choline o acetyltransferase


Summary: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC

Top Publications

  1. Hassani O, Lee M, Henny P, Jones B. Discharge profiles of identified GABAergic in comparison to cholinergic and putative glutamatergic basal forebrain neurons across the sleep-wake cycle. J Neurosci. 2009;29:11828-40 pubmed publisher
    ..GABAergic neurons would thus play similar or reciprocal roles to other cholinergic and glutamatergic BF neurons in regulating cortical activity and muscle tone along with behavior across sleep-wake states. ..
  2. Lips K, Luhrmann A, Tschernig T, Stoeger T, Alessandrini F, Grau V, et al. Down-regulation of the non-neuronal acetylcholine synthesis and release machinery in acute allergic airway inflammation of rat and mouse. Life Sci. 2007;80:2263-9 pubmed
  3. Wessler I, Bittinger F, Kamin W, Zepp F, Meyer E, Schad A, et al. Dysfunction of the non-neuronal cholinergic system in the airways and blood cells of patients with cystic fibrosis. Life Sci. 2007;80:2253-8 pubmed
  4. Slotkin T, MacKillop E, Ryde I, Tate C, Seidler F. Screening for developmental neurotoxicity using PC12 cells: comparisons of organophosphates with a carbamate, an organochlorine, and divalent nickel. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115:93-101 pubmed
  5. Song P, Sekhon H, Lu A, Arredondo J, Sauer D, Gravett C, et al. M3 muscarinic receptor antagonists inhibit small cell lung carcinoma growth and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation induced by acetylcholine secretion. Cancer Res. 2007;67:3936-44 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that M3R antagonists may be useful adjuvants for treatment of SCLC and, potentially, other cancers. ..
  6. Grau V, Wilker S, Lips K, Hartmann P, Rose F, Padberg W, et al. Administration of keratinocyte growth factor down-regulates the pulmonary capacity of acetylcholine production. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2007;39:1955-63 pubmed
  7. Duque A, Tepper J, Detari L, Ascoli G, Zaborszky L. Morphological characterization of electrophysiologically and immunohistochemically identified basal forebrain cholinergic and neuropeptide Y-containing neurons. Brain Struct Funct. 2007;212:55-73 pubmed
    ..The presence of local axon collaterals in both cholinergic and NPY neurons indicates that the BF is not a mere conduit for various brainstem inputs to the cortex, but a site where substantial local processing must take place. ..
  8. Finkelstein Y, Milatovic D, Aschner M. Modulation of cholinergic systems by manganese. Neurotoxicology. 2007;28:1003-14 pubmed
    ..These observations highlight the importance of studying the role of the CNS cholinergic systems in manganese-mediated neurotoxicity. ..
  9. Horn A, Eberhorn A, Hartig W, Ardeleanu P, Messoudi A, Büttner Ennever J. Perioculomotor cell groups in monkey and man defined by their histochemical and functional properties: reappraisal of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus. J Comp Neurol. 2008;507:1317-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The present results form the basis for addressing the appropriate functional cell groups in correlative clinicopathological studies. ..

More Information

Publications103 found, 100 shown here

  1. Bellier J, Kimura H. Acetylcholine synthesis by choline acetyltransferase of a peripheral type as demonstrated in adult rat dorsal root ganglion. J Neurochem. 2007;101:1607-18 pubmed
    ..Thus pChAT provides a new window on the role of neuronal acetylcholine. ..
  2. Contestabile A, Ciani E, Contestabile A. The place of choline acetyltransferase activity measurement in the "cholinergic hypothesis" of neurodegenerative diseases. Neurochem Res. 2008;33:318-27 pubmed
  3. Ryabinin A, Tsivkovskaia N, Ryabinin S. Urocortin 1-containing neurons in the human Edinger-Westphal nucleus. Neuroscience. 2005;134:1317-23 pubmed
  4. Baqri R, Charan R, Schimmelpfeng K, Chavan S, Ray K. Kinesin-2 differentially regulates the anterograde axonal transports of acetylcholinesterase and choline acetyltransferase in Drosophila. J Neurobiol. 2006;66:378-92 pubmed
    ..Altogether, these suggest that kinesin-2 independently transports AChE and ChAT within the same axon. It also implies that cargo availability could regulate the rate and frequency of transports by kinesin motors. ..
