arylalkylamine n acetyltransferase


Summary: An acetyltransferase with specificity towards the amine group of aromatic alkylamines (arylalkylamines) such as SEROTONIN. This enzyme is also referred to as serotonin acetylase despite the fact that serotonin acetylation can also occur through the action of broad specificity acetyltransferases such as ARYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE.

Top Publications

  1. Besseau L, Benyassi A, Møller M, Coon S, Weller J, Boeuf G, et al. Melatonin pathway: breaking the 'high-at-night' rule in trout retina. Exp Eye Res. 2006;82:620-7 pubmed
  2. Pavlicek J, Coon S, Ganguly S, Weller J, Hassan S, Sackett D, et al. Evidence that proline focuses movement of the floppy loop of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (EC J Biol Chem. 2008;283:14552-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The structural kink and local rigidity imposed by Pro-64 may enhance activity by favoring configurations of Loop 1 that facilitate catalysis and do not become immobilized by intramolecular interactions...
  3. Zilberman Peled B, Benhar I, Coon S, Ron B, Gothilf Y. Duality of serotonin-N-acetyltransferase in the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata): molecular cloning and characterization of recombinant enzymes. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2004;138:139-47 pubmed
    ..In addition, retinal AANAT1 may carry out an as yet unknown function that involves acetylation of arylalkylamines other than serotonin. ..
  4. Coon S, Klein D. Evolution of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase: emergence and divergence. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2006;252:2-10 pubmed
    ..Lastly, a third AANAT gene has been found in teleost fish, suggesting that AANAT genes serve multiple functions in addition to melatonin synthesis. ..
  5. Klein D. Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase: "the Timezyme". J Biol Chem. 2007;282:4233-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This activates the enzyme and prevents proteosomal proteolysis. The conserved features of regulatory systems that control arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase are a circadian clock and environmental lighting...
  6. Peschke E, Wolgast S, Bazwinsky I, Pönicke K, Muhlbauer E. Increased melatonin synthesis in pineal glands of rats in streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetes. J Pineal Res. 2008;45:439-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The results thus prove that a melatonin-insulin antagonism exists. Astonishingly, notwithstanding the drastic metabolic disturbances in STZ-diabetic rats, the diurnal rhythms of the parameters investigated are maintained. ..
  7. Luengtrakoon K, Wannakasemsuk W, Vichitrananda V, Klanrit P, Hormdee D, Noisombut R, et al. Increased melatonin in oral mucosal tissue of oral lichen planus (OLP) patients: A possible link between melatonin and its role in oral mucosal inflammation. Arch Oral Biol. 2017;78:13-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased levels of AANAT, melatonin, and MT1 in the inflamed oral mucosal tissue of OLP patients imply that chronic inflammation may induce the local biosynthesis of melatonin via AANAT, and may enhance the action of melatonin via MT1. ..
  8. Afeche S, Barbosa R, Scialfa J, Terra I, Cassola A, Cipolla Neto J. Effects of the blockade of high voltage-activated calcium channels on in vitro pineal melatonin synthesis. Cell Biochem Funct. 2006;24:499-505 pubmed
    ..However, the mechanisms involved in this process are different for the L- or P/Q- and N-type calcium channels...
  9. Neuman A, Gothilf Y, Haim A, Ben Aharon G, Zisapel N. Nocturnal patterns and up-regulated excretion of the melatonin metabolite 6-sulfatoxymelatonin in the diurnal rodent Psammomys obesus post-weaning under a short photoperiod. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2005;142:297-307 pubmed
    ..Possibly, this pattern may be physiologically important to facilitate T(b) maintenance in the cold nights of winter in the desert. ..

More Information


  1. Soria V, Martínez Amorós E, Escaramis G, Valero J, Crespo J, Gutierrez Zotes A, et al. Resequencing and association analysis of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) gene and its contribution to major depression susceptibility. J Pineal Res. 2010;49:35-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support the hypothesis that the melatonin-signaling pathway and circadian clock mechanisms may contribute to the pathophysiology of MD. ..
