chloramphenicol o acetyltransferase


Summary: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC

Top Publications

  1. Baldridge G, Burkhardt N, Herron M, Kurtti T, Munderloh U. Analysis of fluorescent protein expression in transformants of Rickettsia monacensis, an obligate intracellular tick symbiont. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:2095-105 pubmed
    ..monacensis. We demonstrated that our vectors provide a means to study rickettsia-host cell interactions by visualizing GFPuv-fluorescent R. monacensis associated with actin tails in tick host cells. ..
  2. Nieto A, Guillermo Pérez D, Orozco E, Paz F, Gomez C. Entamoeba histolytica EhPgp5 transcriptional activation depends on putative emetine response elements. Exp Parasitol. 2005;110:233-7 pubmed
  3. Mayer C, Köhrer C, Kenny E, Prusko C, RajBhandary U. Anticodon sequence mutants of Escherichia coli initiator tRNA: effects of overproduction of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, methionyl-tRNA formyltransferase, and initiation factor 2 on activity in initiation. Biochemistry. 2003;42:4787-99 pubmed
    ..Other results suggest that the C1xA72 base pair mismatch, unique to eubacterial and organellar initiator tRNAs, may also be important for the binding of fAA-tRNA to IF2. ..
  4. Ramirez M, Perez D, Nader E, Gomez C. Entamoeba histolytica: functional characterization of the -234 to -196 bp promoter region of the multidrug resistance EhPgp1 gene. Exp Parasitol. 2005;110:238-43 pubmed
    ..Finally, we partially purified three proteins of 64.4, 56.7, and 27.4 kDa. Further investigations are currently in progress to determine the identity of these nuclear factors and how they are interacting with the EhPgp1 gene promoter. ..
  5. Azuara Liceaga E, Flores Soto E, López Camarillo C, Orozco E. Entamoeba histolytica: structural and functional analysis of the Ehadh112 gene promoter. Exp Parasitol. 2005;110:280-5 pubmed
    ..Transcription initiation sites (-69 and -150 bp), TATA like box, GAAC, and Inr elements, as well as putative DNA binding motifs, were mapped in the -1 to -469 bp core promoter region. ..
  6. Flores Soto E, Azuara Liceaga E, López Camarillo C, Orozco E. The Entamoeba histolytica Ehcp112 gene has a distal and weak promoter. Exp Parasitol. 2005;110:286-91 pubmed
    ..Our results showed the presence of a distal and weak promoter in the Ehcp112 gene. The active DNA region is inside the open reading frame of the Ehrab B gene, suggesting that expression of both genes could be coordinately regulated. ..
  7. Yew N, Zhao H, Przybylska M, Wu I, Tousignant J, Scheule R, et al. CpG-depleted plasmid DNA vectors with enhanced safety and long-term gene expression in vivo. Mol Ther. 2002;5:731-8 pubmed
    ..This combination of decreased toxicity and sustained expression suggests that CpG-depleted pDNA vectors can greatly improve the safety and efficacy of synthetic gene delivery systems. ..
  8. Figueroa Angulo E, MARTINEZ CALVILLO S, López Villaseñor I, Hernandez R. Evidence supporting a major promoter in the Trypanosoma cruzi rRNA gene. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2003;225:221-5 pubmed
    ..The data here presented should be valuable in the design of expression vectors for T. cruzi, where the rRNA gene promoter has been an important functional element. ..
  9. Wang S, Yu X, Zhang T, Zhang X, Zhang Z, Chen Y. Chick Pcl2 regulates the left-right asymmetry by repressing Shh expression in Hensen's node. Development. 2004;131:4381-91 pubmed

More Information

Publications109 found, 100 shown here

  1. Hong Y, Yu S, Yoon N, Kang S, Lee J, Kim S, et al. Development of an in vitro cell culture assay system for measuring the activation of a neighbouring gene by the retroviral vector. J Gene Med. 2008;10:847-54 pubmed publisher
    ..This assay system might provide a useful tool for selecting the appropriate vector structure, as well as for studying the molecular mechanism underlying the cis-activation by the viral LTR. ..
  2. Lin G, Xiao J, Qiu Y, Wang C, Tian Y, Zhao S. [Primary functional analysis of CK13 gene 5' flanking region]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 2004;21:35-8 pubmed
    ..Further locating these cis elements and detecting the related trans reaction factors may unveil some important clues to the details of the mechanisms for the CK13 gene expression and tissue-specific expression. ..
