Summary: A broad category of enzymes that are involved in the process of GENETIC RECOMBINATION.

Top Publications

  1. van Kessel J, Marinelli L, Hatfull G. Recombineering mycobacteria and their phages. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2008;6:851-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Exploitation of host-specific phages thus provides a general strategy for recombineering and mutagenesis in genetically naive systems...
  2. Weinacht K, Roche H, Krinos C, Coyne M, Parkhill J, Comstock L. Tyrosine site-specific recombinases mediate DNA inversions affecting the expression of outer surface proteins of Bacteroides fragilis. Mol Microbiol. 2004;53:1319-30 pubmed
  3. Kopertekh L, Schiemann J. Agroinfiltration as a tool for transient expression of cre recombinase in vivo. Transgenic Res. 2005;14:793-8 pubmed
    ..Phenotypic and molecular data indicated that the recombined state has been transferred to the T(1 )generation. These results demonstrate the suitability of agroinfiltration for the expression of cre recombinase in vivo. ..
  4. Kumar R, Bourbon H, de Massy B. Functional conservation of Mei4 for meiotic DNA double-strand break formation from yeasts to mice. Genes Dev. 2010;24:1266-80 pubmed publisher
  5. Grindley N, Whiteson K, Rice P. Mechanisms of site-specific recombination. Annu Rev Biochem. 2006;75:567-605 pubmed
    ..Virtually all identified site-specific recombinases fall into one of just two families, the tyrosine recombinases and the serine recombinases, named after the ..
  6. Cloud V, Chan Y, Grubb J, Budke B, Bishop D. Rad51 is an accessory factor for Dmc1-mediated joint molecule formation during meiosis. Science. 2012;337:1222-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We further provide biochemical evidence that Rad51 acts with Mei5-Sae3 as a Dmc1 accessory factor. Thus, Rad51 is a multifunctional protein that catalyzes recombination directly in mitosis and indirectly, via Dmc1, during meiosis. ..
  7. Deneke J, Burgin A, Wilson S, Chaconas G. Catalytic residues of the telomere resolvase ResT: a pattern similar to, but distinct from, tyrosine recombinases and type IB topoisomerases. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:53699-706 pubmed
    ..have shown that ResT catalyzes hairpin formation through a two-step transesterification similar to tyrosine recombinases and type IB topoisomerases. In the present study we have probed the reaction mechanism of ResT...
  8. Munoz I, Hain K, Déclais A, Gardiner M, Toh G, Sanchez Pulido L, et al. Coordination of structure-specific nucleases by human SLX4/BTBD12 is required for DNA repair. Mol Cell. 2009;35:116-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Depletion of SLX4 causes a decrease in DSB-induced homologous recombination. These data show that SLX4 is a regulator of structure-specific nucleases and that SLX4 and SLX1 are important regulators of genome stability in human cells. ..
  9. Husseiny M, Hensel M. Rapid method for the construction of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium vaccine carrier strains. Infect Immun. 2005;73:1598-605 pubmed
    ..The novel "knock-in" approach allows the rapid and efficient construction of recombinant Salmonella strains as vaccine carriers. ..

More Information


  1. Poulter R, Goodwin T. DIRS-1 and the other tyrosine recombinase retrotransposons. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2005;110:575-88 pubmed
    ..In recognition of these important distinctions it is proposed that the retrotransposons that encode tyrosine recombinases be called the tyrosine recombinase (or YR) retrotransposons...
  2. Lorenzi H, Robledo G, Levin M. The VIPER elements of trypanosomes constitute a novel group of tyrosine recombinase-enconding retrotransposons. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2006;145:184-94 pubmed
    ..RCI1 of Escherichia coli and Ye24 and Ye72 of Haemophilus influenzae within a major branch of prokaryotic recombinases. Taken together, VIPER's structure, the nature of its tyrosine recombinase, the unique features of its reverse ..
  3. Smith M, Brown W, McEwan A, Rowley P. Site-specific recombination by phiC31 integrase and other large serine recombinases. Biochem Soc Trans. 2010;38:388-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Integrases belong either to the lambda Int family of tyrosine recombinases or to a subgroup of the serine recombinases, the large serine recombinases...
  4. Garcia Otin A, Guillou F. Mammalian genome targeting using site-specific recombinases. Front Biosci. 2006;11:1108-36 pubmed
    ..In recent years, the emergence of site-specific recombinases as tools to engineer mammalian genomes has opened new avenues into the design of genetically modified mouse ..