  2. Rekasi Z, Horvath R, Klausz B, Nagy E, Toller G. Suppression of serotonin N-acetyltransferase transcription and melatonin secretion from chicken pinealocytes transfected with Bmal1 antisense oligonucleotides containing locked nucleic acid in superfusion system. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2006;249:84-91 pubmed
    ..The superfusion cell culture with reduced transfection toxicity may provide a useful tool for antisense drug design to influence the highly conserved clockwork also in man. ..
  3. Fukuhara C, Aguzzi J, Bullock N, Tosini G. Effect of long-term exposure to constant dim light on the circadian system of rats. Neurosignals. 2005;14:117-25 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that long-term exposure to constant red dim light may induce desynchronization between the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity and serum melatonin levels. ..
  4. Herman A, Bochenek J, Krol K, Krawczynska A, Antushevich H, Pawlina B, et al. Central Interleukin-1? Suppresses the Nocturnal Secretion of Melatonin. Mediators Inflamm. 2016;2016:2589483 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the ability of IL-1? to affect the expression of these enzymes was dependent upon the photoperiod. Our study may shed new light on the role of central IL-1? in the aetiology of disruptions in melatonin secretion. ..
  5. Aboalroub A, Zhang Z, Keramisanou D, Gelis I. Backbone resonance assignment of an insect arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase from Bombyx mori reveals conformational heterogeneity. Biomol NMR Assign. 2017;11:105-109 pubmed publisher
    ..The P-loop, which is responsible for cofactor binding, is flexible in the free-state, while a large region of the enzyme interconverts between two distinct conformations in the slow exchange regime. ..
  6. Singh K, Saha S, Gupta B. Season-dependent effects of photoperiod and temperature on circadian rhythm of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase2 gene expression in pineal organ of an air-breathing catfish, Clarias gariepinus. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2017;173:140-149 pubmed publisher
  7. Tsuboi S. [Regulatory mechanism of melatonin synthesis in pineal gland: regulation of serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity]. Seikagaku. 2005;77:411-5 pubmed
  8. Leder E, Danzmann R, Ferguson M. The candidate gene, Clock, localizes to a strong spawning time quantitative trait locus region in rainbow trout. J Hered. 2006;97:74-80 pubmed
    ..The Clock gene mapped to this region. Period1 mapped to a region in the female parent associated with a marginal effect (P = .056) on spawn timing. Other candidate genes were not associated with significant QTL effects. ..
  9. Tosini G, Chaurasia S, Michael Iuvone P. Regulation of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) in the retina. Chronobiol Int. 2006;23:381-91 pubmed
    ..Finally, it is important to mention that AANAT, in addition to its role in melatonin synthesis, may play a detoxification role in the vertebrate retina by acetylating arylalkylamines that may react with retinaldehyde. ..
  10. Okazaki M, Higuchi K, Hanawa Y, Shiraiwa Y, Ezura H. Cloning and characterization of a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cDNA arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase and its use in the genetic engineering of melatonin content in the Micro-Tom tomato. J Pineal Res. 2009;46:373-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the melatonin-rich transgenic Micro-Tom can be used to elucidate the role of melatonin in plant development. ..
  11. Itoh M, Takahashi N, Abe M, Shimizu K. Expression and cellular localization of melatonin-synthesizing enzymes in the rat lens. J Pineal Res. 2007;42:92-6 pubmed
    ..Locally synthesized melatonin in the lens cortical fiber cells may protect the lens itself from cataract development. ..
  12. Zilberman Peled B, Ron B, Gross A, Finberg J, Gothilf Y. A possible new role for fish retinal serotonin-N-acetyltransferase-1 (AANAT1): Dopamine metabolism. Brain Res. 2006;1073-1074:220-8 pubmed
    ..Together, these observations point to the possibility that dopamine is acetylated by retinal AANAT1 in the INL. Such novel activity of AANAT1 may reflect an important function in the circadian physiology of the retina. ..
  13. Wu T, Dong Y, Yang Z, Kato H, Ni Y, Fu Z. Differential resetting process of circadian gene expression in rat pineal glands after the reversal of the light/dark cycle via a 24 h light or dark period transition. Chronobiol Int. 2009;26:793-807 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, among the four examined clock genes, Per1 adjusted most rapidly after the differential LD reversals, while the rhythmic Cry1 expression adjusted most slowly. ..