  3. Hartmann C, Clayton C. Regulation of a transmembrane protein gene family by the small RNA-binding proteins TbUBP1 and TbUBP2. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2008;157:112-5 pubmed
    ..RNAi targeting TbUBP1 and 2 in bloodstream forms decreased mRNA with a 4110 3'-untranslated region, but increased it for 4080. Thus TbUBP and TbUBP2 may accentuate developmental regulation of the Tb927.3.4070-927.3.4110 mRNAs. ..
  4. Shultz T, Tapsall J, White P, Ryan C, Lyras D, Rood J, et al. Chloramphenicol-resistant Neisseria meningitidis containing catP isolated in Australia. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2003;52:856-9 pubmed
    ..Methods for screening for chloramphenicol resistance in meningococci and the in vitro parameters that define this resistance are ill defined. ..
  5. Li R, Gorelik R, Nanda V, Law P, Lear J, Degrado W, et al. Dimerization of the transmembrane domain of Integrin alphaIIb subunit in cell membranes. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:26666-73 pubmed
    ..Thus, although the alpha(IIb) TM helix makes use of the GXXXG framework, neighboring residues have evolved to engineer its dimerization interface, enabling it to subserve specific and specialized functions. ..
  6. Gong H, Singh S, Singh S, Mu Y, Lee J, Saini S, et al. Orphan nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor sensitizes oxidative stress responses in transgenic mice and cancerous cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:279-90 pubmed
    ..The current study reveals a novel function of PXR in the mammalian oxidative stress response, and this regulatory pathway may be implicated in carcinogenesis by sensitizing normal and cancerous tissues to oxidative cellular damage. ..
  7. Zbytek B, Pfeffer L, Slominski A. Corticotropin-releasing hormone inhibits nuclear factor-kappaB pathway in human HaCaT keratinocytes. J Invest Dermatol. 2003;121:1496-9 pubmed
    ..Moreover, corticotropin-releasing hormone inhibited the trans-cription of the nuclear factor-kappaB responsive genes, interleukin-2 and heat shock protein 90. ..
  8. Dehm S, Bonham K. Regulation of alternative SRC promoter usage in HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Gene. 2004;337:141-50 pubmed
    ..This approach identified a HepG2-specific DH site that displayed activating potential towards the SRC1alpha promoter. These results thus provide important insight to the mechanism of SRC transcriptional activation in liver cancer cells. ..
  9. Chang N, Yang W, Huang H, Yeh K, Wu C. The transcriptional activity of HERV-I LTR is negatively regulated by its cis-elements and wild type p53 tumor suppressor protein. J Biomed Sci. 2007;14:211-22 pubmed
    ..Our results imply that HERV-I LTR, while under negative control by its LTR cis-elements and by wild type p53, may become active upon p53 mutation. ..
  10. Emerson M, Renwick L, Tate S, Rhind S, Milne E, Painter H, et al. Transfection efficiency and toxicity following delivery of naked plasmid DNA and cationic lipid-DNA complexes to ovine lung segments. Mol Ther. 2003;8:646-53 pubmed
    ..The severity of the inflammatory response appeared to correlate with the administered dose of DNA and was generally more severe for pDNA:GL67. ..
  11. Kantor B, Makedonski K, Green Finberg Y, Shemer R, Razin A. Control elements within the PWS/AS imprinting box and their function in the imprinting process. Hum Mol Genet. 2004;13:751-62 pubmed
  12. Berro R, Kehn K, de La Fuente C, Pumfery A, Adair R, Wade J, et al. Acetylated Tat regulates human immunodeficiency virus type 1 splicing through its interaction with the splicing regulator p32. J Virol. 2006;80:3189-204 pubmed
    ..Finally, using confocal microscopy, we found that p32 and Tat colocalize in vivo in HIV-1-infected cells. ..
  13. Ivkosic A, Kronenberg M, Lichtler A, Kream B. Analysis of internal deletions of a rat Col1a1 promoter fragment in transfected ROS17/2.8 cells. Coll Antropol. 2006;30:401-4 pubmed
    ..Future studies will focus on the region between -1637 to 1418 bp, which contains several potentially interesting transcription factor binding sites. ..
  14. Chao H, Liu J, Lin J, Chen C, Wu C, Cheng T. Uric acid stimulates endothelin-1 gene expression associated with NADPH oxidase in human aortic smooth muscle cells. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2008;29:1301-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first observation of ET-1 regulation by uric acid in HASMC, which implicates the important role of uric acid in the vascular changes associated with hypertension and vascular diseases. ..
  15. Humphrey B, Stephensen C, Calvert C, Klasing K. Lysine deficiency and feed restriction independently alter cationic amino acid transporter expression in chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2006;143:218-27 pubmed
    ..By expressing high affinity CAT isoforms, developing lymphocytes may have a greater ability to obtain lysine than their surrounding tissue during a lysine deficiency. ..
