Genomes and Genes
Summary: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
- Traverso J, Giglione C, Meinnel T. High-throughput profiling of N-myristoylation substrate specificity across species including pathogens. Proteomics. 2013;13:25-36 pubmed publisher..This should lead to strongly improved knowledge of the number and function of myristoylated proteins occurring in any proteome. ..
- Rampoldi F, Sandhoff R, Owen R, Grone H, Porubsky S. A new, robust, and nonradioactive approach for exploring N-myristoylation. J Lipid Res. 2012;53:2459-68 pubmed publisher..This versatile assay is applicable for exploring recombinant NMTs with regard to their activity, substrate specificity, and possible inhibitors as well as for measuring NMT-activity in tissues. ..
- Gao S, Maeda T, Okano K, Palczewski K. A microparticle/hydrogel combination drug-delivery system for sustained release of retinoids. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:6314-23 pubmed
- Batistic O. Genomics and localization of the Arabidopsis DHHC-cysteine-rich domain S-acyltransferase protein family. Plant Physiol. 2012;160:1597-612 pubmed publisher..This large concentration of plant PAT activity to the plasma membrane suggests that the plant cellular S-acylation machinery is functionally different compared with that of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and mammalians...
- Mohiman N, Argentini M, Batt S, Cornu D, Masi M, Eggeling L, et al. The ppm operon is essential for acylation and glycosylation of lipoproteins in Corynebacterium glutamicum. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46225 pubmed publisher..smegmatis. Ms-Ppm2 is part of the ppm operon in which Ppm1, a polyprenol-monophosphomannose synthase, has been shown to be essential in lipoglycans synthesis but whose function in lipoprotein biosynthesis is completely unknown...
- Lee H, Inoue T, Sasaki J, Kubo T, Matsuda S, Nakasaki Y, et al. LPIAT1 regulates arachidonic acid content in phosphatidylinositol and is required for cortical lamination in mice. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:4689-700 pubmed publisher..Taken together, these results demonstrate that AA-containing PI/PI phosphates play an important role in normal cortical lamination during brain development in mice. ..
- Masoudi A, Raetz C, Zhou P, Pemble C. Chasing acyl carrier protein through a catalytic cycle of lipid A production. Nature. 2014;505:422-6 pubmed publisher..carrier protein shuttles acyl intermediates linked to its prosthetic 4'-phosphopantetheine group among four acyltransferases, including LpxD...
- Rackham M, Brannigan J, Moss D, Yu Z, Wilkinson A, Holder A, et al. Discovery of novel and ligand-efficient inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax N-myristoyltransferase. J Med Chem. 2013;56:371-5 pubmed publisher..The binding mode of this series was determined by crystallography and shows a novel binding mode for the benzothiophene ring...
- Zheng B, DeRan M, Li X, Liao X, Fukata M, Wu X. 2-Bromopalmitate analogues as activity-based probes to explore palmitoyl acyltransferases. J Am Chem Soc. 2013;135:7082-5 pubmed publisher..Cysteine-rich Asp-His-His-Cys (DHHC) domain-containing enzymes are evolutionarily conserved protein palmitoyl acyltransferases (PATs). The human genome encodes 23 DHHC-PATs that regulate diverse cellular functions...
- Yeom D, Kim S, Lee M, Lee J. Pleiotropic effects of acyltransferases on various virulence-related phenotypes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Genes Cells. 2013;18:682-93 pubmed publisher..Because the major signal molecules of QS are acyl homoserine lactones (acyl-HSLs), acyltransferases, the enzymes that act upon acyl group transfer could affect the QS signaling and QS-related virulence ..
- Linder M, Jennings B. Mechanism and function of DHHC S-acyltransferases. Biochem Soc Trans. 2013;41:29-34 pubmed publisher..A family of PATs (protein acyltransferases) is responsible for modifying proteins with palmitate or other long-chain fatty acids on the cytoplasmic face ..