  5. Noto M, Archer G. A subset of Staphylococcus aureus strains harboring staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type IV is deficient in CcrAB-mediated SCCmec excision. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50:2782-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Acquisition of this mobile element, containing a known virulence gene, appears to have stabilized the chromosomal integration of the methicillin resistance gene in these strains...
  6. Crossan G, van der Weyden L, Rosado I, Langevin F, Gaillard P, McIntyre R, et al. Disruption of mouse Slx4, a regulator of structure-specific nucleases, phenocopies Fanconi anemia. Nat Genet. 2011;43:147-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The Btbd12 knockout mouse therefore establishes a disease model for Fanconi anemia and genetically links a regulator of nuclease incision complexes to the Fanconi anemia DNA crosslink repair pathway. ..
  7. Rice P. Resolving integral questions in site-specific recombination. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2005;12:641-3 pubmed
  8. Misiura A, Pigli Y, Boyle Vavra S, Daum R, Boocock M, Rice P. Roles of two large serine recombinases in mobilizing the methicillin-resistance cassette SCCmec. Mol Microbiol. 2013;88:1218-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Most variants of SCCmec encode two recombinases, CcrA and CcrB, that belong to the large serine family...
  9. Zong Z. Characterization of a complex context containing mecA but lacking genes encoding cassette chromosome recombinases in Staphylococcus haemolyticus. BMC Microbiol. 2013;13:64 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the mecA gene might not be carried by a SCCmec in a Staphylococcus haemolyticus clinical isolate, WCH1, as no cassette chromosome recombinase genes were detected. Therefore, the genetic context of mecA in WCH1 was investigated...
  10. Gersbach C, Gaj T, Gordley R, Barbas C. Directed evolution of recombinase specificity by split gene reassembly. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:4198-206 pubmed publisher
    ..To address this need, we developed a robust strategy for evolving site-specific recombinases with novel substrate specificities...
  11. Prorocic M, Wenlong D, Olorunniji F, Akopian A, Schloetel J, Hannigan A, et al. Zinc-finger recombinase activities in vitro. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:9316-28 pubmed publisher
    Zinc-finger recombinases (ZFRs) are chimaeric proteins comprising a serine recombinase catalytic domain linked to a zinc-finger DNA binding domain...
  12. Vaughn J, Creacy S, Routh E, Joyner Butt C, Jenkins G, Pauli S, et al. The DEXH protein product of the DHX36 gene is the major source of tetramolecular quadruplex G4-DNA resolving activity in HeLa cell lysates. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:38117-20 pubmed
    ..77% of the enzyme from lysates and reduced G4-DNA resolving activity to 46.0 +/- 0.4% of control, demonstrating that DHX36 protein is responsible for the majority of tetramolecular G4-DNA resolvase activity. ..
  13. Bigot S, Saleh O, Lesterlin C, Pages C, El Karoui M, Dennis C, et al. KOPS: DNA motifs that control E. coli chromosome segregation by orienting the FtsK translocase. EMBO J. 2005;24:3770-80 pubmed
    ..They are resolved by the combined action of two tyrosine recombinases, XerC and XerD, acting at a specific chromosomal site, dif, and a DNA translocase, FtsK, which is anchored at ..
  14. Svendsen J, Smogorzewska A, Sowa M, O Connell B, Gygi S, Elledge S, et al. Mammalian BTBD12/SLX4 assembles a Holliday junction resolvase and is required for DNA repair. Cell. 2009;138:63-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, SLX4 assembles a modular toolkit for repair of specific types of DNA lesions and is critical for cellular responses to replication fork failure. ..
  15. Le Bourgeois P, Bugarel M, Campo N, Daveran Mingot M, Labonté J, Lanfranchi D, et al. The unconventional Xer recombination machinery of Streptococci/Lactococci. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:e117 pubmed
    ..resolution is achieved by site-specific recombination, Xer recombination, involving two paralogous tyrosine recombinases, XerC and XerD, and a 28-bp recombination site (dif) located at the junction of the two replication arms...
  16. Haruta N, Kurokawa Y, Murayama Y, Akamatsu Y, Unzai S, Tsutsui Y, et al. The Swi5-Sfr1 complex stimulates Rhp51/Rad51- and Dmc1-mediated DNA strand exchange in vitro. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2006;13:823-30 pubmed
    Nucleoprotein filaments made up of Rad51 or Dmc1 recombinases, the core structures of recombination, engage in ATP-dependent DNA-strand exchange...