  16. Wan H, Ishihara H, Tanaka I. Immediate-early inducible function in upstream region of junB gene. Biomed Environ Sci. 2006;19:210-3 pubmed
    ..590-900 bp fragments located in the upstream region of junB gene play an important role in the early process of cells against radiation. ..
  17. Peng H, Fu B, Mao Z, Shao W. Electrotransformation of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus JW200. Biotechnol Lett. 2006;28:1913-7 pubmed
    ..Transformation frequencies of plasmid pTE16 and pTEA2 were 50 +/- 7.4 and 30 +/- 4.2 transformants per mug plasmid DNA. The results provide the first unequivocal gene transfer method functional in T. ethanolicus...
  18. Tiraby C, Tavernier G, Lefort C, Larrouy D, Bouillaud F, Ricquier D, et al. Acquirement of brown fat cell features by human white adipocytes. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:33370-6 pubmed
    ..UCP1 mRNA induction was shown in vivo by injection of the PGC-1 alpha adenovirus in mouse white fat. Alteration of energy balance through an increased utilization of fat in WAT may be a conceivable strategy for the treatment of obesity. ..
  19. Liu X, Bankamp B, Xu W, Bellini W, Rota P. The genomic termini of wild-type and vaccine strains of measles virus. Virus Res. 2006;122:78-84 pubmed
    ..These results indicated that naturally occurring nucleotide variations in the 3' leader region can affect the levels of reporter protein synthesis, and presumably affected the level of replication of the virus. ..
  20. Bristol J, Morrison T, Kenney S. CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins alpha and beta regulate the tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 gene promoter. Mol Immunol. 2009;46:2706-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Given that TNF and C/EBPbeta are known to activate each other's expression, C/EBPbeta may greatly amplify the initial TNF signal through a positive auto-regulatory mechanism. ..
  21. Griesel B, Weems J, Russell R, Abel E, Humphries K, Olson A. Acute inhibition of fatty acid import inhibits GLUT4 transcription in adipose tissue, but not skeletal or cardiac muscle tissue, partly through liver X receptor (LXR) signaling. Diabetes. 2010;59:800-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that long-chain fatty acid import into mitochondria in adipose tissue may produce ligands that regulate expression of metabolic genes. ..
  22. McCreery T, Sweitzer R, Unger E. DNA delivery to cells in culture using ultrasound. Methods Mol Biol. 2004;245:287-92 pubmed
  23. van den Berg A, Kuiper M, Snoek M, Timens W, Postma D, Jansen H, et al. Interleukin-17 induces hyperresponsive interleukin-8 and interleukin-6 production to tumor necrosis factor-alpha in structural lung cells. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2005;33:97-104 pubmed
    ..This poses the interesting concept that by releasing IL-17 from memory T cells, the adaptive immune system instructs lung structural cells as part of the innate immune system to respond more vigorously. ..
  24. Stebel S, Arndt K, Müller K. Versatile DNA fragmentation and directed evolution with nucleotide exchange and excision technology. Methods Mol Biol. 2007;352:167-90 pubmed
    ..Additionally, NExT fragmentation outcome can be predicted using the computer software, NExTProg. ..
  25. Maccarrone M, Bari M, Di Rienzo M, Finazzi Agrò A, Rossi A. Progesterone activates fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) promoter in human T lymphocytes through the transcription factor Ikaros. Evidence for a synergistic effect of leptin. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:32726-32 pubmed
    ..These findings might also have critical implications for human fertility. ..
  26. Van Craenenbroeck K, Vanhoenacker P, Roman I, Haegeman G. Orientation-dependent gene expression with Epstein-Barr virus-derived vectors. FEBS Lett. 2003;555:489-94 pubmed
    ..Northern analysis revealed a transcriptional read-through from the thymidine kinase promoter on the episomal vector, which interfered with the transcription of the heterologous gene in the less favored orientation. ..
  27. Ochoa Leyva A, Soberon X, Sánchez F, Argüello M, Montero Moran G, Saab Rincon G. Protein design through systematic catalytic loop exchange in the (beta/alpha)8 fold. J Mol Biol. 2009;387:949-64 pubmed publisher
  28. Walpita P. An internal element of the measles virus antigenome promoter modulates replication efficiency. Virus Res. 2004;100:199-211 pubmed
    ..This pattern of sequence requirement in the C' element based on mutational analysis could be described as a distinct motif, 5'-(GNNNAN)2GNNNCN-3', that is important for MV replication. ..
  29. Bei L, Lu Y, Eklund E. HOXA9 activates transcription of the gene encoding gp91Phox during myeloid differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:12359-70 pubmed
    ..These studies also suggest overexpression of Meis1 or Nup98-hoxA9 represses myeloid-specific gene transcription, thereby contributing to differentiation block in leukemogenesis. ..
