pubmed publisher
    ..phosphoryl-donor acetyl phosphate (acetyl?P), the intermediate of the Ack-Pta (acetate kinase-phosphate acetyltransferase) pathway that converts acetate to acetyl-CoA...
  6. Zhu Y, Yang S. Effect of pH on metabolic pathway shift in fermentation of xylose by Clostridium tyrobutyricum. J Biotechnol. 2004;110:143-57 pubmed
    ..Difference in the specific metabolic rate of xylose at different pHs suggests that the balance in NADH is a key in controlling the metabolic pathway used by the cells in the fermentation...
  7. Reinscheid D, Schnicke S, Rittmann D, Zahnow U, Sahm H, Eikmanns B. Cloning, sequence analysis, expression and inactivation of the Corynebacterium glutamicum pta-ack operon encoding phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase. Microbiology. 1999;145 ( Pt 2):503-13 pubmed publisher
  8. Ravagnani A, Jennert K, Steiner E, Grunberg R, Jefferies J, Wilkinson S, et al. Spo0A directly controls the switch from acid to solvent production in solvent-forming clostridia. Mol Microbiol. 2000;37:1172-85 pubmed
    ..Post-exponential phase expression from the mutagenized adc promoter was substantially reduced, whereas expression from the mutagenized ptb promoter was not shut down at the end of exponential growth. ..
  9. Galperin M, Grishin N. The synthetase domains of cobalamin biosynthesis amidotransferases cobB and cobQ belong to a new family of ATP-dependent amidoligases, related to dethiobiotin synthetase. Proteins. 2000;41:238-47 pubmed
    ..These results should help in understanding the enzymology of cobalamin biosynthesis and in resolving the role of phosphotransacetylase in regulation of the carbon flow to and from acetate. ..
  10. Sirobhushanam S, Galva C, Sen S, Wilkinson B, Gatto C. Broad substrate specificity of phosphotransbutyrylase from Listeria monocytogenes: A potential participant in an alternative pathway for provision of acyl CoA precursors for fatty acid biosynthesis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016;1861:1102-1110 pubmed publisher
  11. Berzin V, Kiriukhin M, Tyurin M. Cre-lox66/lox71-based elimination of phosphotransacetylase or acetaldehyde dehydrogenase shifted carbon flux in acetogen rendering selective overproduction of ethanol or acetate. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2012;168:1384-93 pubmed publisher
    ..005). The role of cell energy pool preservation for re-directed carbon flux is discussed. This is the first report on time- and cost-efficient gene elimination in acetogens using lox66/lox71 gene elimination system. ..
  12. Vadali R, Horton C, Rudolph F, Bennett G, San K. Production of isoamyl acetate in ackA-pta and/or ldh mutants of Escherichia coli with overexpression of yeast ATF2. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2004;63:698-704 pubmed
    ..The ackA-pta-nuo mutant had the highest intracellular CoA/acetyl-CoA level and hence produced the highest amount of ester (1.75 mM) during the growth phase under oxic conditions and during the production phase under anoxic conditions. ..
  13. Yang G, Liu G, Yang C. [Engineering and metabolic characteristics of a Clostridium tyrobutyricum strain]. Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2010;26:170-6 pubmed
    ..In the fermentation from glucose, the mutant's yield of butyric acid is 0.47, increased by 34% compared with wild type; and the yield of acetic acid is 0.05, decreased by 29% compared with wild type...
  14. Dittrich C, Bennett G, San K. Characterization of the acetate-producing pathways in Escherichia coli. Biotechnol Prog. 2005;21:1062-7 pubmed
    ..Results show that the ackA-pta pathway dominates in exponential phase, and the poxB pathway dominates in stationary phase. The ackA-pta pathway is repressed in acidic environments, whereas the poxB pathway is activated. ..
  15. Vazquez G, Pettinari M, Mendez B. Phosphotransbutyrylase expression in Bacillus megaterium. Curr Microbiol. 2001;42:345-9 pubmed
    ..PtbBm was capable of using butyryl-CoA and 2-methyl-propionyl CoA as substrates. ActBm, a final sigma54 regulator from B. megaterium whose gene is situated upstream from the ptb gene, activated its expression. ..
