Genomes and Genes
Summary: Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.
- Arimoto T, Igarashi T. Role of prolipoprotein diacylglyceryl transferase (Lgt) and lipoprotein-specific signal peptidase II (LspA) in localization and physiological function of lipoprotein MsmE in Streptococcus mutans. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2008;23:515-9 pubmed publisher..mutans. These results demonstrate that MsmE is required for melibiose metabolism in S. mutans and that modification by Lgt and LspA are important processes for the physiological function of MsmE...
- Cordoba E, Porta H, Arroyo A, San Rom n C, Medina L, Rodr guez Concepci n M, et al. Functional characterization of the three genes encoding 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase in maize. J Exp Bot. 2011;62:2023-38 pubmed publisher..mays, DXS protein is feedback regulated in response to the inhibition of the pathway flow. The results support that the multilevel regulation of DXS activity is conserved in evolution...
- Morris F, Vierling R, Boucher L, Bosch J, Freel Meyers C. DXP synthase-catalyzed C-N bond formation: nitroso substrate specificity studies guide selective inhibitor design. Chembiochem. 2013;14:1309-15 pubmed publisher..As a proof of concept, we show selective inhibition of DXP synthase by benzylacetylphosphonate (BnAP). ..
- Peebles C, Sander G, Hughes E, Peacock R, Shanks J, San K. The expression of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose synthase and geraniol-10-hydroxylase or anthranilate synthase increases terpenoid indole alkaloid accumulation in Catharanthus roseus hairy roots. Metab Eng. 2011;13:234-40 pubmed publisher..These results point to the need for overexpressing multiple genes within the pathway to increase the flux toward vinblastine and vincristine. ..
- Willis L, Whitfield C. KpsC and KpsS are retaining 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo) transferases involved in synthesis of bacterial capsules. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:20753-8 pubmed publisher..To date, the only characterized Kdo transferases are the inverting enzymes that catalyze the ?-linkages found in lipopolysaccharide...
- Wichgers Schreur P, Rebel J, Smits M, van Putten J, Smith H. Lgt processing is an essential step in Streptococcus suis lipoprotein mediated innate immune activation. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22299 pubmed publisher..suis as major activators of the innate immune system of the pig. In addition, we provide evidence that Lgt processing of lipoproteins is required for lipoprotein mediated innate immune activation. ..
- Ardissone S, Noel K, Klement M, Broughton W, Deakin W. Synthesis of the flavonoid-induced lipopolysaccharide of Rhizobium Sp. strain NGR234 requires rhamnosyl transferases encoded by genes rgpF and wbgA. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2011;24:1513-21 pubmed publisher..Two putative rhamnosyl transferases are encoded in a cluster of genes previously shown to be necessary for the synthesis of the rhamnose-rich LPS...
- Xu X, Carlson B, Mix H, Zhang Y, Saira K, Glass R, et al. Biosynthesis of selenocysteine on its tRNA in eukaryotes. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e4 pubmed..Conservation of the overall pathway of Sec biosynthesis suggests that this pathway is also active in other eukaryotes and archaea that synthesize selenoproteins. ..
- Baumgärtner M, Karst U, Gerstel B, Loessner M, Wehland J, Jänsch L. Inactivation of Lgt allows systematic characterization of lipoproteins from Listeria monocytogenes. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:313-24 pubmed..It is noteworthy that in contrast to previous studies of Escherichia coli, we unambiguously demonstrated that lipidation by Lgt is not a prerequisite for activity of the lipoprotein-specific signal peptidase II (Lsp) in Listeria. ..
- Perez Gil J, Urós E, Sauret Güeto S, Lois L, Kirby J, Nishimoto M, et al. Mutations in Escherichia coli aceE and ribB genes allow survival of strains defective in the first step of the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43775 pubmed publisher..Together, this work unveils the diversity of mechanisms that can evolve in bacteria to circumvent a blockage of the first step of the MEP pathway. ..