  30. Yoon J, Kang J, Lee K, Lee H, Han J, Seo D, et al. beta-Carboline alkaloid suppresses NF-kappaB transcriptional activity through inhibition of IKK signaling pathway. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2005;68:2005-17 pubmed
    ..7 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that beta-carboline alkaloid has the capability to suppress NF-kappaB signaling pathway through inhibition of IKK activity in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. ..
  31. Chuang L, Guh J, Liu S, Hung M, Liao T, Chiang T, et al. Regulation of type II transforming-growth-factor-beta receptors by protein kinase C iota. Biochem J. 2003;375:385-93 pubmed
    ..In addition, antisense PKC iota expression plasmid effectively suppressed up-regulation of TbetaRII and fibronectin in hyperglycaemic distal-tubule cells. ..
  32. Bhattacharyya S, Pattanaik S, Maiti I. Intron-mediated enhancement of gene expression in transgenic plants using chimeric constructs composed of the Peanut chlorotic streak virus (PClSV) promoter-leader and the antisense orientation of PClSV ORF VII (p7R). Planta. 2003;218:115-24 pubmed
    ..This suggests that this combination of elements can mediate the intron-mediated enhancement (IME) phenomenon. We also demonstrated comparative IME with other heterologous promoters from caulimoviruses. ..
  33. de Lucas S, Bartolome J, Amaro M, Carreno V. Hepatitis C virus core protein transactivates the inducible nitric oxide synthase promoter via NF-kappaB activation. Antiviral Res. 2003;60:117-24 pubmed
    ..The expression of the NF-kappaB inhibitor IKB reverts the effect of the HCV core protein on the iNOS promoter. In conclusion, HCV core protein transactivates iNOS gene promoter through NF-kappaB activation. ..
  34. Yuan S, Qiu Z, Ghosh A. TOX3 regulates calcium-dependent transcription in neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:2909-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations identify TOX3 as an important regulator of calcium-dependent transcription and suggest that TOX3 exerts its effect on CRE-mediated transcription via its association with the CREB-CBP complex. ..
  35. Tchounwou P, Yedjou C, Foxx D, Ishaque A, Shen E. Lead-induced cytotoxicity and transcriptional activation of stress genes in human liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells. Mol Cell Biochem. 2004;255:161-70 pubmed
    ..5 +/- 0.8), and GADD45 (5.7 +/- 8.1) promoters, and the NF-KB (2.0 +/- 1.7) response element, indicating the potential for oxidative stress. No significant inductions (p > 0.05) were recorded for CYP1A1, HMTIIA, p53RE, and RARE. ..
  36. Datta A, Nag A, Pan W, Hay N, Gartel A, Colamonici O, et al. Myc-ARF (alternate reading frame) interaction inhibits the functions of Myc. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:36698-707 pubmed
    ..Our results strongly suggest that cMyc is a bona fide target of ARF and that ARF attenuates c-Myc independently of the ARF-p53 axis. ..
  37. McGillivary G, Smoot L, Actis L. Characterization of the IgA1 protease from the Brazilian purpuric fever strain F3031 of Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2005;250:229-36 pubmed
    ..However, real-time PCR analysis and transcriptional fusion assays showed that the expression of iga1 is not regulated by iron or hemin under the conditions tested. ..
  38. Park H, Kayser K, Kwak J, Kilbane J. Heterologous gene expression in Thermus thermophilus: beta-galactosidase, dibenzothiophene monooxygenase, PNB carboxy esterase, 2-aminobiphenyl-2,3-diol dioxygenase, and chloramphenicol acetyl transferase. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2004;31:189-97 pubmed
    ..GTIN11). A thermostable derivative of pnbA from Bacillus subtilis was also expressed, further expanding the list of genes from heterologous hosts that have been expressed in T. thermophilus. ..
  39. Ding J, Cui Z, Jiang S, Sun A, Sun S. [Study on the characterization of the bi-directional promoter between pp38 gene and 1.8kb mRNA transcripts of Marek's disease viruses]. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2005;45:363-7 pubmed
    ..The results showed the activity of the divided promoters reduce on both directions, especially for the direction of 1.8kb mRNA transcript, nearly down to 1/41. ..
  40. Landrier J, Grober J, Demydchuk J, Besnard P. FXRE can function as an LXRE in the promoter of human ileal bile acid-binding protein (I-BABP) gene. FEBS Lett. 2003;553:299-303 pubmed
    ..Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that the LXR/RXR heterodimer specifically recognizes the FXRE. Collectively, these data strongly suggest that LXR can regulate the I-BABP gene by both direct and indirect mechanisms. ..