  16. Morya V, Dewaker V, Kim E. In silico study and validation of phosphotransacetylase (PTA) as a putative drug target for Staphylococcus aureus by homology-based modelling and virtual screening. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2012;168:1792-805 pubmed publisher
    ..The molecules were evaluated as no-carcinogenic and persistent molecule by START programme. ..
  17. James K, Rios Hernandez L, Wofford N, Mouttaki H, Sieber J, Sheik C, et al. Pyrophosphate-Dependent ATP Formation from Acetyl Coenzyme A in Syntrophus aciditrophicus, a New Twist on ATP Formation. MBio. 2016;7: pubmed publisher
    ..aciditrophicus However, the absence of homologs for phosphate acetyltransferase and acetate kinase in the genome of S...
  18. Hirokawa Y, Dempo Y, Fukusaki E, Hanai T. Metabolic engineering for isopropanol production by an engineered cyanobacterium, Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, under photosynthetic conditions. J Biosci Bioeng. 2017;123:39-45 pubmed publisher
    ..elongatus PCC 7942 into which we introduced the pta gene encoding phosphate acetyltransferase from Escherichia coli...
  19. Sharma R, Rani C, Mehra R, Nargotra A, Chib R, Rajput V, et al. Identification and characterization of novel small molecule inhibitors of the acetyltransferase activity of Escherichia coli N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate-uridyltransferase/glucosamine-1-phosphate-acetyltransferase (GlmU). Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2016;100:3071-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Compounds 5175178 and 5215319 exhibited antibacterial activity that co-related with GlmU inhibition. These compounds, therefore, represent novel chemical scaffolds targeting acetyltransferase activity of E. coli GlmU. ..
  20. Rasche M, Smith K, Ferry J. Identification of cysteine and arginine residues essential for the phosphotransacetylase from Methanosarcina thermophila. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:7712-7 pubmed
    ..Five arginines were individually replaced with glutamine. Kinetic analysis of the altered enzymes identified R310 as essential for activity. Of the four nonessential for activity, R87 and R133 appear to be involved in binding CoA...
  21. Liu S, Steinbuchel A. A novel genetically engineered pathway for synthesis of poly(hydroxyalkanoic acids) in Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2000;66:739-43 pubmed
    ..0% of the cell dry weight. Cells fed with 3HB, 4HB, and 4HV accumulated a terpolyester consisting of 85 mol% 3HB, 13 mol% 4HB, and 2 mol% 4HV and contributing to 68.4% of the cell dry weight...
  22. Liu X, Ferenci T. An analysis of multifactorial influences on the transcriptional control of ompF and ompC porin expression under nutrient limitation. Microbiology. 2001;147:2981-9 pubmed
    ..Indeed, multiple inputs and no single regulator were responsible for the high peak of ompF expression under glucose limitation. ..
  23. Dimou M, Venieraki A, Liakopoulos G, Katinakis P. Cloning, characterization and transcriptional analysis of two phosphate acetyltransferase isoforms from Azotobacter vinelandii. Mol Biol Rep. 2011;38:3653-63 pubmed publisher
    Acetate is abundant in soil contributing to a great extent on carbon cycling in nature. Phosphate acetyltransferase (Pta, EC 2.3.1...
  24. Breitkopf R, Uhlig R, Drenckhan T, Fischer R. Two propanediol utilization-like proteins of Moorella thermoacetica with phosphotransacetylase activity. Extremophiles. 2016;20:653-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In silico analysis underlined that up to now beside of M. thermoacetica, only Sporomusa ovata contains only PDUL like class(III)-PTAs but no other phosphotransacetylases or phosphotransbutyrylases (PTBs). ..
  25. Uematsu H, Hossain M, Alam T, Ikeda T, Kuvatanasuchati J, Hoshino E. Degradation of serine-containing oligopeptides by Peptostreptococcus micros ATCC 33270. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2007;22:381-3 pubmed
    ..such as serine dehydratase, pyruvate formate-lyase, formate dehydrogenase, pyruvate oxidoreductase, phosphate acetyltransferase, and acetate kinase, were detected in the cell-free extract, indicating that the organisms produced ATP ..