  14. Toller G, Nagy E, Horvath R, Klausz B, Rekasi Z. Circadian expression of Bmal1 and serotonin-N-acetyltransferase mRNAs in chicken retina cells and pinealocytes in vivo and in vitro. J Mol Neurosci. 2006;28:143-50 pubmed
    ..Based on the highly conserved nature of the clockwork, it is reasonable to consider that chicken retina and pineal gland might serve as a useful tool for the development of drugs that could influence clock function in man. ..
  15. Ogiwara K, Takahashi T. A Dual Role for Melatonin in Medaka Ovulation: Ensuring Prostaglandin Synthesis and Actin Cytoskeleton Rearrangement in Follicular Cells. Biol Reprod. 2016;94:64 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate a dual role for melatonin in medaka ovulation: melatonin ensures prostaglandin E2 synthesis throughout the spawning cycle and induces actin cytoskeleton rearrangement in the follicular cells at ovulation. ..
  16. Lardone P, Carrillo Vico A, Naranjo M, De Felipe B, Vallejo A, Karasek M, et al. Melatonin synthesized by Jurkat human leukemic T cell line is implicated in IL-2 production. J Cell Physiol. 2006;206:273-9 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that endogenous melatonin synthesized by human T cells would contribute to regulation of its own IL-2 production, acting as an intracrine, autocrine, and/or paracrine substance. ..
  17. Sanchez Hidalgo M, de la Lastra C, Carrascosa Salmoral M, Naranjo M, Gomez Corvera A, Caballero B, et al. Age-related changes in melatonin synthesis in rat extrapineal tissues. Exp Gerontol. 2009;44:328-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that thymus may develop compensatory mechanisms to counteract the loss of immune activity and consequently, the loss of this potent antioxidant, during physiological aging. ..
  18. Sijbesma E, Skora L, Leysen S, Brunsveld L, Koch U, Nussbaumer P, et al. Identification of Two Secondary Ligand Binding Sites in 14-3-3 Proteins Using Fragment Screening. Biochemistry. 2017;56:3972-3982 pubmed publisher
    ..This first identification of secondary sites on 14-3-3 proteins bound by small molecule ligands might facilitate the development of new chemical tool compounds for more selective PPI modulation. ..
  19. Peschke E, Frese T, Chankiewitz E, Peschke D, Preiss U, Schneyer U, et al. Diabetic Goto Kakizaki rats as well as type 2 diabetic patients show a decreased diurnal serum melatonin level and an increased pancreatic melatonin-receptor status. J Pineal Res. 2006;40:135-43 pubmed
    ..Our observations suggest a functional inter-relationship between melatonin and insulin, and may indicate a reduction of melatonin in the genesis of diabetes. ..
  20. Falcon J. Nocturnal melatonin synthesis: how to stop it. Endocrinology. 2007;148:1473-4 pubmed
  21. Coon S, Mazuruk K, Bernard M, Roseboom P, Klein D, Rodriguez I. The human serotonin N-acetyltransferase (EC gene (AANAT): structure, chromosomal localization, and tissue expression. Genomics. 1996;34:76-84 pubmed
    ..Brain and pituitary AA-NAT could modulate serotonin-dependent aspects of human behavior and pituitary function. ..
  22. Appelbaum L, Vallone D, Anzulovich A, Ziv L, Tom M, Foulkes N, et al. Zebrafish arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase genes - targets for regulation of the circadian clock. J Mol Endocrinol. 2006;36:337-47 pubmed
  23. Lee S, Choi B, Hur E, Lee J, Lee S, Lee C, et al. Norepinephrine activates store-operated Ca2+ entry coupled to large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels in rat pinealocytes. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2006;290:C1060-6 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these results suggest that NE triggers Ca(2+) entry coupled to BK channels and that NE-induced Ca(2+) entry is important in the regulation of AANAT. ..
  24. Lewczuk B, Zheng W, Prusik M, Cole P, Przybylska Gornowicz B. N-bromoacetyltryptamine strongly and reversibly inhibits in vitro melatonin secretion from mammalian pinealocytes. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2005;26:581-92 pubmed
    ..The results show that BAT is a potent and reversible inhibitor of the melatonin secretion in the mammalian pineal gland and open the way for the use of this inhibitor in investigations on the pinealocyte physiology performed in vitro. ..