  41. Budziszewska B, Jaworska Feil L, Tetich M, Basta Kaim A, Kubera M, Leskiewicz M, et al. Regulation of the human corticotropin-releasing-hormone gene promoter activity by antidepressant drugs in Neuro-2A and AtT-20 cells. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2004;29:785-94 pubmed
    ..Inhibition of CRH gene promoter activity by antidepressant drugs may be a molecular mechanism by which these drugs inhibit the activity of HPA axis. ..
  42. LeHoux J, Lefèbvre A. Novel protein kinase C-epsilon inhibits human CYP11B2 gene expression through ERK1/2 signalling pathway and JunB. J Mol Endocrinol. 2006;36:51-64 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these results demonstrate that PKCepsilon inhibits CYP11B2 transcription through the p44/42 MAPK pathway and JunB in H295R cells. ..
  43. Dong Y, Yang H, Elliott M, McMasters K. Increased mdm-2 expression in a p53-independent manner blocks UV-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cells. Tumour Biol. 2003;24:130-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, increased expression of MDM-2 in OsACL cells following UV irradiation appears to be related to P53-independent mechanisms. ..
  44. Koprivnjak T, Mlakar V, Swanson L, Fournier B, Peschel A, Weiss J. Cation-induced transcriptional regulation of the dlt operon of Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:3622-30 pubmed
    ..Chloramphenicol transacetylase transcriptional fusions indicate that a region encompassing the 171 to 325 bp upstream of dltA is required for expression and Mg(2+)-induced repression of the dlt operon in S. aureus. ..
  45. He H, Zhu T, Xie Y, Fan J, Kole S, Saxena S, et al. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate inhibits interleukin-6 signaling through impaired STAT3 activation and association with transcriptional coactivators in hepatocytes. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:31369-79 pubmed
    ..These studies are consistent with the ability of PDTC to down-regulate IL-6-induced STAT3 activation by altering the stability of STAT3-Hsp90 complex. ..
  46. Wajapeyee N, Somasundaram K. Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction by activator protein 2alpha (AP-2alpha) and the role of p53 and p21WAF1/CIP1 in AP-2alpha-mediated growth inhibition. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:52093-101 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that AP-2alpha inhibits the growth of cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and that the use of AP-2alpha should be explored as a therapeutic strategy either alone or in combination with chemotherapy. ..
  47. Marshall J, Yew N, Cheng S. Formulation of synthetic gene delivery vectors for transduction of the airway epithelium. Methods Mol Biol. 2004;245:95-114 pubmed
  48. Hosaka T, Tamehiro N, Chumpolkulwong N, Hori Takemoto C, Shirouzu M, Yokoyama S, et al. The novel mutation K87E in ribosomal protein S12 enhances protein synthesis activity during the late growth phase in Escherichia coli. Mol Genet Genomics. 2004;271:317-24 pubmed
    ..We propose that the aberrant activation of protein synthesis at the late growth phase is caused by the increased stability of the ribosome. ..
  49. James A, Conway A, Thiel G, Morris B. Egr-1 modulation of synapsin I expression: permissive effect of forskolin via cAMP. Cell Signal. 2004;16:1355-62 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Egr-1 transactivation during neuronal plasticity may rely on a permissive effect of cAMP. ..
  50. Lucas S, Holder A. An improved chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assay for Plasmodium falciparum transfection. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2004;136:287-96 pubmed
    ..The value of these improvements was demonstrated by analysing the effects of parasitaemia and amount of plasmid on transfection efficiency with both old and new methods. ..
  51. Xie B, Invernizzi C, Richard S, Wainberg M. Arginine methylation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein by PRMT6 negatively affects Tat Interactions with both cyclin T1 and the Tat transactivation region. J Virol. 2007;81:4226-34 pubmed
    ..Finding a way of inhibiting or stimulating PRMT6 activity might help to drive quiescently infected cells out of latency or combat HIV-1 replication, respectively. ..
  52. Murphy M, Gomos Klein J, Stankic M, Falck Pedersen E. Adeno-associated virus type 2 p5 promoter: a rep-regulated DNA switch element functioning in transcription, replication, and site-specific integration. J Virol. 2007;81:3721-30 pubmed
    ..The data presented support a model where, depending on the state of the cell (Rep expression and helper virus influences), the p5IEE operates as a transcription/integration switch sequence element. ..
  53. Carter C, Thornburg R. The nectary-specific pattern of expression of the tobacco Nectarin I promoter is regulated by multiple promoter elements. Plant Mol Biol. 2003;51:451-7 pubmed
    ..Analysis in transgenic plants revealed that the nectary-specific expression is the result of multiple promoter elements and suggests that nectar secretion and flower opening may be coordinately regulated. ..
