acetyl coa c acetyltransferase


Summary: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of ACETYL COA. Some enzymes called thiolase or thiolase-I have referred to this activity or to the activity of ACETYL-COA C-ACYLTRANSFERASE.

Top Publications

  1. Swinkels B, Gould S, Bodnar A, Rachubinski R, Subramani S. A novel, cleavable peroxisomal targeting signal at the amino-terminus of the rat 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase. EMBO J. 1991;10:3255-62 pubmed
    ..These results imply the existence of two different routes for targeting proteins into the peroxisomal matrix. ..
  2. Fukao T, Yamaguchi S, Kano M, Orii T, Fujiki Y, Osumi T, et al. Molecular cloning and sequence of the complementary DNA encoding human mitochondrial acetoacetyl-coenzyme A thiolase and study of the variant enzymes in cultured fibroblasts from patients with 3-ketothiolase deficiency. J Clin Invest. 1990;86:2086-92 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that different mechanisms are involved in the enzyme defects in the four patients. ..
  3. Zhang J, Lazarow P. PEB1 (PAS7) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a hydrophilic, intra-peroxisomal protein that is a member of the WD repeat family and is essential for the import of thiolase into peroxisomes. J Cell Biol. 1995;129:65-80 pubmed
    ..The PEB1 gene product does not cleave the thiolase-targeting sequence. It may function to draw thiolase into peroxisomes. ..
  4. Glover J, Andrews D, Rachubinski R. Saccharomyces cerevisiae peroxisomal thiolase is imported as a dimer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:10541-5 pubmed
    ..This observation suggests that interactions between thiolase subunits are not disrupted during translocation. ..
  5. Zhang J, Lazarow P. Peb1p (Pas7p) is an intraperoxisomal receptor for the NH2-terminal, type 2, peroxisomal targeting sequence of thiolase: Peb1p itself is targeted to peroxisomes by an NH2-terminal peptide. J Cell Biol. 1996;132:325-34 pubmed
    ..Peb1p is found in peroxisomes whether thiolase is expressed or not. These results suggest that Peb1p (Pas7p) is an intraperoxisomal receptor for the type 2 peroxisomal targeting signal. ..
  6. Rehling P, Marzioch M, Niesen F, Wittke E, Veenhuis M, Kunau W. The import receptor for the peroxisomal targeting signal 2 (PTS2) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is encoded by the PAS7 gene. EMBO J. 1996;15:2901-13 pubmed
  7. Titorenko V, Smith J, Szilard R, Rachubinski R. Pex20p of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is required for the oligomerization of thiolase in the cytosol and for its targeting to the peroxisome. J Cell Biol. 1998;142:403-20 pubmed
    ..Translocation of the thiolase homodimer into the peroxisomal matrix would release Pex20p monomers back to the cytosol, thereby permitting a new cycle of binding-oligomerization-targeting-release for Pex20p and thiolase...
  8. Oeljeklaus S, Fischer K, Gerhardt B. Glyoxysomal acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase and 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase from sunflower cotyledons. Planta. 2002;214:597-607 pubmed
  9. Kursula P, Sikkilä H, Fukao T, Kondo N, Wierenga R. High resolution crystal structures of human cytosolic thiolase (CT): a comparison of the active sites of human CT, bacterial thiolase, and bacterial KAS I. J Mol Biol. 2005;347:189-201 pubmed
    ..The second oxyanion hole is in both structures shaped by corresponding main chain peptide NH-groups. The possible importance of bound water molecules at the catalytic site of thiolase for the reaction mechanism is discussed. ..

More Information

Publications104 found, 100 shown here

  1. Meng Y, Li J. Cloning, expression and characterization of a thiolase gene from Clostridium pasteurianum. Biotechnol Lett. 2006;28:1227-32 pubmed
    ..The K(m) of this thiolase for acetoacetyl-CoA is 0.13 mM with 0.06 mM CoASH at pH 8.2, 25 degrees C and a V(max) value of 46 micromol min(-1) mg(-1). ..