  26. Starai V, Takahashi H, Boeke J, Escalante Semerena J. Short-chain fatty acid activation by acyl-coenzyme A synthetases requires SIR2 protein function in Salmonella enterica and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2003;163:545-55 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that the Hst3 and Hst4 proteins are the most important for allowing growth on these short-chain fatty acids. ..
  27. Prüss B. Acetyl phosphate and the phosphorylation of OmpR are involved in the regulation of the cell division rate in Escherichia coli. Arch Microbiol. 1998;170:141-6 pubmed
    ..These data are consistent with the idea that the previously described effect of serine upon the cell division rate is mediated by acetyl phosphate and phosphorylation of OmpR. ..
  28. El Mansi M, Cozzone A, Shiloach J, Eikmanns B. Control of carbon flux through enzymes of central and intermediary metabolism during growth of Escherichia coli on acetate. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2006;9:173-9 pubmed
  29. Gao M, Tashiro Y, Wang Q, Sakai K, Sonomoto K. High acetone-butanol-ethanol production in pH-stat co-feeding of acetate and glucose. J Biosci Bioeng. 2016;122:176-82 pubmed publisher
    ..was found to drastically increase the activities of key enzymes involved in the acetate uptake (phosphate acetyltransferase and CoA transferase), acetone formation (acetoacetate decarboxylase), and butanol formation (butanol ..
  30. Yoo M, Croux C, Meynial Salles I, Soucaille P. Metabolic flexibility of a butyrate pathway mutant of Clostridium acetobutylicum. Metab Eng. 2017;40:138-147 pubmed publisher
    ..The results presented here not only support the key roles of buk and ptb in butyrate formation but also highlight the metabolic flexibility of C. acetobutylicum in response to genetic alteration of its primary metabolism. ..
  31. Valgepea K, Adamberg K, Nahku R, Lahtvee P, Arike L, Vilu R. Systems biology approach reveals that overflow metabolism of acetate in Escherichia coli is triggered by carbon catabolite repression of acetyl-CoA synthetase. BMC Syst Biol. 2010;4:166 pubmed publisher
    ..coli is triggered by Acs down-regulation resulting in decreased assimilation of acetic acid produced by Pta, and disruption of the PTA-ACS node. ..
  32. Dziadek B, Brzostek A, Grzybowski M, Fol M, Krupa A, Kryczka J, et al. Mycobacterium tuberculosis AtsG (Rv0296c), GlmU (Rv1018c) and SahH (Rv3248c) Proteins Function as the Human IL-8-Binding Effectors and Contribute to Pathogen Entry into Human Neutrophils. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0148030 pubmed publisher
    ..tuberculosis AtsG arylsulphatase, bifunctional glucosamine-1-phosphate acetyltransferase and N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate uridyl transferase (GlmU) and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase (..
  33. Meile L, Rohr L, Geissmann T, Herensperger M, Teuber M. Characterization of the D-xylulose 5-phosphate/D-fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase gene (xfp) from Bifidobacterium lactis. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:2929-36 pubmed publisher
    ..However, xfp is transcribed in B. lactis as a monocistronic operon. It is the first reported and sequenced gene of a phosphoketolase...
  34. Campos Bermudez V, Bologna F, Andreo C, Drincovich M. Functional dissection of Escherichia coli phosphotransacetylase structural domains and analysis of key compounds involved in activity regulation. FEBS J. 2010;277:1957-66 pubmed publisher
    ..coli mutant defective in acetyl-CoA synthetase and Pta, indicating that, although not regulated by metabolites, the Pta C-terminal domain is active in vivo. ..
  35. Kim S, Wilmes Riesenberg M, Wanner B. Involvement of the sensor kinase EnvZ in the in vivo activation of the response-regulator PhoB by acetyl phosphate. Mol Microbiol. 1996;22:135-47 pubmed
    ..Accordingly, we propose that the in vivo activation of PhoB by acetyl phosphate (and perhaps other two-component response-regulators as well) probably always requires a certain kinase that can vary depending upon the growth conditions. ..