  5. Jameson R, Seidler F, Qiao D, Slotkin T. Chlorpyrifos affects phenotypic outcomes in a model of mammalian neurodevelopment: critical stages targeting differentiation in PC12 cells. Environ Health Perspect. 2006;114:667-72 pubmed
  6. Hayashi Y, Kawazoe Y, Sakamoto T, Ojima M, Wang W, Takazawa T, et al. Adenoviral gene transfer of hepatocyte growth factor prevents death of injured adult motoneurons after peripheral nerve avulsion. Brain Res. 2006;1111:187-95 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that HGF may prevent the degeneration of motoneurons in adult humans with motoneuron injury and motor neuron diseases. ..
  7. Tallini Y, Shui B, Greene K, Deng K, Doran R, Fisher P, et al. BAC transgenic mice express enhanced green fluorescent protein in central and peripheral cholinergic neurons. Physiol Genomics. 2006;27:391-7 pubmed
    ..Moreover, this genetic strategy allows the selective expression and conditional inactivation of genes of interest in cholinergic nerves of the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. ..
  8. Yamagata M, Weiner J, Dulac C, Roth K, Sanes J. Labeled lines in the retinotectal system: markers for retinorecipient sublaminae and the retinal ganglion cell subsets that innervate them. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2006;33:296-310 pubmed
    ..Our results define laminar-specified circuits from retina to brain and support a model in which RGCs transmit information from multiple sources to single central laminae, where it can be integrated. ..
  9. Jamal M, Ameno K, Ameno S, Morishita J, Wang W, Kumihashi M, et al. Changes in cholinergic function in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rat exposed to ethanol and acetaldehyde. Neuroscience. 2007;144:232-8 pubmed
  10. Scremin O, Li M, Roch M, Booth R, Jenden D. Acetylcholine and choline dynamics provide early and late markers of traumatic brain injury. Brain Res. 2006;1124:155-66 pubmed
    ..Choline acetyltransferase activity was reduced in the impact center region but not affected in the adjacent and contralateral regions or by craniotomy. ..
  11. Hoang T, Akhavan M, Wu J, Havton L. Minocycline protects motor but not autonomic neurons after cauda equina injury. Exp Brain Res. 2008;189:71-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that minocycline may protect degenerating motoneurons and expand the therapeutic window of opportunity for surgical repair of proximal root lesions affecting spinal motoneurons. ..
  12. Soret R, Chevalier J, de Coppet P, Poupeau G, Derkinderen P, Segain J, et al. Short-chain fatty acids regulate the enteric neurons and control gastrointestinal motility in rats. Gastroenterology. 2010;138:1772-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Butyrate or histone deacetylase inhibitors might be used, along with nutritional approaches, to treat various gastrointestinal motility disorders associated with inhibition of colonic transit. ..
  13. Shaw C, Petrik M. Aluminum hydroxide injections lead to motor deficits and motor neuron degeneration. J Inorg Biochem. 2009;103:1555-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The demonstrated neurotoxicity of aluminum hydroxide and its relative ubiquity as an adjuvant suggest that greater scrutiny by the scientific community is warranted...
  14. Ohno K, Ito M, Masuda A. [Molecular bases and therapeutic strategies in defective neuromuscular transmissions: lessons learned from a prototypical synapse]. Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi. 2009;29:145-51 pubmed
    ..We need to further pursue the molecular bases and the therapeutic strategies of defective neuromuscular transmissions, and hopefully expand our analysis to defective synapse transmissions in the central nervous system. ..
  15. Trecki J, Brailoiu G, Unterwald E. Localization of CXCR4 in the forebrain of the adult rat. Brain Res. 2010;1315:53-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that CXCR4 is expressed by subpopulations of cholinergic and GABAergic neurons in the striatum and suggest that CXCR4 is well-positioned to modulate striatal function. ..
  16. De Bartolo P, Cutuli D, Ricceri L, Gelfo F, Foti F, Laricchiuta D, et al. Does age matter? Behavioral and neuro-anatomical effects of neonatal and adult basal forebrain cholinergic lesions. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;20:207-27 pubmed publisher
  17. Guan J, Zhang R, Dale Gandar L, Hodgkinson S, Vickers M. NNZ-2591, a novel diketopiperazine, prevented scopolamine-induced acute memory impairment in the adult rat. Behav Brain Res. 2010;210:221-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggest that NNZ-2591 prevents scopolamine-induced acute impairment in memory and modulation of acetylcholine neurotransmission may be the mode of action underlying the memory improvement. ..