- Yu Z, Brannigan J, Moss D, Brzozowski A, Wilkinson A, Holder A, et al. Design and synthesis of inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum N-myristoyltransferase, a promising target for antimalarial drug discovery. J Med Chem. 2012;55:8879-90 pubmed publisher..These molecules provide a valuable starting point for further development. ..
- Davis J, Perello M, Choi D, Magrisso I, Kirchner H, Pfluger P, et al. GOAT induced ghrelin acylation regulates hedonic feeding. Horm Behav. 2012;62:598-604 pubmed publisher..These data highlight the significance of the GOAT-ghrelin system for the mediation of food motivation and hedonic feeding. ..
- Song L, Yang J, Duan P, Xu J, Luo X, Luo F, et al. MicroRNA-24 inhibits osteosarcoma cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo by targeting LPAAT?. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2013;535:128-35 pubmed publisher..In conclusion, our study indicates that miR-24 is reduced in osteosarcoma cells, contributing to up-regulation of LPAAT? and resultant osteosarcoma cell proliferation...
- Rastegar F, Gao J, Shenaq D, Luo Q, Shi Q, Kim S, et al. Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase ? (LPAAT?) promotes the tumor growth of human osteosarcoma. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14182 pubmed publisher..Although elevated expression of LPAAT? has been reported in several types of human tumors, the role of LPAAT? in osteosarcoma progression has yet to be elucidated...
- Kasai M, Koseki M, Goto K, Masuta C, Ishii S, Hellens R, et al. Coincident sequence-specific RNA degradation of linked transgenes in the plant genome. Plant Mol Biol. 2012;78:259-73 pubmed publisher..These results implicate the involvement of read-through transcription and distinct phases of RNA degradation in the coincident PTGS of linked transgenes and provide new insights into the destabilization of transgene expression. ..
- Gahete M, C rdoba Chac n J, Hergueta Redondo M, Mart nez Fuentes A, Kineman R, Moreno Bueno G, et al. A novel human ghrelin variant (In1-ghrelin) and ghrelin-O-acyltransferase are overexpressed in breast cancer: potential pathophysiological relevance. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23302 pubmed publisher..Taken together, our results provide evidence that In1-ghrelin is a novel element of the ghrelin family with a potential pathophysiological role in breast cancer...
- Pagac M, de la Mora H, Duperrex C, Roubaty C, Vionnet C, Conzelmann A. Topology of 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases SLC1 and ALE1 and related membrane-bound O-acyltransferases (MBOATs) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:36438-47 pubmed publisher..for all glycerophospholipids and triacylglycerols, is made de novo by the 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases Ale1p and Slc1p...
- Rani S, Krishna T, Saha S, Negi A, Rajasekharan R. Defective in cuticular ridges (DCR) of Arabidopsis thaliana, a gene associated with surface cutin formation, encodes a soluble diacylglycerol acyltransferase. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:38337-47 pubmed publisher..Overexpression of At5g23940 in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae quadruple mutant deficient in DAG acyltransferases resulted in TAG accumulation...
- Ampomah O, Huss Danell K. Nodulation of Thermopsis lupinoides by a Mesorhizobium huakuii strain with a unique nodA gene in Kamtchatka, Russia. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:5513-6 pubmed publisher..The isolate did not form nodules on Thermopsis chinensis or Thermopsis caroliniana, which suggests it may be host specific...
- Zhou X, Yuan X, Shi Z, Meng D, Jiang W, Wu L, et al. Hyperproduction of poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) from glucose by recombinant Escherichia coli. Microb Cell Fact. 2012;11:54 pubmed publisher..At present, high production cost is a big obstacle for large scale production of poly(4HB)...
- Ren Q, de Roo G, Witholt B, Zinn M, Thöny Meyer L. Influence of growth stage on activities of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) polymerase and PHA depolymerase in Pseudomonas putida U. BMC Microbiol. 2010;10:254 pubmed publisher..Moreover PhaC activity was found to be decreased, whereas PhaZ activity increased during growth. Availability of phasins on PHA granules affected the activity of PhaC. ..