- Sauret Güeto S, Botella Pavía P, Flores Pérez U, Martinez Garcia J, San Román C, Leon P, et al. Plastid cues posttranscriptionally regulate the accumulation of key enzymes of the methylerythritol phosphate pathway in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2006;141:75-84 pubmed..Regulation of the MEP pathway by a mechanism dependent on plastid cues might function under physiological conditions to finely adjust plastidial isoprenoid biosynthesis to the metabolic capabilities or requirements of plastids. ..
- Sauret Güeto S, Urós E, Ibáñez E, Boronat A, Rodríguez Concepción M. A mutant pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 subunit allows survival of Escherichia coli strains defective in 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:736-40 pubmed
- Kim B, Kim S, Chang Y. Differential expression of three 1-deoxy-D: -xylulose-5-phosphate synthase genes in rice. Biotechnol Lett. 2005;27:997-1001 pubmed..The differential expression of three OsDXS genes suggested their distinct and complementary roles in the control of the first step of the MEP pathway in response to environmental stimuli. ..
- da Costa B, Keasling J, Cornish K. Regulation of rubber biosynthetic rate and molecular weight in Hevea brasiliensis by metal cofactor. Biomacromolecules. 2005;6:279-89 pubmed..The results suggest that H. brasiliensis could use [Mg(2+)] as a regulatory mechanism for rubber biosynthesis and molecular weight in vivo. ..
- Zhou Z, Cironi P, Lin A, Xu Y, Hrvatin S, Golan D, et al. Genetically encoded short peptide tags for orthogonal protein labeling by Sfp and AcpS phosphopantetheinyl transferases. ACS Chem Biol. 2007;2:337-46 pubmed..as efficient substrates for site-specific protein labeling catalyzed by Sfp and AcpS phosphopantetheinyl transferases (PPTases), respectively...
- Hunter W. The non-mevalonate pathway of isoprenoid precursor biosynthesis. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:21573-7 pubmed..Detailed knowledge of the pathway may also be exploited to genetically modify microorganisms and plants to produce compounds of agricultural and medical interest. ..
- Phillips M, Walter M, Ralph S, Dabrowska P, Luck K, Urós E, et al. Functional identification and differential expression of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase in induced terpenoid resin formation of Norway spruce (Picea abies). Plant Mol Biol. 2007;65:243-57 pubmed..polonica. Our results suggest distinct functions of the three DXS genes in primary and defensive terpenoid metabolism in Norway spruce. ..
- Machata S, Tchatalbachev S, Mohamed W, Jänsch L, Hain T, Chakraborty T. Lipoproteins of Listeria monocytogenes are critical for virulence and TLR2-mediated immune activation. J Immunol. 2008;181:2028-35 pubmed
- Paetzold H, Garms S, Bartram S, Wieczorek J, Urós Gracia E, Rodríguez Concepción M, et al. The isogene 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase 2 controls isoprenoid profiles, precursor pathway allocation, and density of tomato trichomes. Mol Plant. 2010;3:904-16 pubmed publisher..The results reveal novel, non-redundant roles of DXS2 in modulating isoprenoid metabolism and a pronounced plasticity in isoprenoid precursor allocation. ..
- Brammer L, Meyers C. Revealing substrate promiscuity of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase. Org Lett. 2009;11:4748-51 pubmed publisher..A study of DXP synthase has revealed flexibility in the acceptor substrate binding pocket for nonpolar substrates and has uncovered new details of the catalytic mechanism to show that pyruvate can act as both donor and acceptor substrate. ..
- Ravishankar S, Kumar V, Chandrakala B, Jha R, Solapure S, de Sousa S. Scintillation proximity assay for inhibitors of Escherichia coli MurG and, optionally, MraY. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:1410-8 pubmed..In addition, it inhibited NADH dehydrogenase in membranes, a hitherto-unreported activity. These assays can be used to screen for novel antibacterial agents. ..
- van Dillewijn P, Wittich R, Caballero A, Ramos J. Subfunctionality of hydride transferases of the old yellow enzyme family of flavoproteins of Pseudomonas putida. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:6703-8 pubmed publisher..The condensations of the primary products of type I and type II hydride transferases react with each other to yield diarylamines and nitrite; the latter can be further reduced to ammonium and ..