  18. Profita M, Bonanno A, Siena L, Bruno A, Ferraro M, Montalbano A, et al. Smoke, choline acetyltransferase, muscarinic receptors, and fibroblast proliferation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009;329:753-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that cigarette smoke might alter the expression of ChAT and MRs, promoting airway remodeling in COPD and that anticholinergic drugs, including tiotropium, might prevent these events. ..
  19. Zagoraiou L, Akay T, Martin J, Brownstone R, Jessell T, Miles G. A cluster of cholinergic premotor interneurons modulates mouse locomotor activity. Neuron. 2009;64:645-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, V0(C) interneurons represent a defined class of spinal cholinergic interneurons with an intrinsic neuromodulatory role in the control of locomotor behavior. ..
  20. Inokawa H, Yamada H, Matsumoto N, Muranishi M, Kimura M. Juxtacellular labeling of tonically active neurons and phasically active neurons in the rat striatum. Neuroscience. 2010;168:395-404 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the present study reveals that TANs are cholinergic neurons and that the majority of PANs are medium-sized, spiny, GABAergic projection neurons, while a smaller number are GABAergic interneurons. ..
  21. Artico M, Bronzetti E, Saso L, Felici L, D Ambrosio A, Forte F, et al. Immunohistochemical profile of some neurotransmitters and neurotrophins in the seminiferous tubules of rats treated by lonidamine. Eur J Histochem. 2007;51:19-24 pubmed
  22. Akpan N, Caradonna K, Chuenkova M, PereiraPerrin M. Chagas' disease parasite-derived neurotrophic factor activates cholinergic gene expression in neuronal PC12 cells. Brain Res. 2008;1217:195-202 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that T. cruzi invasion of the nervous system alters cholinergic gene expression and that could play a role in neuropathology, and/or lack thereof, in Chagas' disease patients. ..
  23. Dolga A, Granic I, Nijholt I, Nyakas C, Van der Zee E, Luiten P, et al. Pretreatment with lovastatin prevents N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced neurodegeneration in the magnocellular nucleus basalis and behavioral dysfunction. J Alzheimers Dis. 2009;17:327-36 pubmed publisher
    ..From these studies we conclude that treatment with lovastatin may provide protection against neuronal injury in excitotoxic conditions associated with neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease. ..
  24. Guo K, Zhu J, Yao Z, Gu H, Zou J, Li D. Chemical identification of nestin-immunoreactive neurons in the rat basal forebrain: a re-examination. Neurochem Int. 2010;56:694-702 pubmed publisher
    ..With high NGFR proteins activated in the nestin-ir neurons, we propose that the presence of nestin in the cholinergic neurons might be related to the survival and plasticity of the cholinergic neurons. ..
  25. Park G, Maeno Hikichi Y, Awano T, Landmesser L, Monani U. Reduced survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein in motor neuronal progenitors functions cell autonomously to cause spinal muscular atrophy in model mice expressing the human centromeric (SMN2) gene. J Neurosci. 2010;30:12005-19 pubmed publisher
    ..This realization is tempered by the relatively mild SMA phenotype in our model mice, one explanation for which is the presence of normal SMN levels in non-neuronal tissue that serves to modulate disease severity. ..
  26. Chung Davidson Y, Rees C, Bryan M, Li W. Neurogenic and neuroendocrine effects of goldfish pheromones. J Neurosci. 2008;28:14492-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first finding that links a specific pheromone molecule (PGF(2alpha)) to neurogenesis in a vertebrate animal. ..
  27. Salin P, López I, Kachidian P, Barroso Chinea P, Rico A, Gómez Bautista V, et al. Changes to interneuron-driven striatal microcircuits in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. Neurobiol Dis. 2009;34:545-52 pubmed publisher
  28. Motts S, Slusarczyk A, Sowick C, Schofield B. Distribution of cholinergic cells in guinea pig brainstem. Neuroscience. 2008;154:186-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The results provide a basis for further studies to characterize the connections of these cholinergic groups. ..