- Zeidman R, Buckland G, Cebecauer M, Eissmann P, Davis D, Magee A. DHHC2 is a protein S-acyltransferase for Lck. Mol Membr Biol. 2011;28:473-86 pubmed publisher..DHHC2 localizes primarily to the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus suggesting that it is involved in S-acylation of newly-synthesized or recycling Lck involved in T cell signalling. ..
- Boyle N, Page M, Liu B, Blaby I, Casero D, Kropat J, et al. Three acyltransferases and nitrogen-responsive regulator are implicated in nitrogen starvation-induced triacylglycerol accumulation in Chlamydomonas. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:15811-25 pubmed publisher..Three genes encoding acyltransferases, DGAT1, DGTT1, and PDAT1, are induced by nitrogen starvation and are likely to have a role in TAG ..
- Shen H, Wang C, Yang E, Xu Y, Liu W, Yan J, et al. Novel recombinant BCG coexpressing Ag85B, ESAT-6 and mouse TNF-alpha induces significantly enhanced cellular immune and antibody responses in C57BL/6 mice. Microbiol Immunol. 2010;54:435-41 pubmed publisher..The results indicate that rBCG-Ag85B-Esat6-TNF-alpha is a promising candidate for further study. ..
- Qiao F, Chang X, Nick P. The cytoskeleton enhances gene expression in the response to the Harpin elicitor in grapevine. J Exp Bot. 2010;61:4021-31 pubmed publisher..These findings are discussed with respect to a role for microtubules as positive regulators of defence-induced gene expression. ..
- Cuesta Seijo J, Neale C, Khan M, Moktar J, Tran C, Bishop R, et al. PagP crystallized from SDS/cosolvent reveals the route for phospholipid access to the hydrocarbon ruler. Structure. 2010;18:1210-9 pubmed publisher..In this way, the phospholipid head group can remain exposed to the cell exterior while the lipid acyl chain remains in a predominantly hydrophobic environment as it translocates to the protein interior. ..
- Layre E, Paepe D, Larrouy Maumus G, Vaubourgeix J, Mundayoor S, Lindner B, et al. Deciphering sulfoglycolipids of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Lipid Res. 2011;52:1098-110 pubmed publisher..Our results further confirm the requirement of MmpL8 for the complete assembly of the tetra-acylated forms of SGL and also provide, by the discovery of new intermediates, insights in terms of the possible SGL biosynthetic pathways. ..
- Hillmann F, Argentini M, Buddelmeijer N. Kinetics and phospholipid specificity of apolipoprotein N-acyltransferase. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:27936-46 pubmed publisher..In contrast to earlier in vitro observations, the N-acyltransferase activity was strongly affected by the phospholipid headgroup and acyl chain composition. ..
- Lim C, Kola B, Grossman A, Korbonits M. The expression of ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) in human tissues. Endocr J. 2011;58:707-10 pubmed..Identification of GOAT expression in various tissues support the concept that in addition to the important endocrine effect of acylated ghrelin, the paracrine effects of locally synthetised and acylated ghrelin may be important. ..
- Li J, Romestaing C, Han X, Li Y, Hao X, Wu Y, et al. Cardiolipin remodeling by ALCAT1 links oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction to obesity. Cell Metab. 2010;12:154-65 pubmed publisher..Collectively, these findings identify a key role of ALCAT1 in regulating CL remodeling, mitochondrial dysfunction, and susceptibility to DIO. ..
- Serebryakova M, Demina I, Galyamina M, Kondratov I, Ladygina V, Govorun V. The acylation state of surface lipoproteins of mollicute Acholeplasma laidlawii. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:22769-76 pubmed publisher..laidlawii encodes a lipoprotein N-acyltransferase activity. We hypothesize that N-acyltransferases encoded by genes non-homologous to N-acyltransferases of gram-negative bacteria are also present in other ..