  2. Carrie C, Murcha M, Millar A, Smith S, Whelan J. Nine 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolases (KATs) and acetoacetyl-CoA thiolases (ACATs) encoded by five genes in Arabidopsis thaliana are targeted either to peroxisomes or cytosol but not to mitochondria. Plant Mol Biol. 2007;63:97-108 pubmed
    ..We conclude that KATs and ACATs are present in the cytosol and peroxisome, but are not found in mitochondria. The implications for fatty acid beta-oxidation and for isoleucine degradation in mitochondria are discussed. ..
  3. Haapalainen A, Meriläinen G, Pirilä P, Kondo N, Fukao T, Wierenga R. Crystallographic and kinetic studies of human mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase: the importance of potassium and chloride ions for its structure and function. Biochemistry. 2007;46:4305-21 pubmed
    ..The structural analysis of the active site of T2 indicates that the Phe325-Pro326 dipeptide near the catalytic cavity is responsible for the exclusive 2-methyl-branched substrate specificity. ..
  4. Reddick J, Williams J. The mmgA gene from Bacillus subtilis encodes a degradative acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase. Biotechnol Lett. 2008;30:1045-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These methods indicated a preference for the reverse degradative thiolytic reaction, with a k(cat) of 80 s(-1), and a K(m) of 70 and 50 microM for CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA, respectively...
  5. Schwerdt G, Moller U, Huth W. Identification of the CoA-modified forms of mitochondrial acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase and of glutamate dehydrogenase as nearest-neighbour proteins. Biochem J. 1991;280 ( Pt 2):353-7 pubmed
    ..4.1.3) by amino acid sequence analysis. The results of co-immunoprecipitation and cross-linking characterize the CoA-modified forms of acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase and the glutamate dehydrogenase as nearest-neighbour proteins. ..
  6. Fukao T, Yamaguchi S, Scriver C, Dunbar G, Wakazono A, Kano M, et al. Molecular studies of mitochondrial acetoacetyl-coenzyme A thiolase deficiency in the two original families. Hum Mutat. 1993;2:214-20 pubmed
    ..The JB allele associates with Dutch ancestry (no consanguinity) and the JM allele with Chilean ancestry (distant consanguinity). ..
  7. Korman S. Inborn errors of isoleucine degradation: a review. Mol Genet Metab. 2006;89:289-99 pubmed
    ..The ineffectiveness of isoleucine restriction in MHBD deficiency is consistent with the additional roles of this multifunctional enzyme in sex steroid and neurosteroid metabolism and its interaction with amyloid-beta peptide. ..
  8. Fukao T, Nguyen H, Nguyen N, Vu D, Can N, Pham A, et al. A common mutation, R208X, identified in Vietnamese patients with mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (T2) deficiency. Mol Genet Metab. 2010;100:37-41 pubmed publisher
    ..DNA diagnosis of T2 deficiency may be applicable to the Vietnamese population. ..
  9. Krisans S. The role of peroxisomes in cholesterol metabolism. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1992;7:358-64 pubmed
    ..Moreover, cholesterol synthetic capacity is impaired in cultured skin fibroblasts obtained from patients with peroxisomal deficiency diseases. ..
  10. Kano M, Fukao T, Yamaguchi S, Orii T, Osumi T, Hashimoto T. Structure and expression of the human mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase-encoding gene. Gene. 1991;109:285-90 pubmed
    ..A CAT assay revealed that a 101-bp DNA fragment immediately upstream from the cap site has promoter activity, and suggested that a DNA fragment from bp -888 to -102 probably contains a negative regulatory element(s). ..
  11. Ueda M, Kanayama N, Tanaka A. Genetic evaluation of peroxisomal and cytosolic acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase isozymes in n-alkane-assimilating diploid yeast, Candida tropicalis. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2000;32 Spring:285-90 pubmed
  12. Reichmann H, Maltese W, DeVivo D. Enzymes of fatty acid beta-oxidation in developing brain. J Neurochem. 1988;51:339-44 pubmed
  13. Grasl Kraupp B, Huber W, Just W, Gibson G, Schulte Hermann R. Enhancement of peroxisomal enzymes, cytochrome P-452 and DNA synthesis in putative preneoplastic foci of rat liver treated with the peroxisome proliferator nafenopin. Carcinogenesis. 1993;14:1007-12 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, WBF may have a selective growth advantage as they 'overrespond' to the inducing effects of NAF on DNA synthesis and peroxisomal enzymes. ..