  29. Qu H, Zhang T, Li X, Zhou J, Zhao B, Li Q, et al. Transducible P11-CNTF rescues the learning and memory impairments induced by amyloid-beta peptide in mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;594:93-100 pubmed publisher
    ..It implies that the delivery of P11-CNTF may be a novel treatment for Alzheimer's disease. ..
  30. Liu Q, Huang Y, Xue F, Simard A, Dechon J, Li G, et al. A novel nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtype in basal forebrain cholinergic neurons with high sensitivity to amyloid peptides. J Neurosci. 2009;29:918-29 pubmed publisher
  31. Pettersson A, Nilsson L, Nylund G, Khorram Manesh A, Nordgren S, Delbro D. Is acetylcholine an autocrine/paracrine growth factor via the nicotinic alpha7-receptor subtype in the human colon cancer cell line HT-29?. Eur J Pharmacol. 2009;609:27-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that acetylcholine might serve as an autocrine/paracrine-or speculatively, even intracrine-signalling molecule in cell line HT-29, thus contributing to carcinogenesis/cancer progression. ..
  32. Penas C, Casas C, Robert I, Forés J, Navarro X. Cytoskeletal and activity-related changes in spinal motoneurons after root avulsion. J Neurotrauma. 2009;26:763-79 pubmed publisher
    ..This study presents a detailed description of motoneuron reaction after root avulsion, which suggests an early time-window during the first 2 weeks for attempts to repair the injury and promote motoneuron survival and regeneration...
  33. Monnet Tschudi F, Hazekamp A, Perret N, Zurich M, Mangin P, Giroud C, et al. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol accumulation, metabolism and cell-type-specific adverse effects in aggregating brain cell cultures. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2008;228:8-16 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the adverse effects of THC were related either to THC accumulation or to cannabinoid receptor activation and associated with IL-6 upregulation. ..
  34. Ragionieri L, Botti M, Gazza F, Bo Minelli L, Acone F, Panu R, et al. Double labelling immunohistochemical characterization of autonomic sympathetic neurons innervating the sow retractor clitoridis muscle. Eur J Histochem. 2008;52:29-38 pubmed
    ..The present study documents the complexity of the neurochemical interactions that regulate the activity of the smooth myocytes of the RCM and their vascular components. ..
  35. Uematsu N, Matsukawa N, Kanamori T, Arai Y, Sagisaka T, Toyoda T, et al. Overexpression of hippocampal cholinergic neurostimulating peptide in heterozygous transgenic mice increases the amount of ChAT in the medial septal nucleus. Brain Res. 2009;1305:150-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This result suggests that HCNP is involved in regulating acetylcholine synthesis in vivo in the medial septal nucleus and, as such, is important for memory function. ..
  36. Levin E, Timofeeva O, Yang L, Petro A, Ryde I, Wrench N, et al. Early postnatal parathion exposure in rats causes sex-selective cognitive impairment and neurotransmitter defects which emerge in aging. Behav Brain Res. 2010;208:319-27 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates the sex-selective, long-term behavioral alterations caused by otherwise nontoxic neonatal exposure to parathion, with effects increasingly expressed with aging. ..
  37. Lazarenko R, Willcox S, Shu S, Berg A, Jevtovic Todorovic V, Talley E, et al. Motoneuronal TASK channels contribute to immobilizing effects of inhalational general anesthetics. J Neurosci. 2010;30:7691-704 pubmed publisher
  38. Yis U, Kurul S, Oztura I, Ozden O, Akinci G, Dirik E. Temporary diazepam responsive apneic attacks and congenital myasthenic syndrome. J Child Neurol. 2009;24:895-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, the patient had myopathic findings on electromyography and diazepam decreased severity of apneic attacks. There was also no improvement with esterase inhibitors. ..
  39. Phillips P, Yang L, Shulkes A, Vonlaufen A, Poljak A, Bustamante S, et al. Pancreatic stellate cells produce acetylcholine and may play a role in pancreatic exocrine secretion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:17397-402 pubmed publisher
    ..CCK stimulates ACh secretion by PSCs, which, in turn, induces amylase secretion by acini. Therefore, PSCs may represent a previously unrecognized intrapancreatic pathway regulating CCK-induced pancreatic exocrine secretion...