  36. Garbacz K, Piechowicz L. Phage type 187 as a separate subunit MboI restriction site within the Staphylococcus aureus species. Curr Microbiol. 2013;66:578-81 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our findings regarding S. aureus phage type 187 reveal that within the population of strains of S. aureus species, these bacteria represent a group with distinct properties. ..
  37. Erbilgin O, Sutter M, Kerfeld C. The Structural Basis of Coenzyme A Recycling in a Bacterial Organelle. PLoS Biol. 2016;14:e1002399 pubmed publisher
    ..The PduL structure, in the context of the catalytic core, completes our understanding of the structural basis of cofactor recycling in the metabolosome lumen. ..
  38. Liu X, Zhu Y, Yang S. Construction and characterization of ack deleted mutant of Clostridium tyrobutyricum for enhanced butyric acid and hydrogen production. Biotechnol Prog. 2006;22:1265-75 pubmed
    ..43 g/g xylose) and lactate (0.61 g/g xylose) and little butyrate (0.05 g/g xylose), indicating a dramatic metabolic pathway shift caused by the ack deletion in the mutant...
  39. Hong J, Hunt A, Masters P, Lieberman M. Requirements of acetyl phosphate for the binding protein-dependent transport systems in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979;76:1213-7 pubmed
    In Escherichia coli, acetyl phosphate can be formed from acetyl-CoA via the phosphotransacetylase (phosphate acetyltransferase; acetyl-CoA:orthophosphate acetyltransferase, EC 2.3.1...
  40. Kakuda H, Shiroishi K, Hosono K, Ichihara S. Construction of Pta-Ack pathway deletion mutants of Escherichia coli and characteristic growth profiles of the mutants in a rich medium. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1994;58:2232-5 pubmed
    ..These results indicated that a pathway(s), other than the Pta-Ack pathway, functions in the control of excess carbon flow in the mutants. ..
  41. Phue J, Lee S, Kaufman J, Negrete A, Shiloach J. Acetate accumulation through alternative metabolic pathways in ackA (-) pta (-) poxB (-) triple mutant in E. coli B (BL21). Biotechnol Lett. 2010;32:1897-903 pubmed publisher
    ..It is likely that there are alternative acetate production pathways. ..
  42. Miyake M, Miyamoto C, Schnackenberg J, Kurane R, Asada Y. Phosphotransacetylase as a key factor in biological production of polyhydroxybutyrate. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2000;84-86:1039-44 pubmed
    ..A decrease in Pta activity probably causes some increase in acetyl-CoA as substrate for the PHB synthesis pathway, resulting in increased PHB accumulation. ..
  43. Palmfeldt J, Levander F, Hahn Hägerdal B, James P. Acidic proteome of growing and resting Lactococcus lactis metabolizing maltose. Proteomics. 2004;4:3881-98 pubmed
    ..Increased levels of alcohol-acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ADH) and phosphate acetyltransferase (PTA) in maltose-growing cells compared with glucose-growing cells coincided with formation of mixed ..
  44. Vazquez G, Pettinari M, Méndez B. Evidence of an association between poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) accumulation and phosphotransbutyrylase expression in Bacillus megaterium. Int Microbiol. 2003;6:127-9 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of Act(Bm), a sigma(54) regulator from B. megaterium whose gene is located upstream from ptb, caused an increase in Ptb activity and PHB accumulation in B. megaterium...
  45. Kim Y, Brinsmade S, Yang Z, Escalante Semerena J, Fierer J. Mutation of phosphotransacetylase but not isocitrate lyase reduces the virulence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in mice. Infect Immun. 2006;74:2498-502 pubmed
    ..Complementation of the pta mutation in trans restored virulence. An isocitrate lyase (aceA) mutant was virulent, so the inability to use acetate as a sole carbon source does not explain the phenotype. ..
  46. Davenport R, Pike V, Dowsett K, Turton D, Poole K. Automated chemoenzymatic synthesis of no-carrier-added [carbonyl-11C]propionyl L-carnitine for pharmacokinetic studies. Appl Radiat Isot. 1997;48:917-24 pubmed
    ..The [11C]PLC is suitable for pharmacokinetic studies in human subjects with PET and the elucidation of the fate of the propionyl group of PLC in vivo. ..