  14. Antalis C, Arnold T, Lee B, Buhman K, Siddiqui R. Docosahexaenoic acid is a substrate for ACAT1 and inhibits cholesteryl ester formation from oleic acid in MCF-10A cells. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2009;80:165-71 pubmed publisher
    ..In the manner of a poor substrate, DHA also inhibited the activity of ACAT1, a universally expressed enzyme involved in intracellular cholesterol homeostasis, in a cell type that does not secrete lipids or express ACAT2. ..
  15. Masuno M, Fukao T, Song X, Yamaguchi S, Orii T, Kondo N, et al. Assignment of the human cytosolic acetoacetyl-coenzyme A thiolase (ACAT2) gene to chromosome 6q25.3-q26. Genomics. 1996;36:217-8 pubmed
  16. Huang W, Jia J, Edwards P, Dehesh K, Schneider G, Lindqvist Y. Crystal structure of beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase II from E.coli reveals the molecular architecture of condensing enzymes. EMBO J. 1998;17:1183-91 pubmed publisher
    ..In spite of very low overall sequence homology, the structure of beta-ketoacyl synthase is similar to that of thiolase, an enzyme involved in the beta-oxidation pathway, indicating that both enzymes might have a common ancestor...
  17. Knoll A, Sargueil F, Salles J, Cassagne C, Garbay B. Gene expression of peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzymes in rat brain. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1999;74:217-20 pubmed
    ..Using the northern blot and RT-PCR techniques, a brain-specific expression is demonstrated for acyl-CoA oxidase 3II mRNA, thiolase-A and trans2,3enoyl-CoA hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase multifunctional enzyme type 2. ..
  18. Stolowich N, Petrescu A, Huang H, Martin G, Scott A, Schroeder F. Sterol carrier protein-2: structure reveals function. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2002;59:193-212 pubmed
    ..Thus, understanding the structural domains of the SCP-x/pro-SCP-2 gene and its respective posttranslationally processed proteins has provided new insights into their functions in intracellular targeting and metabolism of lipids. ..
  19. Bryleva E, Rogers M, Chang C, Buen F, Harris B, Rousselet E, et al. ACAT1 gene ablation increases 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol content in the brain and ameliorates amyloid pathology in mice with AD. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:3081-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study supports the potential of ACAT1 as a therapeutic target for treating certain forms of AD. ..
  20. Karpichev I, Luo Y, Marians R, Small G. A complex containing two transcription factors regulates peroxisome proliferation and the coordinate induction of beta-oxidation enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:69-80 pubmed
  21. Watanabe H, Yamaguchi S, Kimura M, Wakazono A, Song X, Fukao T, et al. Practical assay method of cytosolic acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase by rapid release of cytosolic enzymes from cultured lymphocytes using digitonin. Tohoku J Exp Med. 1998;184:29-38 pubmed
    ..Hence, this method will prove to be useful for accurate assessment of defects of CT as well as T2 or SCOT, all involved in ketone body catabolism. ..
  22. Lopez D, Irby R, McLean M. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha induces rat sterol carrier protein x promoter activity through two peroxisome proliferator-response elements. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2003;205:169-84 pubmed
    ..This investigation indicates that similar to other genes involved in beta-oxidation, SCPx transcription may be controlled by fatty acid levels via PPARalpha. ..
  23. Ohsuga J. [Molecular mechanism of foam cell formation]. Nihon Rinsho. 2007;65 Suppl 7:71-6 pubmed
  24. Hanai T, Atsumi S, Liao J. Engineered synthetic pathway for isopropanol production in Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:7814-8 pubmed
    ..6 mM isopropanol in shake flasks with a yield of 43.5% (mol/mol) in the production phase. To our knowledge, this work is the first to produce isopropanol in E. coli, and the titer exceeded that from the native producers...
  25. Petriv O, Pilgrim D, Rachubinski R, Titorenko V. RNA interference of peroxisome-related genes in C. elegans: a new model for human peroxisomal disorders. Physiol Genomics. 2002;10:79-91 pubmed
    ..elegans as a valuable model system with which to study the molecular and physiological defects underlying the human peroxisomal disorders...