  25. Gómez Corvera A, Cerrillo I, Molinero P, Naranjo M, Lardone P, Sanchez Hidalgo M, et al. Evidence of immune system melatonin production by two pineal melatonin deficient mice, C57BL/6 and Swiss strains. J Pineal Res. 2009;47:15-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the pineal defect seems not to be generalized to all tissues, suggesting that other cells may compensate the low pineal melatonin production contributing to the measurable plasma melatonin level...
  26. Ho A, Price D, Terriff D, Chik C. Timing of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation in the rat pineal gland. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2006;252:34-9 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our studies on the timing of MAPK activation and regulation of AA-NAT by MAPKs add to the importance of MAPKs in regulating the circadian biology of the pineal gland. ..
  27. Olszanska B, Bozenna O, Majewski P, Paweł M, Lewczuk B, Bogdan L, et al. Melatonin and its synthesizing enzymes (arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase-like and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase) in avian eggs and early embryos. J Pineal Res. 2007;42:310-8 pubmed
  28. Li X, Zhang Y, Li X, Feng D, Zhang S, Zhao X, et al. Comparative analysis of biological effect of corannulene and graphene on developmental and sleep/wake profile of zebrafish larvae. Acta Biomater. 2017;55:271-282 pubmed publisher
    ..This result may indicate the potential effect of corannulene to cause hypnosia-like behavior in larvae and provide the fundamental understanding for the biological effect of curvature on biology system. ..
  29. Huang Y, Liu S, Yuan S, Guan C, Tian D, Cui X, et al. Overexpression of ovine AANAT and HIOMT genes in switchgrass leads to improved growth performance and salt-tolerance. Sci Rep. 2017;7:12212 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provided valuable findings that melatonin functions as a promoter in the regulation of switchgrass growth, flowering and salt tolerance. ..
  30. Rauschenbach I, Adonyeva N, Alekseev A, Chentsova N, Gruntenko N. Role of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase in regulation of biogenic amines levels by gonadotropins in Drosophila. J Comp Physiol B. 2008;178:315-20 pubmed
    ..melanogaster, apterous ( 56f ). A decrease in the enzyme activity was observed in the mutant females as compared to wild-type. Mechanisms of regulation of DA level by gonadotropins in Drosophila are discussed. ..
  31. Chattoraj A, Liu T, Zhang L, Huang Z, Borjigin J. Melatonin formation in mammals: in vivo perspectives. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2009;10:237-43 pubmed publisher
    ..This article will summarize the main findings from our laboratory regarding melatonin formation in mammals. ..
  32. Jimenez Jorge S, Guerrero J, Jimenez Caliani A, Naranjo M, Lardone P, Carrillo Vico A, et al. Evidence for melatonin synthesis in the rat brain during development. J Pineal Res. 2007;42:240-6 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that, when the pineal is not yet producing melatonin, there is melatonin synthesis by the brain that could be used as protection from free radical damage and/or could exert some actions through MT(1) receptors. ..
  33. Zhan S, Guo Q, Li M, Li M, Li J, Miao X, et al. Disruption of an N-acetyltransferase gene in the silkworm reveals a novel role in pigmentation. Development. 2010;137:4083-90 pubmed publisher
    ..To the best of our knowledge, the mln mutation is the first characterized mutant phenotype of insects with AANAT, and this result contributes to our understanding of dopamine metabolism and melanin pattern polymorphisms. ..
  34. Ganguly S, Gastel J, Weller J, Schwartz C, Jaffe H, Namboodiri M, et al. Role of a pineal cAMP-operated arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase/14-3-3-binding switch in melatonin synthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:8083-8 pubmed
    ..Similar switches could play a role in cAMP signal transduction in other biological systems. ..
  35. Schwarzer D, Cole P. Protein semisynthesis and expressed protein ligation: chasing a protein's tail. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2005;9:561-9 pubmed
    ..Site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids, biophysical probes and post-translational modifications in proteins have led to new insights into enzyme mechanisms, protein folding, ion channel function, translation and signaling. ..