  47. Kim C, Falkow S. Delineation of upstream signaling events in the salmonella pathogenicity island 2 transcriptional activation pathway. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:4694-704 pubmed
    ..Additionally, EnvZ, but not acetyl phosphate, is required for maximal expression of SPI2 in the intracellular environment, suggesting that the in vitro SPI2 activation pathway is the same as that used in vivo. ..
  48. Nemeti B, Gregus Z. Mechanism of thiol-supported arsenate reduction mediated by phosphorolytic-arsenolytic enzymes: I. The role of arsenolysis. Toxicol Sci. 2009;110:270-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This hypothesis is evaluated in the adjoining paper. ..
  49. Johnson E, Srivastava R. Volatility in mRNA secondary structure as a design principle for antisense. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:e43 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that this strategy may provide a powerful new approach to antisense design. ..
  50. Lopez de Felipe F, Gaudu P. Multiple control of the acetate pathway in Lactococcus lactis under aeration by catabolite repression and metabolites. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;82:1115-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study strongly supports the model that, under aerobic conditions, the homolactic fermentation in L. lactis MG1363 is maintained by CcpA-mediated repression of mixed acid fermentation. ..
  51. Levine S, Ardeshir F, Ames G. Isolation and Characterization of acetate kinase and phosphotransacetylase mutants of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1980;143:1081-5 pubmed
    ..We selected mutants of both species with deletions covering both the ack and the pta genes; some deletions extended into the histidine transport operon. ..
  52. Shaw A, Covalla S, Hogsett D, Herring C. Marker removal system for Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum and development of a markerless ethanologen. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:2534-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The pta- and ack-based haloacetate selective strategy was subsequently used to create strain M0355, a markerless ?ldh ?pta ?ack strain that produces ethanol at a high yield...
  53. Jantama K, Zhang X, Moore J, Shanmugam K, Svoronos S, Ingram L. Eliminating side products and increasing succinate yields in engineered strains of Escherichia coli C. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2008;101:881-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Strains KJ122 and KJ134 produced near theoretical yields of succinate during simple, anaerobic, batch fermentations using mineral salts medium. Both may be useful as biocatalysts for the commercial production of succinate. ..
  54. Shin D. Preliminary structural studies on the MtxX protein from Methanococcus jannaschii. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2008;64:300-3 pubmed publisher
    ..9, b = 54.9, c = 341.1 A, beta = 120.0 degrees . A full structure determination is under way in order to provide insight into the structure-function relationship of this protein. ..
  55. Sharma S, Campbell J, Frisch D, Blattner F, Harcum S. Expression of two recombinant chloramphenicol acetyltransferase variants in highly reduced genome Escherichia coli strains. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2007;98:1056-70 pubmed
    ..Use of a non-catalytic CAT variant identified the recombinant protein activity as the source of this phenomenon; implications for the metabolic efficiency of the reduced genome strains are discussed. ..
  56. Brinsmade S, Escalante Semerena J. In vivo and in vitro analyses of single-amino acid variants of the Salmonella enterica phosphotransacetylase enzyme provide insights into the function of its N-terminal domain. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:12629-40 pubmed
    ..Pyruvate stimulated Pta(WT) activity, and its effect was potentiated in the variants, being most pronounced on Pta(R252H). ..
  57. Xu Q, Jancarik J, Lou Y, Kuznetsova K, Yakunin A, Yokota H, et al. Crystal structures of a phosphotransacetylase from Bacillus subtilis and its complex with acetyl phosphate. J Struct Funct Genomics. 2005;6:269-79 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the CoA is likely to bind to the interdomain cleft of Pta in a similar way as NADP+ binds to the other three enzymes...
  58. Brinsmade S, Escalante Semerena J. The eutD gene of Salmonella enterica encodes a protein with phosphotransacetylase enzyme activity. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:1890-2 pubmed
    ..High-pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry verified that acetyl-coenzyme A was the product of the reaction. The EutD protein restored growth of an S. enterica pta strain on acetate as the source of carbon and energy. ..