  17. Raynard S, Niu H, Sung P. DNA double-strand break processing: the beginning of the end. Genes Dev. 2008;22:2903-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Three recent studies, including work by Jackson and colleagues (pp. 2767- 2772) in the October 15, 2008, issue of Genes & Development, have begun to shed some light on the intricacy of this process. ..
  18. Abbani M, Iwahara M, Clubb R. The structure of the excisionase (Xis) protein from conjugative transposon Tn916 provides insights into the regulation of heterobivalent tyrosine recombinases. J Mol Biol. 2005;347:11-25 pubmed publisher
    Heterobivalent tyrosine recombinases play a prominent role in numerous bacteriophage and transposon recombination systems...
  19. Sato T, Kawamura Y, Asai R, Amano T, Uchijima Y, Dettlaff Swiercz D, et al. Recombinase-mediated cassette exchange reveals the selective use of Gq/G11-dependent and -independent endothelin 1/endothelin type A receptor signaling in pharyngeal arch development. Development. 2008;135:755-65 pubmed publisher
    ..This RMCE-mediated knock-in system can serve as a useful tool for studies on gene functions in craniofacial development. ..
  20. Harshey R, Jayaram M. The mu transpososome through a topological lens. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2006;41:387-405 pubmed
    ..This methodology has also revealed the order and dynamics of association of the three interacting DNA sites, as well as the role of the enhancer in assembly of the Mu transpososome...
  21. Val M, Kennedy S, El Karoui M, Bonn L, Chevalier F, Barre F. FtsK-dependent dimer resolution on multiple chromosomes in the pathogen Vibrio cholerae. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000201 pubmed publisher
    ..coli, chromosome dimers are resolved by the addition of a crossover at a specific site, dif, by two tyrosine recombinases, XerC and XerD. The process is coordinated with cell division through the activity of a DNA translocase, FtsK...
  22. Gordley R, Smith J, Gräslund T, Barbas C. Evolution of programmable zinc finger-recombinases with activity in human cells. J Mol Biol. 2007;367:802-13 pubmed
    Site-specific recombinases are important tools for genomic engineering in many living systems. Applications of recombinases are, however, constrained by the DNA targeting endemic of the recombinase used...
  23. Kant C, Rao B, Sainis J. DNA binding and pairing activity of OsDmc1, a recombinase from rice. Plant Mol Biol. 2005;57:1-11 pubmed
    ..These properties reflected the classical hallmarks of a recombinase and represented the first biochemical characterization of a plant Dmc1 protein. ..
  24. Hanssen A, Sollid J. Multiple staphylococcal cassette chromosomes and allelic variants of cassette chromosome recombinases in Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci from Norway. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:1671-7 pubmed
    ..The enormous diversity observed in the SCCmec elements implies a large SCCmec reservoir in CoNS. ..
  25. Clark K, Carlson D, Foster L, Kong B, Foster D, Fahrenkrug S. Enzymatic engineering of the porcine genome with transposons and recombinases. BMC Biotechnol. 2007;7:42 pubmed
    ..We have demonstrated for the first time that transposons and recombinases are capable of mobilizing DNA into and out of the porcine genome in a precise and efficient manner...
  26. Gaj T, Mercer A, Gersbach C, Gordley R, Barbas C. Structure-guided reprogramming of serine recombinase DNA sequence specificity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:498-503 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that unique resolvase and invertase derivatives can be developed to site-specifically modify the human genome in the context of zinc-finger recombinase fusion proteins. ..
  27. Gersbach C, Gaj T, Gordley R, Mercer A, Barbas C. Targeted plasmid integration into the human genome by an engineered zinc-finger recombinase. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:7868-78 pubmed publisher
    ..This work demonstrates the potential for broad applicability of the ZFR technology in genome engineering, synthetic biology and gene therapy. ..
  28. González Prieto C, Agúndez L, LINDEN R, Llosa M. HUH site-specific recombinases for targeted modification of the human genome. Trends Biotechnol. 2013;31:305-12 pubmed publisher
    Site-specific recombinases (SSRs) have been crucial in the development of mammalian transgenesis...