  36. Chaurasia S, Pozdeyev N, Haque R, Visser A, Ivanova T, Iuvone P. Circadian clockwork machinery in neural retina: evidence for the presence of functional clock components in photoreceptor-enriched chick retinal cell cultures. Mol Vis. 2006;12:215-23 pubmed
  37. Dupret J, Dairou J, Atmane N, Rodrigues Lima F. Inactivation of human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 by hydrogen peroxide and peroxynitrite. Methods Enzymol. 2005;400:215-29 pubmed
    ..Evidence now shows that redox conditions may also contribute to overall NAT activity. This chapter summarizes current knowledge on human NAT1 regulation by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. ..
  38. Hwang Y, Ganguly S, Ho A, Klein D, Cole P. Enzymatic and cellular study of a serotonin N-acetyltransferase phosphopantetheine-based prodrug. Bioorg Med Chem. 2007;15:2147-55 pubmed
    ..Implications for CoA prodrug development based on the strategy used here are discussed. ..
  39. Sakamoto K, Liu C, Kasamatsu M, Iuvone P, Tosini G. Intraocular injection of kainic acid does not abolish the circadian rhythm of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase mRNA in rat photoreceptors. Mol Vis. 2006;12:117-24 pubmed
    ..Our data also indicate that Per1 and Per2 are rhythmically transcribed in the rat retina and KA treatment has a dramatic effect on the overall levels of Per2 mRNA. ..
  40. Rosiak J, Zawilska J. Near-ultraviolet light perceived by the retina generates the signal suppressing melatonin synthesis in the chick pineal gland-an involvement of NMDA glutamate receptors. Neurosci Lett. 2005;379:214-7 pubmed
    ..At the level of the retina, such signal does not involve dopamine, but is dependent on the stimulation of NMDA glutamate receptors. ..
  41. Wang G, Du Y, Tong J. Daily oscillation and photoresponses of clock gene, Clock, and clock-associated gene, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase gene transcriptions in the rat pineal gland. Chronobiol Int. 2007;24:9-20 pubmed
    ..05). These findings indicate that the transcriptions of Clock and NAT genes in the pineal gland not only show remarkably synchronous endogenous circadian rhythmic changes, but also respond to the ambient light signal in a reduced manner. ..
  42. Pierce L, Noche R, Ponomareva O, Chang C, Liang J. Novel functions for Period 3 and Exo-rhodopsin in rhythmic transcription and melatonin biosynthesis within the zebrafish pineal organ. Brain Res. 2008;1223:11-24 pubmed publisher
    ..This work identifies novel roles for Exorh and Per3, and gives insight into potential interactions between the sensory and circadian systems within the pineal...
  43. Fukuhara C, Yamazaki S, Liang J. Pineal circadian clocks gate arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase gene expression in the mouse pineal gland. J Neurochem. 2005;93:156-62 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the pineal circadian clock may determine timing when Aa-Nat gene expression can respond to inputs from the master circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, e.g. adrenergic stimulation. ..
  44. Suzuki T, Takashima T, Izawa N, Watanabe M, Takeda M. UV radiation elevates arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase activity and melatonin content in the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae. J Insect Physiol. 2008;54:1168-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Elevation of the NAT activity and melatonin content by high intensity UV irradiation may indicate that the UV signals initiate melatonin synthesis for ROS removal in mites. ..
  45. Sharman E, Bondy S, Sharman K, Lahiri D, Cotman C, Perreau V. Effects of melatonin and age on gene expression in mouse CNS using microarray analysis. Neurochem Int. 2007;50:336-44 pubmed
    ..This suggests that melatonin treatment may influence the inflammatory responses of old animals, driving them to resemble more closely those occurring in young animals. ..
  46. Pozdeyev N, Taylor C, Haque R, Chaurasia S, Visser A, Thazyeen A, et al. Photic regulation of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase binding to 14-3-3 proteins in retinal photoreceptor cells. J Neurosci. 2006;26:9153-61 pubmed
    ..These findings provide new insight into the roles of 14-3-3 proteins in photoreceptor cells and to the mechanisms controlling melatonin synthesis in the vertebrate retina. ..