  59. Mizuno Y, Nagano Shoji M, Kubo S, Kawamura Y, Yoshida A, Kawasaki H, et al. Altered acetylation and succinylation profiles in Corynebacterium glutamicum in response to conditions inducing glutamate overproduction. Microbiologyopen. 2016;5:152-73 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first study investigating the acetylome and succinylome of C. glutamicum, and it provides new insight into the roles of acyl modifications in C. glutamicum biology. ..
  60. Li M, Zhang X, Agrawal A, San K. Effect of acetate formation pathway and long chain fatty acid CoA-ligase on the free fatty acid production in E. coli expressing acy-ACP thioesterase from Ricinus communis. Metab Eng. 2012;14:380-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we examined two potential screening methods for selecting and isolating high free fatty acids producing cells...
  61. Posada J, Cardona C, Gonzalez R. Analysis of the production process of optically pure D-lactic acid from raw glycerol using engineered Escherichia coli strains. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2012;166:680-99 pubmed publisher
    ..The lowest obtained total production cost was 1.015 US$/kg with a sale price/production cost ratio of 1.53. ..
  62. Brinsmade S, Paldon T, Escalante Semerena J. Minimal functions and physiological conditions required for growth of salmonella enterica on ethanolamine in the absence of the metabolosome. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:8039-46 pubmed
    ..We propose the metabolosome is needed to concentrate low levels of ethanolamine catabolic enzymes, to keep the level of toxic acetaldehyde low, to generate enough acetyl-CoA to support cell growth, and to maintain a pool of free CoA...
  63. Louis P, Duncan S, McCrae S, Millar J, Jackson M, Flint H. Restricted distribution of the butyrate kinase pathway among butyrate-producing bacteria from the human colon. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:2099-106 pubmed
  64. Sonderegger M, Schümperli M, Sauer U. Metabolic engineering of a phosphoketolase pathway for pentose catabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:2892-7 pubmed
    ..By combining the phosphoketolase pathway with the ald6 mutation, which reduced acetate formation, a strain with an ethanol yield 20% higher and a xylose fermentation rate 40% higher than those of its parent was engineered. ..
  65. Mohr G, Hong W, Zhang J, Cui G, Yang Y, Cui Q, et al. A targetron system for gene targeting in thermophiles and its application in Clostridium thermocellum. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e69032 pubmed publisher
  66. Lawrence S, Luther K, Schindelin H, Ferry J. Structural and functional studies suggest a catalytic mechanism for the phosphotransacetylase from Methanosarcina thermophila. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:1143-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Arg310 binds acetyl phosphate and orients it for optimal nucleophilic attack. The hypothesized mechanism proceeds through a negatively charged transition state stabilized by hydrogen bond donation from Ser309...
  67. Mitsch M, Cowie A, Finan T. Malic enzyme cofactor and domain requirements for symbiotic N2 fixation by Sinorhizobium meliloti. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:160-8 pubmed
    ..Our results have defined the symbiotic requirements for malic enzyme and raise the possibility that a constant high ratio of NADPH + H(+) to NADP in nitrogen-fixing bacteroids prevents TME from functioning in N(2)-fixing bacteroids. ..
  68. Leighton M, Kelly D, Williamson M, Shaw J. An NMR and enzyme study of the carbon metabolism of Neisseria meningitidis. Microbiology. 2001;147:1473-82 pubmed
    ..This may be related to the presence of two ackA paralogues in N. meningitidis which are, unusually, unlinked to the pta gene. ..
  69. Arndt A, Auchter M, Ishige T, Wendisch V, Eikmanns B. Ethanol catabolism in Corynebacterium glutamicum. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008;15:222-33 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that ethanol catabolism in C. glutamicum is subject to carbon source-dependent regulation, i.e., to a carbon catabolite control. ..
  70. Iyer P, Lawrence S, Luther K, Rajashankar K, Yennawar H, Ferry J, et al. Crystal structure of phosphotransacetylase from the methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina thermophila. Structure. 2004;12:559-67 pubmed publisher
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