- Tuominen L, Johnson V, Tsai C. Differential phylogenetic expansions in BAHD acyltransferases across five angiosperm taxa and evidence of divergent expression among Populus paralogues. BMC Genomics. 2011;12:236 pubmed publisherBAHD acyltransferases are involved in the synthesis and elaboration of a wide variety of secondary metabolites...
- Roh H, Jeong C, Fujioka S, Kim Y, Lee S, Ahn J, et al. Genetic evidence for the reduction of brassinosteroid levels by a BAHD acyltransferase-like protein in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2012;159:696-709 pubmed publisher..Taken together, our study provides new insights into a mechanism that maintains BR homeostasis in Arabidopsis, likely via acyl conjugation of BRs. ..
- Goncalves V, Brannigan J, Whalley D, Ansell K, Saxty B, Holder A, et al. Discovery of Plasmodium vivax N-myristoyltransferase inhibitors: screening, synthesis, and structural characterization of their binding mode. J Med Chem. 2012;55:3578-82 pubmed publisher..A set of analogues was designed and tested to define the chemical groups relevant for activity and selectivity. ..
- Yi C, Heppner K, Kirchner H, Tong J, Bielohuby M, Gaylinn B, et al. The GOAT-ghrelin system is not essential for hypoglycemia prevention during prolonged calorie restriction. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32100 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, no differences in insulin or IGF-1 levels were observed between genotypes. The endogenous GOAT-ghrelin-GHSR system is not essential for the maintenance of euglycemia during prolonged calorie restriction. ..
- Gorleku O, Barns A, Prescott G, Greaves J, Chamberlain L. Endoplasmic reticulum localization of DHHC palmitoyltransferases mediated by lysine-based sorting signals. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:39573-84 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that targeting of intrinsically active DHHC proteins to defined membrane compartments is an important factor contributing to spatially restricted patterns of substrate palmitoylation. ..
- An W, Li Y, Xu G, Zhao J, Xiang X, Ding L, et al. Modulation of ghrelin O-acyltransferase expression in pancreatic islets. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2010;26:707-16 pubmed publisher..Our study suggests that GOAT is present in pancreatic islet cells and that insulin inhibits the expression of GOAT via the mediation of mTOR signaling. ..
- van Erp H, Bates P, Burgal J, Shockey J, Browse J. Castor phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase facilitates efficient metabolism of hydroxy fatty acids in transgenic Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2011;155:683-93 pubmed publisher..We show the usefulness of RcPDAT1A for engineering plants with high levels of HFAs and alleviating bottlenecks due to the production of unusual FAs in transgenic oilseeds...
- Williams S, Stanley P. Premature ovarian failure in mice with oocytes lacking core 1-derived O-glycans and complex N-glycans. Endocrinology. 2011;152:1057-66 pubmed publisher..The absence of developing follicles, ovary dysfunction, reduced testosterone and inhibin A, and elevated FSH in double-mutant females lacking C1galt1 and Mgat1 in oocytes represents a new mouse model for the study of follicular POF. ..
- Kluwe J, Wongsiriroj N, Troeger J, Gwak G, Dapito D, Pradere J, et al. Absence of hepatic stellate cell retinoid lipid droplets does not enhance hepatic fibrosis but decreases hepatic carcinogenesis. Gut. 2011;60:1260-8 pubmed publisher..The absence of retinoid-containing HSC lipid droplets does not promote HSC activation but reduces hepatocarcinogenesis. ..
- Xu W, Yu Y, Zhou Q, Ding J, Dai L, Xie X, et al. Expression pattern, genomic structure, and promoter analysis of the gene encoding stilbene synthase from Chinese wild Vitis pseudoreticulata. J Exp Bot. 2011;62:2745-61 pubmed publisher..These findings further our understanding of the regulation of STS expression in a resistant grapevine and provide a new pathogen-inducible promoter system for the genetic improvement of plant disease resistance. ..
- Hunt M, Siponen M, Alexson S. The emerging role of acyl-CoA thioesterases and acyltransferases in regulating peroxisomal lipid metabolism. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1822:1397-410 pubmed publisher..contain one bile acid-CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase (BAAT), whereas mouse peroxisomes contain three acyltransferases (BAAT and acyl-CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferases 1 and 2: ACNAT1 and ACNAT2)...