  54. Sogawa K, Numayama Tsuruta K, Takahashi T, Matsushita N, Miura C, Nikawa J, et al. A novel induction mechanism of the rat CYP1A2 gene mediated by Ah receptor-Arnt heterodimer. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;318:746-55 pubmed
    ..A dominant negative mutant of the AhR to XRE activated the enhancer. Collectively, these results demonstrate that a novel induction mechanism is present in which the AhR-Arnt heterodimer functions as a coactivator. ..
  55. Couñago R, Shamoo Y. Gene replacement of adenylate kinase in the gram-positive thermophile Geobacillus stearothermophilus disrupts adenine nucleotide homeostasis and reduces cell viability. Extremophiles. 2005;9:135-44 pubmed
    ..At higher temperatures (65 degrees C), recombinant cells also had lower EC values (0.09) compared to wild-type cells (0.45), which reflects a disruption of adenine nucleotide homeostasis following AK inactivation. ..
  56. Lee K, Jeon K, Kim J, Kim V, Choi D, Kim S, et al. Downregulation of GFAP, TSP-1, and p53 in human glioblastoma cell line, U373MG, by IE1 protein from human cytomegalovirus. Glia. 2005;51:1-12 pubmed
    ..Our data strongly suggested that HCMV IE1 could modulate the expression of cellular genes that might play important roles in the pathogenesis of glial tumors. ..
  57. Zhao Y, Guo L, Zhao X, Liu H, Lei T, Ma D, et al. Transcriptional activation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 6 by 17beta-estradiol in SaOS-2 cells. Exp Mol Med. 2009;41:478-86 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that E2 exhibits a positive effect on IGFBP-6 gene transcription through estrogen-liganded ER binding to the functional ERE in the IGFBP-6 gene promoter in SaOS-2 cells. ..
  58. Novaro V, Roskelley C, Bissell M. Collagen-IV and laminin-1 regulate estrogen receptor alpha expression and function in mouse mammary epithelial cells. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:2975-86 pubmed
  59. Polyéktova E, Fedorina E, Prozorov A. [Conjugative transfer of the large plasmid p19 in various Bacillus subtilis strains]. Genetika. 2005;41:601-6 pubmed
    ..The resulting plasmid, p19cat, was used to estimate the transfer frequency, to study the dynamics of plasmid transfer, and to detect some specific features of conjugation between various B. subtilis strains. ..
  60. Valesová R, Stepanek V, Vecerek B, Kyslik P. IS2-mediated re-arrangement of the promoter sequence suppresses metabolic burden of the recombinant plasmid. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2005;50:275-82 pubmed
    ..High transcriptional activity of the natural promoter together with high pga gene dosage could result in a deleterious metabolic burden of the periplasmic enzyme. ..
  61. Borrell L, Yang J, Pittard A, Praszkier J. Interaction of initiator proteins with the origin of replication of an IncL/M plasmid. Plasmid. 2006;56:88-101 pubmed
    ..DnaA protein enhanced the binding and origin unwinding activities of RepA of pMU604, but appeared unable to bind to a linear DNA fragment bearing the origin of replication of pMU604 in the absence of other proteins. ..
  62. Gehlhaus M, Schmitt N, Volk B, Meyer R. Antiepileptic drugs affect neuronal androgen signaling via a cytochrome P450-dependent pathway. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007;322:550-9 pubmed
    ..These findings point to an important and novel function of P450 in regulation of steroid hormones and their receptors in endocrine tissues such as liver and brain. ..
  63. Stoven S, Silverman N, Junell A, Hedengren Olcott M, Erturk D, Engstrom Y, et al. Caspase-mediated processing of the Drosophila NF-kappaB factor Relish. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:5991-6 pubmed
    ..Finally, an N-terminal serine-rich region in Relish and the PEST domain were found to negatively regulate Relish activation. ..
  64. Janatova I, Costaglioli P, Wesche J, Masson J, Meilhoc E. Development of a reporter system for the yeast Schwanniomyces occidentalis: influence of DNA composition and codon usage. Yeast. 2003;20:687-701 pubmed
    ..occidentalis invertase gene were efficient to direct gene expression and subsequent protein secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ..
  65. Cheema S, Agarwal Mawal A, Murray C, Tucker S. Lack of stimulation of cholesteryl ester transfer protein by cholesterol in the presence of a high-fat diet. J Lipid Res. 2005;46:2356-66 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we present evidence for the first time that inhibition of LXRalpha expression by a high-fat MUFA diet leads to inhibition of CETP stimulation by cholesterol. ..