  40. Ducray A, Schläppi J, Qualls R, Andres R, Seiler R, Schlattner U, et al. Creatine treatment promotes differentiation of GABA-ergic neuronal precursors in cultured fetal rat spinal cord. J Neurosci Res. 2007;85:1863-75 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that creatine may play a critical role during development of spinal cord neurons. ..
  41. Cui Q, Yung W, Xue Y, Chen L. Substance P excites globus pallidus neurons in vivo. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;26:1853-61 pubmed
    ..Combining electrophysiological and behavioural findings, we concluded that substance P produces excitatory effects on globus pallidus neurons via neurokinin-1 receptors. ..
  42. Marina N, Becker D, Gilbey M. Immunohistochemical detection of connexin36 in sympathetic preganglionic and somatic motoneurons in the adult rat. Auton Neurosci. 2008;139:15-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of Cx36 in ChAT-ir neurons is consistent with electrical coupling between sympathetic preganglionic motoneurons and between somatic motoneurons through gap junctions in the adult spinal cord. ..
  43. Bensoussan H, Grancolas L, Dhieux Lestaevel B, Delissen O, Vacher C, Dublineau I, et al. Heavy metal uranium affects the brain cholinergic system in rat following sub-chronic and chronic exposure. Toxicology. 2009;261:59-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that the cholinergic system is a target of uranium exposure in a structure-dependent and time-dependent manner. These cholinergic alterations could participate in behavioural impairments...
  44. Naghdi M, Tiraihi T, Mesbah Namin S, Arabkheradmand J. Induction of bone marrow stromal cells into cholinergic-like cells by nerve growth factor. Iran Biomed J. 2009;13:117-23 pubmed
    ..BME as pre-inducer and NGF as inducer for BMSC transdifferentiation into cholinergic phenotype are potential sources in traumatic injury therapy in the central nervous system. ..
  45. Islamov R, Tyapkina O, Bukharaeva E, Yagodina L, Ibragimova N, Valiullina V, et al. Expression of choline acetyltransferase in rat spinal motoneurons after antiorthostatic suspension. Dokl Biol Sci. 2007;414:205-7 pubmed
  46. Herring N, Lokale M, Danson E, Heaton D, Paterson D. Neuropeptide Y reduces acetylcholine release and vagal bradycardia via a Y2 receptor-mediated, protein kinase C-dependent pathway. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2008;44:477-85 pubmed
    ..These results show that NPY attenuates vagal bradycardia via a pre-synaptic decrease in acetylcholine release that appears to be mediated by a Y2 receptor pathway involving modulation of PKC. ..
  47. Chang Q, Martin L. Glycinergic innervation of motoneurons is deficient in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mice: a quantitative confocal analysis. Am J Pathol. 2009;174:574-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, either the selective loss of inhibitory glycinergic regulation of motoneuron function or glycinergic interneuron degeneration contributes to motoneuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. ..
  48. Kaneda M, Ito K, Shigematsu Y, Shimoda Y. The OFF-pathway dominance of P2X(2)-purinoceptors is formed without visual experience. Neurosci Res. 2010;66:86-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that the OFF-pathway dominance of P2X(2)-signaling in the mouse retina is intrinsically programmed. ..
  49. Søviknes A, Chourrout D, Glover J. Development of the caudal nerve cord, motoneurons, and muscle innervation in the appendicularian urochordate Oikopleura dioica. J Comp Neurol. 2007;503:224-43 pubmed
  50. Chen Y, Dyakin V, Branch C, Ardekani B, Yang D, Guilfoyle D, et al. In vivo MRI identifies cholinergic circuitry deficits in a Down syndrome model. Neurobiol Aging. 2009;30:1453-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These results establish the utility of quantitative MRI in vivo for identifying Alzheimer's disease-relevant cholinergic changes in animal models of DS and characterizing the selective vulnerability of cholinergic neuron subpopulations. ..
  51. Schmidt T, Kofuji P. Functional and morphological differences among intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. J Neurosci. 2009;29:476-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate morphological and functional heterogeneity among ipRGCs. ..