  26. Sane A, Sinnett D, Delvin E, Bendayan M, Marcil V, Menard D, et al. Localization and role of NPC1L1 in cholesterol absorption in human intestine. J Lipid Res. 2006;47:2112-20 pubmed
    ..Together, our data suggest that NPC1L1 contributes to intestinal cholesterol homeostasis and possibly cooperates with SR-BI to mediate cholesterol absorption in humans. ..
  27. Wan J, Cheng B, Wang Y, Mei C, Liu W, Ke L, et al. [Ghrelin down-regulates ACAT-1 in THP-1 derived foam cells via growth hormone secretagogue receptor-dependent pathway]. Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi. 2009;37:1030-4 pubmed
    ..25 +/- 0.09, 1.77 +/- 0.11, 2.30 +/- 0.09, also higher than that of the Ghrelin group (0.86 +/- 0.08). Ghrelin might interfere atherosclerosis by down-regulating the expression of ACAT-1 via GHS-R pathway. ..
  28. Kishino J, Hanasaki K, Kato T, Arita H. Synergistic effect of thromboxane A2 and N-formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine on platelet-activating factor synthesis in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1991;1092:169-74 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that TXA2 and FMLP synergistically activate human PMN to induce PAF synthesis and this effect of TXA2 is mediated through its specific receptor. ..
  29. Kayer M. Disorders of ketone production and utilization. Mol Genet Metab. 2006;87:281-3 pubmed
  30. Ying J, Yang S, Liu S, Jiang C. [Biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates and its metabolic pathway in Comamonas sp. strain CNB-1]. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2007;47:616-21 pubmed
    ..Mass of expressed protein was detected and the enzyme activities increased greatly in contrast to wild CNB-1 strain, which is about 4.1, 71, and 2882 folds of activities of CNB-1. ..
  31. Ohba T, Holt J, Billheimer J, Strauss J. Human sterol carrier protein x/sterol carrier protein 2 gene has two promoters. Biochemistry. 1995;34:10660-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, 8-Br-cAMP and phorbol myristate acetate were found to increase SCPx promoter activity in a host cell-specific manner. The SCP2 promoter was not significantly influenced by these agents.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  32. Rylott E, Hooks M, Graham I. Co-ordinate regulation of genes involved in storage lipid mobilization in Arabidopsis thaliana. Biochem Soc Trans. 2001;29:283-7 pubmed
  33. Atshaves B, McIntosh A, Landrock D, Payne H, Mackie J, Maeda N, et al. Effect of SCP-x gene ablation on branched-chain fatty acid metabolism. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007;292:G939-51 pubmed
    ..In summary, the present work with SCP-x gene-ablated mice demonstrates, for the first time, a direct physiological relationship between lack of SCP-x and decreased ability to metabolize branched-chain lipids. ..
  34. Knoll A, Salles J, Sargueil F, Cassagne C, Garbay B. Peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzyme gene expression in the developing mouse brain. Neurosci Lett. 2000;285:201-4 pubmed
  35. Winkler U, Säftel W, Stabenau H. A new type of a multifunctional beta-oxidation enzyme in euglena. Plant Physiol. 2003;131:753-62 pubmed
  36. Ohshiro T, Namatame I, Nagai K, Sekiguchi T, Doi T, Takahashi T, et al. Absolute stereochemistry of fungal beauveriolide III and ACAT inhibitory activity of four stereoisomers. J Org Chem. 2006;71:7643-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, the 3S configuration of BeauIII is important for this activity. Furthermore, 23a and 23d showed rather specific inhibition against the ACAT1 isozyme. ..
  37. Chen J, Zhao X, Yang L, Hu G, Lu M, Xiong Y, et al. RNA secondary structures located in the interchromosomal region of human ACAT1 chimeric mRNA are required to produce the 56-kDa isoform. Cell Res. 2008;18:921-36 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanistic work provides further support for the biological significance of the chimeric nature of the human ACAT1 transcript. ..