  66. Nien W, Dauphinee S, Moffat L, Too C. Overexpression of the mTOR alpha4 phosphoprotein activates protein phosphatase 2A and increases Stat1alpha binding to PIAS1. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2007;263:10-7 pubmed
    ..These events would inhibit Stat action and ultimately inhibit PRL-inducible IRF-1 promoter activity. ..
  67. Nadella M, Dirksen W, Nadella K, Shu S, Cheng A, Morgenstern J, et al. Transcriptional regulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein promoter P2 by NF-kappaB in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Leukemia. 2007;21:1752-62 pubmed
    ..In summary, the data demonstrated that transcriptional regulation of PTHrP in ATLL cells can be controlled by NF-kappaB activation and also suggest a Tax-independent mechanism of activation of PTHrP in ATLL. ..
  68. Hernandez R, Teruel T, Lorenzo M. Insulin and dexamethasone induce GLUT4 gene expression in foetal brown adipocytes: synergistic effect through CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha. Biochem J. 2003;372:617-24 pubmed
    ..Our results show that the synergism between insulin and glucocorticoids on glucose uptake is a consequence of the activation of the GLUT4 promoter by the transcription factor C/EBPalpha. ..
  69. Hamma T, Saleh A, Huq I, Rana T, Miller P. Inhibition of HIV tat-TAR interactions by an antisense oligo-2'-O-methylribonucleoside methylphosphonate. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2003;13:1845-8 pubmed
  70. Daddi N, Kanaan S, Suda T, Tagawa T, D Ovidio F, Grapperhaus K, et al. Recipient intramuscular administration of naked plasmid TGF-beta1 attenuates lung graft reperfusion injury. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2003;22:1323-34 pubmed
    ..Recipient IM administration of naked plasmid encoding TGF-beta1-active before transplantation ameliorates lung isograft reperfusion injury after prolonged ischemia. ..
  71. Yang Y, Ping S. [Site-directed mutagenesis and promoter functional analysis of RM07 DNA fragment from Halobacterium halobium in Escherichia coli]. Yi Chuan Xue Bao. 2004;31:525-32 pubmed
    ..The promoter activity of RM07 in Escherichia coli was also improved greatly by modifying the nucleotide component. ..
  72. Tamura G, Bratt D, Yim H, Nittayajarn A. Use of glnQ as a counterselectable marker for creation of allelic exchange mutations in group B streptococci. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:587-90 pubmed
    ..Growth inhibition of GBS by the glutamine analog gamma-glutamyl hydrazide requires glnQ. We have used this phenomenon to create a counterselectable marker system for efficient selection of allelic exchange mutants in GBS. ..
  73. Barboric M, Kohoutek J, Price J, Blazek D, Price D, Peterlin B. Interplay between 7SK snRNA and oppositely charged regions in HEXIM1 direct the inhibition of P-TEFb. EMBO J. 2005;24:4291-303 pubmed
    ..We propose a model where the interplay between 7SK snRNA and oppositely charged regions in HEXIM1 direct its binding to P-TEFb and subcellular localization that culminates in the inhibition of transcription. ..
  74. Zawada J, Swartz J. Effects of growth rate on cell extract performance in cell-free protein synthesis. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2006;94:618-24 pubmed
    ..Rather, the increase in extract productivity is a result of a higher ribosome concentration. These results are important for cell-free technology and also suggest an assay for intrinsic in vivo protein synthesis activity. ..
  75. Kim T, Keum J, Oh I, Choi C, Park C, Kim D. Simple procedures for the construction of a robust and cost-effective cell-free protein synthesis system. J Biotechnol. 2006;126:554-61 pubmed
    ..Compared to the present standard procedures for the preparation of the S30 extract, the overall cost of the reagents and processing time were reduced by 80 and 60%, respectively. ..
  76. Liu Z, Jiang Y. [The theoretical system and application of reporter gene technology]. Sheng Li Ke Xue Jin Zhan. 2002;33:361-3 pubmed
  77. Ralph J, Orgebin Crist M, Lareyre J, Nelson C. Disruption of androgen regulation in the prostate by the environmental contaminant hexachlorobenzene. Environ Health Perspect. 2003;111:461-6 pubmed
    ..Environmental contaminants have been implicated in the rising incidence of prostate cancer, and insight into the mechanisms of endocrine disruption will help to clarify their role. ..
  78. Courville P, Chaloupka R, Veyrier F, Cellier M. Determination of transmembrane topology of the Escherichia coli natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (Nramp) ortholog. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:3318-26 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that EcoliA is a type III integral membrane protein with 11 transmembrane domains transporting both divalent metal ions and protons. ..