  52. Lee H, Jakovcevski I, Radonjic N, Hoelters L, Schachner M, Irintchev A. Better functional outcome of compression spinal cord injury in mice is associated with enhanced H-reflex responses. Exp Neurol. 2009;216:365-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations support the view that plasticity of spinal circuitries underlies specific aspects of motor recovery and demonstrate the usefulness of H-reflex analyses in studies on spinal cord injury in mice. ..
  53. Schreyer S, Buttner Ennever J, Tang X, Mustari M, Horn A. Orexin-A inputs onto visuomotor cell groups in the monkey brainstem. Neuroscience. 2009;164:629-40 pubmed publisher
    ..However orexin-A does not directly modulate premotor pathways for saccades or the singly-innervated muscle fibre motoneurons. ..
  54. Rosi M, Luccarini I, Grossi C, Fiorentini A, Spillantini M, Prisco A, et al. Increased Dickkopf-1 expression in transgenic mouse models of neurodegenerative disease. J Neurochem. 2010;112:1539-51 pubmed publisher
  55. Sanagi T, Yabe T, Yamada H. Adenoviral gene delivery of pigment epithelium-derived factor protects striatal neurons from quinolinic acid-induced excitotoxicity. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2010;69:224-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide the first evidence that PEDF and its deletion mutant PEDFDelta78-121 are effective in protecting CNS neurons against excitotoxicity in vivo. ..
  56. Wolf M, Schrödl F, Neuhuber W, Brehmer A. Calcitonin gene-related peptide: a marker for putative primary afferent neurons in the pig small intestinal myenteric plexus?. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2007;290:1273-9 pubmed
    ..In case of single cell evaluation, CGRP-immunoreactivity alone is not suited as a marker. In such cases additional, morphological analysis is necessary. ..
  57. Hinrichs J, Llewellyn Smith I. Variability in the occurrence of nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity in different populations of rat sympathetic preganglionic neurons. J Comp Neurol. 2009;514:492-506 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that there are no anatomical differences between nitric oxide-synthesizing SPN in normotensive SD and hypertensive SHR...
  58. McAuley J, Stewart A, Webber E, Cromwell H, Servatius R, Pang K. Wistar-Kyoto rats as an animal model of anxiety vulnerability: support for a hypervigilance hypothesis. Behav Brain Res. 2009;204:162-8 pubmed publisher
  59. Pieters R, Gravett N, Fuxe K, Manger P. Nuclear organization of cholinergic, putative catecholaminergic and serotonergic nuclei in the brain of the eastern rock elephant shrew, Elephantulus myurus. J Chem Neuroanat. 2010;39:175-88 pubmed publisher
    ..These neurons may then function to increase attention to this type of acoustic signal termed foot drumming. ..
  60. Kang B, Chang D, Mackay D, West G, Moreira T, Takakura A, et al. Central nervous system distribution of the transcription factor Phox2b in the adult rat. J Comp Neurol. 2007;503:627-41 pubmed
    ..Phox2b is virtually absent from the respiratory rhythm and pattern generator (VRC and dorsolateral pons) but is highly expressed by neurons involved in the chemical drive and reflex regulation of this oscillator. ..
  61. Pascual A, Hidalgo Figueroa M, Piruat J, Pintado C, Gómez Díaz R, Lopez Barneo J. Absolute requirement of GDNF for adult catecholaminergic neuron survival. Nat Neurosci. 2008;11:755-61 pubmed publisher
    ..These data unequivocally demonstrate that GDNF is indispensable for adult catecholaminergic neuron survival and also show that, under physiologic conditions, downregulation of a single trophic factor can produce massive neuronal death. ..
  62. Sun X, Xu C, Leclerc P, Benoit G, Giuliano F, Droupy S. Spinal neurons involved in the control of the seminal vesicles: a transsynaptic labeling study using pseudorabies virus in rats. Neuroscience. 2009;158:786-97 pubmed publisher
  63. Baldassano S, Liu S, Qu M, Mulè F, Wood J. Glucagon-like peptide-2 modulates neurally evoked mucosal chloride secretion in guinea pig small intestine in vitro. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;297:G800-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that submucosal neurons in the guinea pig ileum express GLP-2R. Activation of GLP-2R decreases neuronally evoked epithelial chloride secretion by suppressing acetylcholine release from secretomotor neurons. ..