  38. Meriläinen G, Poikela V, Kursula P, Wierenga R. The thiolase reaction mechanism: the importance of Asn316 and His348 for stabilizing the enolate intermediate of the Claisen condensation. Biochemistry. 2009;48:11011-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Cys89, Asn316, and His348 form the CNH-catalytic triad of the thiolase superfamily. Our findings are also discussed in the context of the importance of this triad for the catalytic mechanism of other enzymes of the thiolase superfamily...
  39. Lei X, Fujiwara Y, Chang C, Chang T, Takeya M, Sakashita N. Association of ACAT1-positive vesicles with late endosomes/ lysosomes in cholesterol-rich human macrophages. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2010;17:740-50 pubmed
    ..Our results indicated that cholesterol-loaded human macrophages produce LE/LS in close association with ACAT1, and may promote efficient esterification of modified LDL-derived free cholesterol on LE/LS. ..
  40. Ossendorp B, Voorhout W, van Amerongen A, Brunink F, Batenburg J, Wirtz K. Tissue-specific distribution of a peroxisomal 46-kDa protein related to the 58-kDa protein (sterol carrier protein x; sterol carrier protein 2/3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase). Arch Biochem Biophys. 1996;334:251-60 pubmed
    ..The 44-kDa protein was shown to be identical to mitochondrial sarcomeric creatine kinase, which has a peptide segment of five amino acid residues in common with peptide I. ..
  41. Smith J, Rachubinski R. A role for the peroxin Pex8p in Pex20p-dependent thiolase import into peroxisomes of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:1618-25 pubmed
    ..This finding, together with the fact that Pex8p is intraperoxisomal, suggests that Pex20p may accompany thiolase into peroxisomes during import. ..
  42. Peiretti E, Dessì S, Mulas C, Abete C, Norfo C, Putzolu M, et al. Modulation of cholesterol homeostasis by antiproliferative drugs in human pterygium fibroblasts. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:3450-8 pubmed
  43. Lei L, Xiong Y, Chen J, Yang J, Wang Y, Yang X, et al. TNF-alpha stimulates the ACAT1 expression in differentiating monocytes to promote the CE-laden cell formation. J Lipid Res. 2009;50:1057-67 pubmed publisher
  44. van den Brink D, Brites P, Haasjes J, Wierzbicki A, Mitchell J, Lambert Hamill M, et al. Identification of PEX7 as the second gene involved in Refsum disease. Am J Hum Genet. 2003;72:471-7 pubmed
  45. Brites P, Motley A, Gressens P, Mooyer P, Ploegaert I, Everts V, et al. Impaired neuronal migration and endochondral ossification in Pex7 knockout mice: a model for rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata. Hum Mol Genet. 2003;12:2255-67 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that Pex7 knockout mice provide an important model to study the role of peroxisomal functioning in the pathogenesis of the human disorder...
  46. Hu H, Liao H, Zhang J, Wu W, Yan J, Yan Y, et al. First identification of xanthone sulfonamides as potent acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2010;20:3094-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, a molecular model for the binding between 2n and the active site of ACAT-2 was provided based computational docking results. ..
  47. Wijkhuisen A, Djouadi F, Vilar J, Merlet Benichou C, Bastin J. Birth-related changes in energy metabolism enzymes and Na-K-ATPase in kidney proximal convoluted tubule cells. Am J Physiol. 1997;272:C787-93 pubmed
  48. Ferdinandusse S, Denis S, van Berkel E, Dacremont G, Wanders R. Peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation disorders and 58 kDa sterol carrier protein X (SCPx). Activity measurements in liver and fibroblasts using a newly developed method. J Lipid Res. 2000;41:336-42 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, in all patients studied with a defect in peroxisomal beta-oxidation of unknown origin, SCPx was found to be normally active, indicating that human SCPx deficiency remains to be identified. ..
  49. Florova G, Kazanina G, Reynolds K. Enzymes involved in fatty acid and polyketide biosynthesis in Streptomyces glaucescens: role of FabH and FabD and their acyl carrier protein specificity. Biochemistry. 2002;41:10462-71 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the ACP specificity of FabH, isotope labeling studies, and a demonstrated alternative mechanism for initiation of the PKS process provide unequivocal evidence that FabH is involved only in the FAS process. ..