  79. Kang J, Yoon Y, Lee K, Park S, Kim H. Costunolide inhibits interleukin-1beta expression by down-regulation of AP-1 and MAPK activity in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;313:171-7 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate that costunolide inhibits IL-1beta gene expression by blocking the activation of MAPKs and DNA binding of AP-1 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. ..
  80. Boycheva S, Bachvarov B, Berzal Heranz A, Ivanov I. Effect of 3' terminal codon pairs with different frequency of occurrence on the expression of cat gene in Escherichia coli. Curr Microbiol. 2004;48:97-101 pubmed
  81. Scassa M, Guberman A, Ceruti J, Cánepa E. Hepatic nuclear factor 3 and nuclear factor 1 regulate 5-aminolevulinate synthase gene expression and are involved in insulin repression. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:28082-92 pubmed
    ..The posttranslational modification of HNF3 would allow the binding of a protein complex that recognizes the core IRE. These results provide a potential mechanism for the insulin-mediated repression of IRE-containing promoters. ..
  82. Cataloluk O, Gogebakan B. Presence of drug resistance in intestinal lactobacilli of dairy and human origin in Turkey. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004;236:7-12 pubmed
  83. Wang Z, Zhang Y, Ramsahoye B, Bowen D, Lim S. Sp17 gene expression in myeloma cells is regulated by promoter methylation. Br J Cancer. 2004;91:1597-603 pubmed
    ..Our results therefore provide evidence for the regulation of Sp17 gene expression by promoter methylation. ..
  84. Ohnishi Y, Lieger O, Attygalla M, Iizuka T, Kakudo K. Effects of epidermal growth factor on the invasion activity of the oral cancer cell lines HSC3 and SAS. Oral Oncol. 2008;44:1155-9 pubmed publisher
    ..a transient transfection assay revealed that EGF increased the promoter activities of the MMP9 genes in HSC3 and SAS cells. These results suggest that EGF increases the invasion activity of oral cancer cells partly by increasing MMP9. ..
  85. Takahashi Y, Shintani M, Li L, Yamane H, Nojiri H. Carbazole-degradative IncP-7 plasmid pCAR1.2 is structurally unstable in Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1, which accumulates catechol, the intermediate of the carbazole degradation pathway. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:3920-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the functions of the chromosomal genes contributed to the selection of plasmid derivatives with altered structures. ..
  86. Wang R, Lu Y, Wang S. Comparative evaluation of 11 scoring functions for molecular docking. J Med Chem. 2003;46:2287-303 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that X-Score and DrugScore perform better than the other ones at this aspect. ..
  87. Yamaguchi K, Itoh K, Ohnishi N, Itoh Y, Baum C, Tsuji T, et al. Engineered long terminal repeats of retroviral vectors enhance transgene expression in hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo. Mol Ther. 2003;8:796-803 pubmed
    ..5- to 5-fold in comparison with a Moloney murine leukemia virus-based vector or a vector containing the wild-type LTR of SFFVp, respectively, in murine hepatocytes in vivo. ..
  88. Bovenkerk S, Lanciloti N, Chandar N. Induction of p53 expression and function by estrogen in osteoblasts. Calcif Tissue Int. 2003;73:274-80 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that E2 can directly mediate an increase in p53 expression and function. The relevance of this to osteoblast differentiation is discussed. ..
  89. Hirsch C, Bonham K. Histone deacetylase inhibitors regulate p21WAF1 gene expression at the post-transcriptional level in HepG2 cells. FEBS Lett. 2004;570:37-40 pubmed
    ..These studies highlight our growing appreciation for the complexities of HDI mediated effects and challenge our preconceptions regarding the action of these promising anti-neoplastics. ..
  90. Yamane T, Ikeda Y, Nagasaka T, Nakano H. Enhanced cell-free protein synthesis using a S30 extract from Escherichia coli grown rapidly at 42 degrees C in an amino acid enriched medium. Biotechnol Prog. 2005;21:608-13 pubmed
    ..Some plausible reasons to give higher protein synthesis activity of the 42 degrees C/S30 extract are discussed. ..
  91. Brewer A, Alexandrovich A, Mjaatvedt C, Shah A, Patient R, Pizzey J. GATA factors lie upstream of Nkx 2.5 in the transcriptional regulatory cascade that effects cardiogenesis. Stem Cells Dev. 2005;14:425-39 pubmed
  92. Sleeman K, Bankamp B, Hummel K, Lo M, Bellini W, Rota P. The C, V and W proteins of Nipah virus inhibit minigenome replication. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:1300-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Although there is very limited amino acid sequence similarity between the C, V and W proteins within the paramyxoviruses, the heterotypic inhibition of replication suggests that these proteins may share functional properties. ..