  64. Shabani R, Islami H, Bexheti S, Zeqiri F, Dacaj R, Kurtishi I, et al. The study of volume density of tracheal ganglions in vitro in new born babies with respiratory distress syndrome. Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2009;9:335-41 pubmed
    ..Medium diameter of tracheal ganglions is greater in mature newborn babies and corresponds to developmental ages of babies. ..
  65. Morona R, Moreno N, Lopez J, González A. Comparative analysis of calbindin D-28K and calretinin in the retina of anuran and urodele amphibians: Colocalization with choline acetyltransferase and tyrosine hydroxylase. Brain Res. 2007;1182:34-49 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest a specific pattern for CB and CR distribution in the retinal neurons of amphibians comparable to amniotes in some cell types showing, however, peculiar features not observed previously in other vertebrates. ..
  66. Heitjan D, Guo M, Ray R, Wileyto E, Epstein L, Lerman C. Identification of pharmacogenetic markers in smoking cessation therapy. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2008;147B:712-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In a panel of 43 randomly selected control SNPs, none is significant by either the Bayesian or the corrected frequentist test. ..
  67. Al Zi abi M, Bowolaksono A, Okuda K. Survival role of locally produced acetylcholine in the bovine corpus luteum. Biol Reprod. 2009;80:823-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The overall findings strongly suggest a nonneural source and antiapoptotic role of ACH in the bovine CL. Locally produced ACH appears to be regulated by NGF, IGF1, and TGFB1. ..
  68. Slotkin T, Seidler F. Benzo[a]pyrene impairs neurodifferentiation in PC12 cells. Brain Res Bull. 2009;80:17-21 pubmed publisher
    ..BaP thus has direct actions on developing neuronal cells that could contribute to the adverse neurodevelopmental effects seen with in vivo exposures. ..
  69. Kong X, Wienecke J, Hultborn H, Zhang M. Robust upregulation of serotonin 2A receptors after chronic spinal transection of rats: an immunohistochemical study. Brain Res. 2010;1320:60-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the upregulation of 5-HT2A receptors at least partly underlies the 5-HT denervation supersensitivity of spinal motoneurons after a complete spinal transection. ..
  70. Zhu Y, Lee C, Lam W, Wai M, Rudd J, Yew D. Cell death in the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum of senescence accelerated mouse (SAMP(8)). Biogerontology. 2007;8:537-44 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the data suggests that the aging SAMP(8) strain displays differential Purkinje cell death in the medial cerebellum and that some of the dying cells are likely to be catecholaminergic. ..
  71. Raheja G, Gill K. Altered cholinergic metabolism and muscarinic receptor linked second messenger pathways after chronic exposure to dichlorvos in rat brain. Toxicol Ind Health. 2007;23:25-37 pubmed
  72. Brown R, Perna M, Maple A, Wilson T, Miller B. Adulthood olanzapine treatment fails to alleviate decreases of ChAT and BDNF RNA expression in rats quinpirole-primed as neonates. Brain Res. 2008;1200:66-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Although olanzapine alleviated cognitive deficits produced by neonatal quinpirole treatment, it did not affect expression of proteins known to be important in cognitive performance. ..
  73. Gibbs R, Mauk R, Nelson D, Johnson D. Donepezil treatment restores the ability of estradiol to enhance cognitive performance in aged rats: evidence for the cholinergic basis of the critical period hypothesis. Horm Behav. 2009;56:73-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Whether donepezil has similar restorative effects on other estrogen-sensitive tasks needs to be explored. ..
  74. Savonenko A, Munoz P, Melnikova T, Wang Q, Liang X, Breyer R, et al. Impaired cognition, sensorimotor gating, and hippocampal long-term depression in mice lacking the prostaglandin E2 EP2 receptor. Exp Neurol. 2009;217:63-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that PGE(2) signaling via the EP2 receptors plays an important role in cognitive and emotional behaviors that recapitulate some aspects of human psychopathology related to schizophrenia. ..
  75. Li M, Wang Y, Ma B, Liu G, Zhang J. [Effect and mechanism of Coeloglossum viride var. bracteatum extract on scopolamine-induced deficits of learning and memory behavior of rodents]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2009;44:468-72 pubmed
    ..These results suggested that CE could alleviate scopolamine-induced learning and memory deficits, which might be due to the LTP-improvement and ChAT activity enhancement. ..