  29. Jones J, Shelton K, Magnuson M. Strategies for the use of site-specific recombinases in genome engineering. Methods Mol Med. 2005;103:245-57 pubmed
    ..Strategies that make use of site-specific recombinases such as Cre and/or Flp have been developed in recent years to overcome these limitations...
  30. Holthausen J, Wyman C, Kanaar R. Regulation of DNA strand exchange in homologous recombination. DNA Repair (Amst). 2010;9:1264-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The function of recombinases is controlled by accessory proteins that allow coordination of strand exchange with other steps of homologous ..
  31. Mercer A, Gaj T, Fuller R, Barbas C. Chimeric TALE recombinases with programmable DNA sequence specificity. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:11163-72 pubmed publisher
    Site-specific recombinases are powerful tools for genome engineering...
  32. Tourand Y, Lee L, Chaconas G. Telomere resolution by Borrelia burgdorferi ResT through the collaborative efforts of tethered DNA binding domains. Mol Microbiol. 2007;64:580-90 pubmed
    ..Conversely, ResT(1-164) may play an important regulatory role by modulating both sequence-specific DNA binding activity and catalysis by the C-terminal domain. ..
  33. Czurda S, Jechlinger W, Rosengarten R, Chopra Dewasthaly R. Xer1-mediated site-specific DNA inversions and excisions in Mycoplasma agalactiae. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:4462-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Unless there are specific regulatory mechanisms preventing such excisions, this might be the cost that the pathogen has to render at the population level for maintaining this high-frequency phase variation machinery...
  34. Gaj T, Mercer A, Sirk S, Smith H, Barbas C. A comprehensive approach to zinc-finger recombinase customization enables genomic targeting in human cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:3937-46 pubmed publisher
    Zinc-finger recombinases (ZFRs) represent a potentially powerful class of tools for targeted genetic engineering...
  35. Brown W, Lee N, Xu Z, Smith M. Serine recombinases as tools for genome engineering. Methods. 2011;53:372-9 pubmed publisher
    The serine recombinases differ mechanistically from the tyrosine recombinases and include proteins such as ?C31 integrase which, unlike Cre and Flp, promote unidirectional reactions...
  36. Roebroek A, Reekmans S, Lauwers A, Feyaerts N, Smeijers L, Hartmann D. Mutant Lrp1 knock-in mice generated by recombinase-mediated cassette exchange reveal differential importance of the NPXY motifs in the intracellular domain of LRP1 for normal fetal development. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:605-16 pubmed
    ..Its application in Lrp1 reveals dramatically variant phenotypes, of which further characterization will definitively contribute to our understanding of the biology of this multifunctional receptor. ..
  37. Xu Z, Thomas L, Davies B, Chalmers R, Smith M, Brown W. Accuracy and efficiency define Bxb1 integrase as the best of fifteen candidate serine recombinases for the integration of DNA into the human genome. BMC Biotechnol. 2013;13:87 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the Bxb1 and φC31 integrases are the reagents of choice for genome engineering in vertebrate cells and that DNA damage repair is a major limitation upon the utility of this class of site-specific recombinase. ..
  38. Long Q, Shelton K, Lindner J, Jones J, Magnuson M. Efficient DNA cassette exchange in mouse embryonic stem cells by staggered positive-negative selection. Genesis. 2004;39:256-62 pubmed
    ..This selection strategy, by facilitating more efficient production of ES cell clones with various replacement DNA cassettes, should accelerate targeted repetitive introduction of gene modifications into the mouse. ..
  39. Surendranath V, Chusainow J, Hauber J, Buchholz F, Habermann B. SeLOX--a locus of recombination site search tool for the detection and directed evolution of site-specific recombination systems. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:W293-8 pubmed publisher
    Site-specific recombinases have become a resourceful tool for genome engineering, allowing sophisticated in vivo DNA modifications and rearrangements, including the precise removal of integrated retroviruses from host genomes...
  40. Vannier J, Pavicic Kaltenbrunner V, Petalcorin M, Ding H, Boulton S. RTEL1 dismantles T loops and counteracts telomeric G4-DNA to maintain telomere integrity. Cell. 2012;149:795-806 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that RTEL1 performs two distinct functions at telomeres: it disassembles T loops and also counteracts telomeric G4-DNA structures, which together ensure the dynamics and stability of the telomere. ..
  41. Holloway J, Mohan S, Balmus G, Sun X, Modzelewski A, Borst P, et al. Mammalian BTBD12 (SLX4) protects against genomic instability during mammalian spermatogenesis. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002094 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that BTBD12 functions throughout gametogenesis to maintain genome stability, possibly by co-ordinating repair processes and/or by linking DNA repair events to the cell cycle via ATM...