  50. Zhang G, Fukao T, Sakurai S, Yamada K, Michael Gibson K, Kondo N. Identification of Alu-mediated, large deletion-spanning exons 2-4 in a patient with mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase deficiency. Mol Genet Metab. 2006;89:222-6 pubmed
    ..Cloning and sequencing long range PCR products revealed a 6.4kb deletion. Alu element-mediated unequal homologous recombination between an Alu-Sx in intron 1 and another Alu-Y in intron 4 appears to be responsible for this deletion. ..
  51. Iqbal J, Rudel L, Hussain M. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein enhances cellular cholesteryl esterification by relieving product inhibition. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:19967-80 pubmed publisher
    ..We speculate that non-lipoprotein-producing cells may use different mechanisms to alleviate product inhibition and modulate cholesteryl ester biosynthesis. ..
  52. Papadopoulos P, Bousette N, Al Ramli W, You Z, Behm D, Ohlstein E, et al. Targeted overexpression of the human urotensin receptor transgene in smooth muscle cells: effect of UT antagonism in ApoE knockout mice fed with Western diet. Atherosclerosis. 2009;204:395-404 pubmed publisher
    ..05). The present findings demonstrate an important role for UT in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The use of UT receptor antagonists may provide a beneficial tool in the management of this debilitating disease process. ..
  53. Nakamuta M, Fujino T, Yada R, Yada M, Yasutake K, Yoshimoto T, et al. Impact of cholesterol metabolism and the LXRalpha-SREBP-1c pathway on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Int J Mol Med. 2009;23:603-8 pubmed
    ..Overproduction of cholesterol may lead to an increased level of oxysterols, activation of LXRalpha and SREBP-1c, and enhanced fatty acid synthesis. ..
  54. Arnauld S, Fidaleo M, Clémencet M, Chevillard G, Athias A, Gresti J, et al. Modulation of the hepatic fatty acid pool in peroxisomal 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase B-null mice exposed to the selective PPARalpha agonist Wy14,643. Biochimie. 2009;91:1376-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Ultimately, not only the amount but also the quality of the hepatic fatty acid pool is modulated upon the deletion of Thb. ..
  55. Simon M, Binder M, Adam G, Hartig A, Ruis H. Control of peroxisome proliferation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by ADR1, SNF1 (CAT1, CCR1) and SNF4 (CAT3). Yeast. 1992;8:303-9 pubmed
    ..Results of immunofluorescence experiments are consistent with these observations. No peroxisomes were detected in snf1 and snf4 mutants by immunogold labelling as well as by immunofluorescence. ..
  56. Kroetz D, Yook P, Costet P, Bianchi P, Pineau T. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha controls the hepatic CYP4A induction adaptive response to starvation and diabetes. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:31581-9 pubmed
    ..Similarly, induction of hepatic thiolase and bifunctional enzyme also required expression of PPARalpha. This represents the first evidence for the pathophysiologically induced activation of a nuclear receptor. ..
  57. Ueda M, Kanayama N, Kamasawa N, Osumi M, Tanaka A. Up-regulation of the peroxisomal beta-oxidation system occurs in butyrate-grown Candida tropicalis following disruption of the gene encoding peroxisomal 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003;1631:160-8 pubmed
    ..tropicalis and a novel insight into the regulation of the peroxisomal beta-oxidation system. ..
  58. Dove D, Su Y, Zhang W, Jerome W, Swift L, Linton M, et al. ACAT1 deficiency disrupts cholesterol efflux and alters cellular morphology in macrophages. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005;25:128-34 pubmed
    ..Together, these data show that macrophage ACAT1 influences the efflux of both cellular and lipoprotein-derived cholesterol and propose a pathway for the pro-atherogenic transformation of ACAT1(-/-) macrophages. ..
  59. Daugherty A, Rateri D, Lu H. As macrophages indulge, atherosclerotic lesions bulge. Circ Res. 2008;102:1445-7 pubmed publisher
  60. Erdmann R, Blobel G. Identification of Pex13p a peroxisomal membrane receptor for the PTS1 recognition factor. J Cell Biol. 1996;135:111-21 pubmed
  61. Azuma Y, Date K, Ohno K, Matsushiro S, Nobuhara Y, Yamada T. NTE-122, an acyl-coa:cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor, prevents the progression of atherogenesis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Jpn J Pharmacol. 2001;86:120-3 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that NTE-122 is capable of exhibiting anti-atherosclerotic effects. ..