  47. Tsugehara T, Iwai S, Fujiwara Y, Mita K, Takeda M. Cloning and characterization of insect arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase from Bombyx mori. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2007;147:358-66 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report of a cloned AANAT that acetylated norepinephrine. These results suggest that Bm-iAANAT is a novel member of insect AANAT family with unique kinetic properties and a broad substrate range...
  48. Zawilska J, Skene D, Arendt J. Physiology and pharmacology of melatonin in relation to biological rhythms. Pharmacol Rep. 2009;61:383-410 pubmed
    ..In particular, it addresses the physiological, pathological, and therapeutic aspects of melatonin in humans, with an emphasis on biological rhythms. ..
  49. Ho A, Chik C. Modulation of Aanat gene transcription in the rat pineal gland. J Neurochem. 2010;112:321-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This review highlights the pineal gland as an excellent model system for studying neurotransmitter-regulated rhythmic gene expression...
  50. Huang Z, Liu T, Chattoraj A, Ahmed S, Wang M, Deng J, et al. Posttranslational regulation of TPH1 is responsible for the nightly surge of 5-HT output in the rat pineal gland. J Pineal Res. 2008;45:506-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support the model that increased nocturnal 5-HT synthesis in the pineal gland is mediated by the phosphorylation of TPH1 at the serine 58, which elevates the TPH1 protein content and activity at night. ..
  51. Mathes A, Engel L, Holthues H, Wolloscheck T, Spessert R. Daily profile in melanopsin transcripts depends on seasonal lighting conditions in the rat retina. J Neuroendocrinol. 2007;19:952-7 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that, in contrast to the AA-NAT gene, the daily and photoperiod-dependent regulation of the melanopsin gene does not rely on a circadian oscillator but is directly illumination-dependent. ..
  52. Al Ghoul W, Abu Shaqra S, Park B, Fazal N. Melatonin plays a protective role in postburn rodent gut pathophysiology. Int J Biol Sci. 2010;6:282-93 pubmed
    ..Moreover, supplementation by exogenous melatonin significantly suppresses gut inflammation, thus confirming that melatonin is protective against postburn inflammation. ..
  53. Peliciari Garcia R, Marçal A, Silva J, Carmo Buonfiglio D, Amaral F, Afeche S, et al. Insulin temporal sensitivity and its signaling pathway in the rat pineal gland. Life Sci. 2010;87:169-74 pubmed publisher
    ..A second question raised was whether windows of sensitivity to insulin exist in the pineal gland due to insulin rhythmic secretion pattern...
  54. Garidou Boof M, Sicard B, Bothorel B, Pitrosky B, Ribelayga C, Simonneaux V, et al. Environmental control and adrenergic regulation of pineal activity in the diurnal tropical rodent, Arvicanthis ansorgei. J Pineal Res. 2005;38:189-97 pubmed
  55. Besseau L, Vuilleumier R, Sauzet S, Boeuf G, Falcon J. [Photoperiodic control of melatonin synthesis in fish pineal and retina]. J Soc Biol. 2007;201:13-20 pubmed
    ..This review summarizes our current knowledge on the molecular and cellular mechanisms of the rhythmic control of production of an important circadian clock messenger, underlying their plasticity. ..
  56. Ahmed S, Deng J, Borjigin J. A new strain of rat for functional analysis of PINA. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2005;137:63-9 pubmed
    ..The separation of PINA mutation from both NAT and coat color mutations in the new LPP rats will permit better functional studies of PINA in pineal circadian physiology. ..
  57. Kim T, Kim J, Kim J, Myung J, Chae H, Woo K, et al. Rhythmic serotonin N-acetyltransferase mRNA degradation is essential for the maintenance of its circadian oscillation. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:3232-46 pubmed
  58. Appelbaum L, Anzulovich A, Baler R, Gothilf Y. Homeobox-clock protein interaction in zebrafish. A shared mechanism for pineal-specific and circadian gene expression. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:11544-51 pubmed
    ..OTX5-BMAL/CLOCK may act through this mechanism to simultaneously control pineal-specific and rhythmic expression of zfaanat2 and possibly also other pineal and retinal genes. ..