- Hemsley P, Grierson C. The ankyrin repeats and DHHC S-acyl transferase domain of AKR1 act independently to regulate switching from vegetative to mating states in yeast. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28799 pubmed publisher..Proteins similar to AKR1 are found in all eukaryotes and our results have broad implications for future work on these proteins and the control of switching between G?? regulated pathways. ..
- Imae R, Inoue T, Kimura M, Kanamori T, Tomioka N, Kage Nakadai E, et al. Intracellular phospholipase A1 and acyltransferase, which are involved in Caenorhabditis elegans stem cell divisions, determine the sn-1 fatty acyl chain of phosphatidylinositol. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:3114-24 pubmed publisher..We propose that the sn-1 fatty acid of PI is determined by ipla-1 and acl-8, -9, -10 and crucial for asymmetric divisions. ..
- Günther C, Chervin C, Marsh K, Newcomb R, Souleyre E. Characterisation of two alcohol acyltransferases from kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) reveals distinct substrate preferences. Phytochemistry. 2011;72:700-10 pubmed publisherVolatile esters are key compounds of kiwifruit flavour and are formed by alcohol acyltransferases that belong to the BAHD acyltransferase superfamily...
- Lin Wang K, Micheletti D, Palmer J, Volz R, Lozano L, Espley R, et al. High temperature reduces apple fruit colour via modulation of the anthocyanin regulatory complex. Plant Cell Environ. 2011;34:1176-90 pubmed publisher..We propose that temperature-induced regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis is primarily caused by altered transcript levels of the activating anthocyanin regulatory complex. ..
- Sheng C, Xu H, Wang W, Cao Y, Dong G, Wang S, et al. Design, synthesis and antifungal activity of isosteric analogues of benzoheterocyclic N-myristoyltransferase inhibitors. Eur J Med Chem. 2010;45:3531-40 pubmed publisher..The antifungal activity of benzoxazole derivative 8f was comparable or superior to that of fluconazole, which can serve as a good starting point for further studies of structural diversity of the benzoheterocyclic NMT inhibitors. ..
- Shen X, Shi Z, Song G, Li Z, Chen G. Engineering of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase PhaC2Ps of Pseudomonas stutzeri via site-specific mutation for efficient production of PHA copolymers. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;91:655-65 pubmed publisher..Recombinant R. eutropha PHB-4 containing phaC2PsQKST could be used as a strain for production of copolymers consisting of dominated HB and medium-chain-length 3-hydroxyalkanoates (HA) with better application properties...
- Zhang C, Li A, Zhang X, Xiao H. A novel TIP30 protein complex regulates EGF receptor signaling and endocytic degradation. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:9373-81 pubmed publisher..Together, these results suggest that this TIP30 complex regulates EGFR endocytosis by facilitating the transport of V-ATPases from trans-Golgi network to early endosomes. ..
- Parthibane V, Rajakumari S, Venkateshwari V, Iyappan R, Rajasekharan R. Oleosin is bifunctional enzyme that has both monoacylglycerol acyltransferase and phospholipase activities. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:1946-54 pubmed publisher..These findings provide a direct role for a structural protein (OLE3) in the biosynthesis and mobilization of plant oils. ..
- Mitchell D, Mitchell G, Ling Y, Budde C, Deschenes R. Mutational analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Erf2 reveals a two-step reaction mechanism for protein palmitoylation by DHHC enzymes. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:38104-14 pubmed publisherDHHC protein acyltransferases (PATs) catalyze the palmitoylation of eukaryotic proteins through an enzymatic mechanism that remains largely unexplored...
- Jennings B, Linder M. DHHC protein S-acyltransferases use similar ping-pong kinetic mechanisms but display different acyl-CoA specificities. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:7236-45 pubmed publisher..This is the first observation of lipid substrate specificity among DHHC proteins and may account for the differential S-acylation of proteins observed in cells. ..