  62. Dyer D, Lovell S, Thoden J, Holden H, Rayment I, Lan Q. The structural determination of an insect sterol carrier protein-2 with a ligand-bound C16 fatty acid at 1.35-A resolution. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:39085-91 pubmed
    ..K., and Glumoff, T. (2001) J. Mol. Biol. 313, 1127-1138). The present study suggests that the binding pocket in the SCP-2 family of proteins may exhibit conformational flexibility to allow coordination of a variety of lipids. ..
  63. Shirouchi B, Nagao K, Furuya K, Inoue N, Inafuku M, Nasu M, et al. Effect of dietary phosphatidylinositol on cholesterol metabolism in Zucker (fa/fa) rats. J Oleo Sci. 2009;58:111-5 pubmed
    ..Our study suggests that dietary PI normalizes cholesterol metabolism through the enhancement of fecal bile acid excretion in the metabolic syndrome model rats. ..
  64. Antalis C, Arnold T, Rasool T, Lee B, Buhman K, Siddiqui R. High ACAT1 expression in estrogen receptor negative basal-like breast cancer cells is associated with LDL-induced proliferation. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;122:661-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Differences in lipid uptake and storage capability may at least partially explain the differential effect of a low-fat diet on human breast cancer recurrence. ..
  65. Liu S, Bischoff K, Qureshi N, Hughes S, Rich J. Functional expression of the thiolase gene thl from Clostridium beijerinckii P260 in Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus buchneri. N Biotechnol. 2010;27:283-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reports the first step toward developing a butanolgenic LAB through the introduction of the butanol pathway into butanol-tolerant strains of LAB...
  66. Hertz R, Bar Tana J. Induction of peroxisomal beta-oxidation genes by retinoic acid in cultured rat hepatocytes. Biochem J. 1992;281 ( Pt 1):41-3 pubmed
    ..A putative 5'-flanking response element for retinoic acid may be found within the enhancer region involved in the induction of peroxisomal genes by xenobiotic amphipathic carboxylates. ..
  67. Ashworth A. Two acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase genes located in the t-complex region of mouse chromosome 17 partially overlap the Tcp-1 and Tcp-1x genes. Genomics. 1993;18:195-8 pubmed
    ..Both Acat genes appear to be transcribed in several mouse tissues. An ACAT gene also overlaps the TCP1 gene in humans, suggesting that this close linkage may have some functional significance. ..
  68. Mullany P, Clayton C, Pallen M, Slone R, al Saleh A, Tabaqchali S. Genes encoding homologues of three consecutive enzymes in the butyrate/butanol-producing pathway of Clostridium acetobutylicum are clustered on the Clostridium difficile chromosome. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1994;124:61-7 pubmed
  69. Sewell A, Herwig J, Wiegratz I, Lehnert W, Niederhoff H, Song X, et al. Mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (beta-ketothiolase) deficiency and pregnancy. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1998;21:441-2 pubmed
  70. Yamagami S, Iida T, Nagata Y, Ohta A, Takagi M. Isolation and characterization of acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase gene essential for n-decane assimilation in yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;282:832-8 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that PAT1 encodes peroxisomal acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase and is essential for n-decane utilization in Y. lipolytica. ..
  71. Liebe B, Alsheimer M, Hoog C, Benavente R, Scherthan H. Telomere attachment, meiotic chromosome condensation, pairing, and bouquet stage duration are modified in spermatocytes lacking axial elements. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:827-37 pubmed
    ..It appears that the AE is required for chromosome condensation, rapid exit from the bouquet stage, and fine-tuning of homolog pairing. ..
  72. Gerasimenko I, Ma X, Sheludko Y, Mentele R, Lottspeich F, Stockigt J. Purification and partial amino acid sequences of the enzyme vinorine synthase involved in a crucial step of ajmaline biosynthesis. Bioorg Med Chem. 2004;12:2781-6 pubmed
    ..Based on the partial sequences vinorine synthase is probably a novel member of the BAHD enzyme super family. ..
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