  59. Zawilska J, Lorenc A, Berezińska M, Vivien Roels B, Pevet P, Skene D. Diurnal and circadian rhythms in melatonin synthesis in the turkey pineal gland and retina. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2006;145:162-8 pubmed
    ..The rapid dampening of the rhythms under DD suggests that of these two regulatory factors, environmental light may be the primary stimulus in the maintenance of the high amplitude melatonin rhythms in the turkey. ..
  60. Bogomolova E, Adonyeva N, Gruntenko N, Rauschenbach I. Effects of 20-hydroxyecdysone and juvenile hormone on octopamine metabolism in females of Drosophila. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2009;70:244-53 pubmed publisher
    ..A possible mechanism of regulation of OA levels by 20E and JH in Drosophila females is discussed. ..
  61. Zheng W, Schwarzer D, Lebeau A, Weller J, Klein D, Cole P. Cellular stability of serotonin N-acetyltransferase conferred by phosphonodifluoromethylene alanine (Pfa) substitution for Ser-205. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:10462-7 pubmed
  62. Zhang Y, Semple Rowland S. Rhythmic expression of clock-controlled genes in retinal photoreceptors is sensitive to 18-beta-glycyrrhetnic acid and 18-alpha-glycyrrhetnic acid-3-hemisuccinate. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2005;135:30-9 pubmed
  63. Wellard J, Morgan I. Inhibitory modulation of photoreceptor melatonin synthesis via a nitric oxide-mediated mechanism. Neurochem Int. 2004;45:1143-53 pubmed
  64. Velarde E, Cerdá Reverter J, Alonso Gómez A, Sánchez E, Isorna E, Delgado M. Melatonin-synthesizing enzymes in pineal, retina, liver, and gut of the goldfish (Carassius): mRNA expression pattern and regulation of daily rhythms by lighting conditions. Chronobiol Int. 2010;27:1178-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the current results support the existence of melatonin synthesis in gut and liver of the goldfish...
  65. Silva C, Tamura E, Macedo S, Cecon E, Bueno Alves L, Farsky S, et al. Melatonin inhibits nitric oxide production by microvascular endothelial cells in vivo and in vitro. Br J Pharmacol. 2007;151:195-205 pubmed
    ..In addition, the melatonin effect was selective for some G protein-coupled receptors and most probably reflects an inhibition of Ca(2+) mobilization from intracellular stores. ..
  66. Ackermann K, Bux R, Rüb U, Korf H, Kauert G, Stehle J. Characterization of human melatonin synthesis using autoptic pineal tissue. Endocrinology. 2006;147:3235-42 pubmed
    ..In particular, our results give strong experimental support for the idea that transcriptional mechanisms are not dominant for the generation of rhythmic melatonin synthesis in the human pineal gland. ..
  67. Ziv L, Gothilf Y. Period2 expression pattern and its role in the development of the pineal circadian clock in zebrafish. Chronobiol Int. 2006;23:101-12 pubmed
    ..Thus, a possible role for early photoreception and light-induced zper2 expression in the development of clock-controlled rhythms remains to be investigated. ..
  68. Herwig A, Revel F, Saboureau M, Pevet P, Steinlechner S. Daily torpor alters multiple gene expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and pineal gland of the Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). Chronobiol Int. 2006;23:269-76 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the rhythmic gene expression in a peripheral oscillator, the pineal gland, is also affected. ..
  69. Fernandes P, Bothorel B, Clesse D, Monteiro A, Calgari C, Raison S, et al. Local corticosterone infusion enhances nocturnal pineal melatonin production in vivo. J Neuroendocrinol. 2009;21:90-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The present results support the hypothesis that the pineal gland is a sensor of inflammation mediators and that it plays a central role in the control of the inflammatory response. ..
  70. Vuilleumier R, Besseau L, Boeuf G, Piparelli A, Gothilf Y, Gehring W, et al. Starting the zebrafish pineal circadian clock with a single photic transition. Endocrinology. 2006;147:2273-9 pubmed
  71. Barbosa R, Scialfa J, Terra I, Cipolla Neto J, Simonneaux V, Afeche S. Tryptophan hydroxylase is modulated by L-type calcium channels in the rat pineal gland. Life Sci. 2008;82:529-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, it seems that the calcium influx through L-type high voltage-activated calcium channels is essential for the full activation of tryptophan hydroxylase leading to melatonin synthesis in the pineal gland. ..