  76. Zhao Z, Zhao S, Xu N, Yu C, Guan S, Liu X, et al. Lovastatin improves neurological outcome after nucleus basalis magnocellularis lesion in rats. Neuroscience. 2010;167:954-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Statins may be useful in the treatment of neurological disorders. ..
  77. Schnitzler A, Mellott T, Lopez Coviella I, Tallini Y, Kotlikoff M, Follettie M, et al. BMP9 (bone morphogenetic protein 9) induces NGF as an autocrine/paracrine cholinergic trophic factor in developing basal forebrain neurons. J Neurosci. 2010;30:8221-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggest an autocrine/paracrine role for NGF in the development and/or maintenance of BFCN and imply that the stimulation of NGF production and release contributes to the cholinergic-supportive properties of BMP9. ..
  78. McCartney A, Abejuela V, Isaacson L. Characterization of trkB immunoreactive cells in the intermediolateral cell column of the rat spinal cord. Neurosci Lett. 2008;440:103-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, there is evidence that NGF may play a role in the regulation of trkB-ir preganglionic neurons in the IML. ..
  79. Hassel B, Solyga V, Lossius A. High-affinity choline uptake and acetylcholine-metabolizing enzymes in CNS white matter. A quantitative study. Neurochem Int. 2008;53:193-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, this finding suggests that acetylcholine esterase inhibitors used in Alzheimer's disease may have an effect in white matter. ..
  80. Wang M, Wen H, Brehm P. Function of neuromuscular synapses in the zebrafish choline-acetyltransferase mutant bajan. J Neurophysiol. 2008;100:1995-2004 pubmed publisher
    ..These differences have important implications for interpreting fatigue as well as on understanding the impact of ACh availability on vesicle filling and recycling. ..
  81. Massouh M, Wallman M, Pourcher E, Parent A. The fate of the large striatal interneurons expressing calretinin in Huntington's disease. Neurosci Res. 2008;62:216-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our data suggest that neurodegenerative processes at play in HD affect the expression of Cr and ChAT in the large striatal interneurons without causing their death. ..
  82. Wang Z, Liu Q, Zhang R, Liu S, Xia Z, Hu Y. Catalpol ameliorates beta amyloid-induced degeneration of cholinergic neurons by elevating brain-derived neurotrophic factors. Neuroscience. 2009;163:1363-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Whether catalpol could reverse the neurodegenerative changes already present before its application remains to be further studied. ..
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    ..The toxicity of BMAA to total septal neurons involved activation of N-methyl D-aspartate receptors, whereas the death of cholinergic neurons was mediated by AMPA/kainate receptors. ..
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    ..There was no change in the proportion of this type of neuron with age. Definitive establishment of the neurotransmitter composition in the sympathetic ganglia studied here occurred by the end of the first month of life. ..
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    ..We suggest that these dorsomedial GABAergic interneurons are involved in spinal locomotor networks, and may provide direct rhythmic inhibitory input to motoneurons during locomotion. ..
  86. Abreu Villaca Y, Filgueiras C, Guthierrez M, Medeiros A, Mattos M, Pereira M, et al. Exposure to tobacco smoke containing either high or low levels of nicotine during adolescence: differential effects on choline uptake in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Nicotine Tob Res. 2010;12:776-80 pubmed publisher
    ..001). Our results indicate that tobacco smoke exposure during adolescence increases [(3)H]choline uptake. However, the effects are dependent on the type of cigarette and on the brain region. ..
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    ..Undernutrition affected P2X(2) receptor expression in the submucosal plexus, and neuronal and size. These changes were rescued in the re-fed rats. ..
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    ..It is anticipated that obstructive sleep apnea results in endoplasmic reticulum injury involving motoneurons, whereas a critical balance of phosphorylated eIF-2a should minimize motoneuronal injury in obstructive sleep apnea. ..
  89. Kummer W, Lips K, Pfeil U. The epithelial cholinergic system of the airways. Histochem Cell Biol. 2008;130:219-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The cell type-specific molecular diversity of the epithelial ACh synthesis and release machinery implies that it is differently regulated than neuronal ACh release and can be specifically targeted by appropriate drugs. ..
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    ..These results indicate that hNPCs may prove to be candidate cells for therapeutic SCI strategies. ..
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