  42. Proudfoot C, McPherson A, Kolb A, Stark W. Zinc finger recombinases with adaptable DNA sequence specificity. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19537 pubmed publisher
    Site-specific recombinases have become essential tools in genetics and molecular biology for the precise excision or integration of DNA sequences...
  43. Bouchard J, Moineau S. Lactococcal phage genes involved in sensitivity to AbiK and their relation to single-strand annealing proteins. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:3649-52 pubmed
    ..Four nonsimilar proteins involved in the sensitivity to AbiK (Sak) were identified. Two of these Sak proteins are related to Erf and RAD52, single-strand annealing proteins involved in homologous recombination. ..
  44. Petukhova G, Pezza R, Vanevski F, Ploquin M, Masson J, Camerini Otero R. The Hop2 and Mnd1 proteins act in concert with Rad51 and Dmc1 in meiotic recombination. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2005;12:449-53 pubmed
    ..Rad51 and Dmc1 recombinases are the major players in these processes...
  45. Ghosh P, Pannunzio N, Hatfull G. Synapsis in phage Bxb1 integration: selection mechanism for the correct pair of recombination sites. J Mol Biol. 2005;349:331-48 pubmed
    Recombination by site-specific recombinases is a highly concerted process that requires synapsis of the correct pair of DNA substrates...
  46. Li J, Hooker G, Roeder G. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mer2, Mei4 and Rec114 form a complex required for meiotic double-strand break formation. Genetics. 2006;173:1969-81 pubmed
    ..Mer2 does not show significant colocalization with Mre11 or Rec102 and Mer2 does not co-immunoprecipitate with Rec102. We propose that Mer2, Mei4, and Rec114 form a distinct complex required for DSB formation. ..
  47. Clark K, Carlson D, Fahrenkrug S. Pigs taking wing with transposons and recombinases. Genome Biol. 2007;8 Suppl 1:S13 pubmed
    ..We review the challenges facing pig transgenesis and discuss the utility of transposases and recombinases for enhancing the success and sophistication of pig genetic engineering...
  48. Stoepker C, Hain K, Schuster B, Hilhorst Hofstee Y, Rooimans M, Steltenpool J, et al. SLX4, a coordinator of structure-specific endonucleases, is mutated in a new Fanconi anemia subtype. Nat Genet. 2011;43:138-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These individuals, who were previously diagnosed as having Fanconi anemia, add SLX4 as an essential component to the FA-BRCA genome maintenance pathway. ..
  49. Bugreev D, Golub E, Stasiak A, Stasiak A, Mazin A. Activation of human meiosis-specific recombinase Dmc1 by Ca2+. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:26886-95 pubmed
    ..single-stranded DNA complexes. Our results demonstrate a universal role of Ca2+ in stimulation of mammalian DNA strand exchange proteins and reveal diversity in the mechanisms of this stimulation. ..
  50. Yamamoto K, Kobayashi S, Tsuda M, Kurumizaka H, Takata M, Kono K, et al. Involvement of SLX4 in interstrand cross-link repair is regulated by the Fanconi anemia pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:6492-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings thus suggest that ubiquitylated FANCD2 recruits SLX4 to DNA damage sites, where it mediates the resolution of recombination intermediates generated during the processing of ICLs. ..
  51. Kobryn K, Briffotaux J, Karpov V. Holliday junction formation by the Borrelia burgdorferi telomere resolvase, ResT: implications for the origin of genome linearity. Mol Microbiol. 2009;71:1117-30 pubmed publisher
    ..ResT uses a reaction mechanism with similarities to that employed by the type IB topoisomerases and tyrosine recombinases. Here, we report that the relationship of ResT to the tyrosine recombinases extends to the ability to synapse-..
  52. Grønlund J, Stemmer C, Lichota J, Merkle T, Grasser K. Functionality of the beta/six site-specific recombination system in tobacco and Arabidopsis: a novel tool for genetic engineering of plant genomes. Plant Mol Biol. 2007;63:545-56 pubmed
    The beta recombinase is a member of the prokaryotic site-specific serine recombinases (invertase/resolvase family), which in the presence of a DNA bending cofactor can catalyse DNA deletions between two directly oriented 90-bp six ..