  72. Ferry G, Ubeaud C, Dauly C, Mozo J, Guillard S, Berger S, et al. Purification of the recombinant human serotonin N-acetyltransferase (EC further characterization of and comparison with AANAT from other species. Protein Expr Purif. 2004;38:84-98 pubmed
  73. Kim T, Woo K, Cho S, Ha D, Jang S, Kim K. Rhythmic control of AANAT translation by hnRNP Q in circadian melatonin production. Genes Dev. 2007;21:797-810 pubmed
    ..This translational regulation of AANAT mRNA provides a novel aspect for achieving the circadian rhythmicity of vertebrate melatonin. ..
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    ..The significance of Aanat1 in extra-pineal and extra-retinal tissues remains to be elucidated; in the diencephalon, it might be associated to the so-called deep brain photoreceptor cells. ..
  75. Zilberman Peled B, Appelbaum L, Vallone D, Foulkes N, Anava S, Anzulovich A, et al. Transcriptional regulation of arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase-2 gene in the pineal gland of the gilthead seabream. J Neuroendocrinol. 2007;19:46-53 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that seabream aanat2 is a clock-controlled gene that is regulated by conserved mechanisms. ..
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    ..Together, these findings demonstrate that AANAT regulation in the Syrian hamster requires a complex intracellular signalling cascade, different from that described in laboratory rodents like mice and rats. ..
  77. Garbarino Pico E, Carpentieri A, Contin M, Sarmiento M, Brocco M, Panzetta P, et al. Retinal ganglion cells are autonomous circadian oscillators synthesizing N-acetylserotonin during the day. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:51172-81 pubmed
    ..These rhythms were also observed after the application of glutamate. The results demonstrate that chick retinal ganglion cells may function as autonomous circadian oscillators synthesizing a melatonin-like indole during the day. ..
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    ..Taken together, our data strongly suggest that cannabinoids inhibit AANAT activity and attenuate melatonin biosynthesis through intracellular actions without involvement of classical cannabinoid receptor-dependent signaling cascades. ..
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    ..Finally, the transgenic rice seedlings with high levels of melatonin showed elevated chlorophyll synthesis during cold stress, suggesting a role for melatonin in cold-stress resistance. ..
  81. Vuilleumier R, Boeuf G, Fuentes M, Gehring W, Falcon J. Cloning and early expression pattern of two melatonin biosynthesis enzymes in the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Eur J Neurosci. 2007;25:3047-57 pubmed
    ..This is in marked contrast with the situation observed with zebrafish Aanat2, indicating that the molecular mechanisms controlling the development of the pineal melatonin system have been modified during the evolution of Teleost. ..
  82. Ganguly S, Weller J, Ho A, Chemineau P, Malpaux B, Klein D. Melatonin synthesis: 14-3-3-dependent activation and inhibition of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase mediated by phosphoserine-205. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:1222-7 pubmed
    ..pS205 seems to be part of a previously unrecognized 14-3-3-binding motif-pS/pT (X1-2)-COOH, referred to here as mode III. ..
  83. Garcia R, Afeche S, Scialfa J, do Amaral F, dos Santos S, Lima F, et al. Insulin modulates norepinephrine-mediated melatonin synthesis in cultured rat pineal gland. Life Sci. 2008;82:108-14 pubmed
    ..We conclude that insulin potentiates NE-mediated melatonin synthesis in cultured rat pineal gland, potentially through post-transcriptional events. ..
  84. Han S, Kim T, Ha D, Kim K. Rhythmic expression of adenylyl cyclase VI contributes to the differential regulation of serotonin N-acetyltransferase by bradykinin in rat pineal glands. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:38228-34 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that bradykinin-induced calcium inhibits melatonin synthesis through the mediation of adenylyl cyclase type 6 expression. ..
  85. Wang H, Wu Z, Zhuang Q, Fei Q, Zhang J, Liu Y, et al. Association study of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase polymorphisms with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in Han Chinese. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2008;33:2199-203 pubmed publisher
    ..AANAT polymorphisms were not associated with AIS. These results suggested that TPH1 was an AIS predisposition gene, and there was a close relationship between the dyssynthesis of melatonin and AIS. ..