- Battilana J, Costantini L, Emanuelli F, Sevini F, Segala C, Moser S, et al. The 1-deoxy-D: -xylulose 5-phosphate synthase gene co-localizes with a major QTL affecting monoterpene content in grapevine. Theor Appl Genet. 2009;118:653-69 pubmed publisher..Further research on the functional significance of these associations might help to understand the genetic control of Muscat flavor. ..
- Jones J, Viswanathan K, Krag S, Betenbaugh M. Polyprenyl lipid synthesis in mammalian cells expressing human cis-prenyl transferase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;331:379-83 pubmed..These results suggest a regulatory relationship between CPT activity and dolichol biosynthesis, and may implicate CPT in the levels of dolichol-oligosaccharide intermediate biosynthesis. ..
- Harajly M, Khairallah M, Corkill J, Araj G, Matar G. Frequency of conjugative transfer of plasmid-encoded ISEcp1 - blaCTX-M-15 and aac(6')-lb-cr genes in Enterobacteriaceae at a tertiary care center in Lebanon - role of transferases. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2010;9:19 pubmed publisher..In addition, the role of tra genes encoding transferases in mediating conjugation was assessed...
- Xiang S, Usunow G, Lange G, Busch M, Tong L. Crystal structure of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase, a crucial enzyme for isoprenoids biosynthesis. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:2676-82 pubmed publisher..The structures identify residues that may have important roles in catalysis, which have been confirmed by our mutagenesis studies...
- Lee J, Oh D, Kim S. Cloning and characterization of the dxs gene, encoding 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and its overexpression in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. J Biotechnol. 2007;128:555-66 pubmed..9%, respectively. This work describes Dxs from A. tumefaciens, an organism with the potential for industrial UbiQ(10) production, and the first metabolic engineering study with the non-mevalonate pathway enzyme in A. tumefaciens. ..
- Okada A, Shimizu T, Okada K, Kuzuyama T, Koga J, Shibuya N, et al. Elicitor induced activation of the methylerythritol phosphate pathway toward phytoalexins biosynthesis in rice. Plant Mol Biol. 2007;65:177-87 pubmed..These results suggest that activation of the MEP pathway is required to supply sufficient terpenoid precursors for the production of phytoalexins in infected rice plants...
- Muñoz Bertomeu J, Arrillaga I, Ros R, Segura J. Up-regulation of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase enhances production of essential oils in transgenic spike lavender. Plant Physiol. 2006;142:890-900 pubmed..In addition, our results provide a strategy to increase the essential oil production in spike lavender by metabolic engineering of the MEP pathway without apparent detrimental effects on plant development and fitness. ..
- Denham E, Ward P, Leigh J. In the absence of Lgt, lipoproteins are shed from Streptococcus uberis independently of Lsp. Microbiology. 2009;155:134-41 pubmed publisher..In such strains, however, the cell-associated MtuA represented the full-length gene product, indicating that Lsp was able to cleave non-lipidated (lipo)proteins but was not responsible for their release from this bacterium. ..
- Querol J, Besumbes O, Lois L, Boronat A, Imperial S. A fluorometric assay for the determination of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase activity. Anal Biochem. 2001;296:101-5 pubmed..This assay can be useful for the functional characterization of DXS as well as for the screening of DXS inhibitors with potential antibiotic, herbicidal, or antimalarial action. ..
- Kharel Y, Koyama T. Molecular analysis of cis-prenyl chain elongating enzymes. Nat Prod Rep. 2003;20:111-8 pubmed..Not only the primary structure but also the crystal structure of the cis-prenyltransferase is totally different from those of trans-prenyl chain elongating enzymes. This review covers up to February 2002 and contains 72 references. ..
- Mueller C, Schwender J, Zeidler J, Lichtenthaler H. Properties and inhibition of the first two enzymes of the non-mevalonate pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis. Biochem Soc Trans. 2000;28:792-3 pubmed..The DXR of plants, isolated from barley seedlings, shows a pH optimum of 8.1, which is typical for enzymes active in the chloroplast stroma. ..