- Scriba T, Tameris M, Mansoor N, Smit E, van der Merwe L, Mauff K, et al. Dose-finding study of the novel tuberculosis vaccine, MVA85A, in healthy BCG-vaccinated infants. J Infect Dis. 2011;203:1832-43 pubmed publisher..MVA85A was safe and induced robust, polyfunctional, durable CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses in infants. These data support efficacy evaluation of MVA85A to prevent tuberculosis in infancy. Clinical Trials Registration.â€ƒNCT00679159. ..
- Orban T, Palczewska G, Palczewski K. Retinyl ester storage particles (retinosomes) from the retinal pigmented epithelium resemble lipid droplets in other tissues. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:17248-58 pubmed publisher..These unexpected findings suggest a common mechanism for lipid droplet formation that exhibits broad chemical specificity for the hydrophobic substances being stored. ..
- Huysmans G, Radford S, Baldwin S, Brockwell D. Malleability of the folding mechanism of the outer membrane protein PagP: parallel pathways and the effect of membrane elasticity. J Mol Biol. 2012;416:453-64 pubmed publisher..The results highlight the effect of lipid composition in tailoring the folding mechanism of a membrane protein, revealing that membrane proteins have access to multiple, competing folding routes to a unique native structure. ..
- Hoft D, Blazevic A, Stanley J, Landry B, Sizemore D, Kpamegan E, et al. A recombinant adenovirus expressing immunodominant TB antigens can significantly enhance BCG-induced human immunity. Vaccine. 2012;30:2098-108 pubmed publisher..Our results indicate that AERAS-402 is a promising TB vaccine candidate that can significantly enhance both CD4(+) and CD8(+) TB-specific T cell responses after BCG priming. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01378312. ..
- Barnett B, Hwang Y, Taylor M, Kirchner H, Pfluger P, Bernard V, et al. Glucose and weight control in mice with a designed ghrelin O-acyltransferase inhibitor. Science. 2010;330:1689-92 pubmed publisher..In addition to serving as a research tool for mapping ghrelin actions, GO-CoA-Tat may help pave the way for clinical targeting of GOAT in metabolic diseases. ..
- Jenkins R, Dotson G. Dual targeting antibacterial peptide inhibitor of early lipid A biosynthesis. ACS Chem Biol. 2012;7:1170-7 pubmed publisher..coli UDP-N-acetylglucosamine acyltransferase (LpxA) with a K(d) of 20 ?M, unearthing the possibility for the development of small molecule, dual-binding LpxA/LpxD inhibitors as novel antimicrobials. ..
- González Montoro A, Chumpen Ramirez S, Quiroga R, Valdez Taubas J. Specificity of transmembrane protein palmitoylation in yeast. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16969 pubmed publisher..Finally, we show that modifying the position of the cysteines in Tlg1, a Swf1 substrate, results in lack of palmitoylation, as expected for a highly specific enzymatic reaction. ..
- Shui G, Guan X, Gopalakrishnan P, Xue Y, Goh J, Yang H, et al. Characterization of substrate preference for Slc1p and Cst26p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using lipidomic approaches and an LPAAT activity assay. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11956 pubmed publisher..Recent findings have substantiated the essential roles of acyltransferases in various biological functions...
- Wang Y, Yu O. Synthetic scaffolds increased resveratrol biosynthesis in engineered yeast cells. J Biotechnol. 2012;157:258-60 pubmed publisher..0-fold improvement over the non-scaffolded control, and a 2.7-fold increase over the previous reported with fusion protein. This work demonstrated the synthetic scaffolds can be used for the optimization of engineered metabolic pathway. ..
- Greaves J, Chamberlain L. DHHC palmitoyl transferases: substrate interactions and (patho)physiology. Trends Biochem Sci. 2011;36:245-53 pubmed publisher..Recent studies have highlighted how DHHC proteins regulate cell function and influence physiology and pathophysiology. ..