- Eubanks L, Poulter C. Rhodobacter capsulatus 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase: steady-state kinetics and substrate binding. Biochemistry. 2003;42:1140-9 pubmed..These results are consistent with an ordered mechanism for DXP synthase where pyruvate binds before GAP/d-glyceraldehyde...
- Scott D, da Costa B, Espy S, Keasling J, Cornish K. Activation and inhibition of rubber transferases by metal cofactors and pyrophosphate substrates. Phytochemistry. 2003;64:123-34 pubmed..All three RuTs have similar characteristics-indeterminate sized products, high K(m)(IPP), high metal [A](max), metal cofactor requirements, and are membrane-bound enzymes. ..
- Karaoglu D, Kelleher D, Gilmore R. Allosteric regulation provides a molecular mechanism for preferential utilization of the fully assembled dolichol-linked oligosaccharide by the yeast oligosaccharyltransferase. Biochemistry. 2001;40:12193-206 pubmed..We propose that binding of either donor substrate to the activator site substantially enhances Glc(3)Man(9)GlcNAc(2)-PP-Dol occupancy of the enzyme catalytic site via allosteric activation...
- Walter M, Fester T, Strack D. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi induce the non-mevalonate methylerythritol phosphate pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis correlated with accumulation of the 'yellow pigment' and other apocarotenoids. Plant J. 2000;21:571-8 pubmed..This is the first report demonstrating (i) that the plastidic MEP pathway is active in plant roots and (ii) that it can be induced by a fungus. ..
- Kim S, Keasling J. Metabolic engineering of the nonmevalonate isopentenyl diphosphate synthesis pathway in Escherichia coli enhances lycopene production. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2001;72:408-15 pubmed..A comparison of the three E. coli strains transformed with the arabinose-inducible dxs on a medium-copy plasmid revealed that lycopene production was highest in XL1-Blue. ..
- Altincicek B, Hintz M, Sanderbrand S, Wiesner J, Beck E, Jomaa H. Tools for discovery of inhibitors of the 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP) synthase and DXP reductoisomerase: an approach with enzymes from the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2000;190:329-33 pubmed..A novel and convenient spectrophotometric assay was developed to determine activity and inhibition of P. aeruginosa DXP synthase. Fluoropyruvate is described as a first inhibitor of DXP synthase. ..
- Fu J, Kreibich G. Retention of subunits of the oligosaccharyltransferase complex in the endoplasmic reticulum. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:3984-90 pubmed..In the case of the Tac chimera containing only the luminal domain of RII, which by itself exits from the ER and is rapidly degraded, it is retained in the ER and becomes stabilized when coexpressed with OST48. ..
- Walter M, Hans J, Strack D. Two distantly related genes encoding 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthases: differential regulation in shoots and apocarotenoid-accumulating mycorrhizal roots. Plant J. 2002;31:243-54 pubmed..The potential importance of DXS1 in many housekeeping functions and a still hypothetical role of DXS2 in the biosynthesis of secondary isoprenoids is discussed. ..
- Tzeng Y, Datta A, Kolli V, Carlson R, Stephens D. Endotoxin of Neisseria meningitidis composed only of intact lipid A: inactivation of the meningococcal 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:2379-88 pubmed..The expression of a fully acylated, unglycosylated lipid A indicates that lipid A biosynthesis in N. meningitidis can proceed without the addition of Kdo and that KdtA is not essential for survival of the meningococcus. ..
- Nikonov A, Snapp E, Lippincott Schwartz J, Kreibich G. Active translocon complexes labeled with GFP-Dad1 diffuse slowly as large polysome arrays in the endoplasmic reticulum. J Cell Biol. 2002;158:497-506 pubmed..Our findings that TCs assembled into membrane-bound polysomes diffuse slowly within the ER have mechanistic implications for the segregation of the ER into smooth and rough domains. ..
- Lee P, Mijts B, Schmidt Dannert C. Investigation of factors influencing production of the monocyclic carotenoid torulene in metabolically engineered Escherichia coli. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2004;65:538-46 pubmed..Lycopene was efficiently converted into torulene during aerobic cultures, indicating that the engineered torulene synthesis pathway is well coordinated, and maintains the functionality and integrity of the carotenogenic enzyme complex. ..
- Yan Q, Lennarz W. Studies on the function of oligosaccharyl transferase subunits. Stt3p is directly involved in the glycosylation process. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:47692-700 pubmed..From all of these results, we conclude that the sequence from residues 516 to 520, WWDYG in Stt3p, plays a central role in glycosylatable peptide recognition and/or the catalytic glycosylation process. ..
- Zawadzke L, Wu P, Cook L, Fan L, Casperson M, Kishnani M, et al. Targeting the MraY and MurG bacterial enzymes for antimicrobial therapeutic intervention. Anal Biochem. 2003;314:243-52 pubmed..A mureidomycin inhibitor mix was used as a control for the assay development and screen validation. Several inhibitors resulting from a high-throughput screen were found and evaluated for potential therapeutic use. ..
- Asawatreratanakul K, Zhang Y, Wititsuwannakul D, Wititsuwannakul R, Takahashi S, Rattanapittayaporn A, et al. Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of cDNA encoding cis-prenyltransferases from Hevea brasiliensis. A key factor participating in natural rubber biosynthesis. Eur J Biochem. 2003;270:4671-80 pubmed..These results suggest that the Hevea cis-prenyltransferase might require certain activation factors in the washed bottom fraction particles for the production of high molecular mass rubber...
- Bouhss A, Crouvoisier M, Blanot D, Mengin Lecreulx D. Purification and characterization of the bacterial MraY translocase catalyzing the first membrane step of peptidoglycan biosynthesis. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:29974-80 pubmed..The kinetic parameters and effects of pH, salts, cations, and detergents on enzyme activity are described, taking the Bacillus subtilis MraY translocase as a model. ..
- Estevez J, Cantero A, Reindl A, Reichler S, Leon P. 1-Deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase, a limiting enzyme for plastidic isoprenoid biosynthesis in plants. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:22901-9 pubmed..Furthermore, since the product of the MEP pathway is isopentenyl diphosphate, our results suggest that in plastids the pool of isopentenyl diphosphate is limiting to isprenoid production. ..
- Bailey A, Mahapatra S, Brennan P, Crick D. Identification, cloning, purification, and enzymatic characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase. Glycobiology. 2002;12:813-20 pubmed..The K(d) (thiamin diphosphate )for the native M. tuberculosis DXS activity partially purified from M. tuberculosis cytosol is 1 microM in the presence of Mg(2+). ..
- Estevez J, Cantero A, Romero C, Kawaide H, Jimenez L, Kuzuyama T, et al. Analysis of the expression of CLA1, a gene that encodes the 1-deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate synthase of the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate pathway in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2000;124:95-104 pubmed..Microscopic analysis also shows a pleiotropic effect of the CLA1 gene mutation in mesophyll tissue formation...
- Burlat V, Oudin A, Courtois M, Rideau M, St Pierre B. Co-expression of three MEP pathway genes and geraniol 10-hydroxylase in internal phloem parenchyma of Catharanthus roseus implicates multicellular translocation of intermediates during the biosynthesis of monoterpene indole alkaloids and isoprenoid-d. Plant J. 2004;38:131-41 pubmed..Similarly, the translocation of intermediates from the phloem parenchyma is probably also required during the biosynthesis of hormones and photosynthetic primary metabolites derived from the MEP pathway...
- Kuzuyama T, Takagi M, Takahashi S, Seto H. Cloning and characterization of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase from Streptomyces sp. Strain CL190, which uses both the mevalonate and nonmevalonate pathways for isopentenyl diphosphate biosynthesis. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:891-7 pubmed..To compare the enzymatic properties of CL190 and E. coli DXP synthases, the latter enzyme was also overexpressed and purified. Although these two enzymes had different origins, they showed the same enzymatic properties. ..