  53. Yau Y, Wang Y, Thomson J, Ow D. Method for Bxb1-mediated site-specific integration in planta. Methods Mol Biol. 2011;701:147-66 pubmed publisher
    ..This method would permit the comparison of different molecular constructs at the same genomic locations. ..
  54. Osterwalder M, Galli A, Rosen B, Skarnes W, Zeller R, Lopez Rios J. Dual RMCE for efficient re-engineering of mouse mutant alleles. Nat Methods. 2010;7:893-5 pubmed publisher
    ..dRMCE is a scalable, flexible tool to introduce tags, reporters and mutant coding regions into an endogenous locus of interest in an easy and highly efficient manner. ..
  55. Buchholz F, Hauber J. In vitro evolution and analysis of HIV-1 LTR-specific recombinases. Methods. 2011;53:102-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We furthermore provide protocols that are utilized for the investigation of Tre's antiretroviral activity in infected tissue cultures as well as in infected humanized Rag2(-/-)?c(-/-) mice. ..
  56. Creacy S, Routh E, Iwamoto F, Nagamine Y, Akman S, Vaughn J. G4 resolvase 1 binds both DNA and RNA tetramolecular quadruplex with high affinity and is the major source of tetramolecular quadruplex G4-DNA and G4-RNA resolving activity in HeLa cell lysates. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:34626-34 pubmed publisher
  57. Datta S, Costantino N, Zhou X, Court D. Identification and analysis of recombineering functions from Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and their phages. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:1626-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Beta and RecT are single-strand DNA annealing proteins, referred to here as recombinases. Each of the nine other genes when expressed in E. coli carries out oligonucleotide-mediated recombination...
  58. Lesic B, Rahme L. Use of the lambda Red recombinase system to rapidly generate mutants in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. BMC Mol Biol. 2008;9:20 pubmed publisher
  59. Zong Z, Lu X. Characterization of a new SCCmec element in Staphylococcus cohnii. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14016 pubmed publisher
    ..This study adds new evidence of the diversity of SCCmec in CoNS and highlights the need for characterizing the 'non-typable' SCCmec to reveal the gene pool associated with mecA. ..
  60. Sarai N, Kagawa W, Kinebuchi T, Kagawa A, Tanaka K, Miyagawa K, et al. Stimulation of Dmc1-mediated DNA strand exchange by the human Rad54B protein. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:4429-37 pubmed
    ..Therefore, Rad54B may stimulate the Dmc1-mediated DNA strand exchange by stabilizing the nucleoprotein filament, which is formed on the ssDNA tails produced at DSB sites during homologous recombination. ..
  61. Landwehr R, Bogdanova N, Antonenkova N, Meyer A, Bremer M, Park Simon T, et al. Mutation analysis of the SLX4/FANCP gene in hereditary breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011;130:1021-8 pubmed publisher
    ..G700R substitution could make a minor contribution. ..
  62. Wechsler T, Newman S, West S. Aberrant chromosome morphology in human cells defective for Holliday junction resolution. Nature. 2011;471:642-6 pubmed publisher
  63. Schebelle L, Wolf C, Stribl C, Javaheri T, Schnütgen F, Ettinger A, et al. Efficient conditional and promoter-specific in vivo expression of cDNAs of choice by taking advantage of recombinase-mediated cassette exchange using FlEx gene traps. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:e106 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of the RMCE system presented in this work requires one single-cloning step followed by one overnight gateway clonase reaction and subsequent cassette exchange in ES cells with efficiencies of 40% in average. ..
  64. Wirth D, Gama Norton L, Riemer P, Sandhu U, Schucht R, Hauser H. Road to precision: recombinase-based targeting technologies for genome engineering. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2007;18:411-9 pubmed
    ..This review focuses on the current state of targeting strategies including RMCE employing site-specific recombinases such as Cre, Flp and PhiC31...
  65. Gordley R, Gersbach C, Barbas C. Synthesis of programmable integrases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:5053-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We generated chimeric zinc finger recombinases with cooperative DNA-binding and catalytic specificities that integrate transgenes with >98% accuracy into ..
  66. Keenholtz R, Mouw K, Boocock M, Li N, Piccirilli J, Rice P. Arginine as a general acid catalyst in serine recombinase-mediated DNA cleavage. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:29206-14 pubmed publisher
    Members of the serine family of site-specific DNA recombinases use an unusual constellation of amino acids to catalyze the formation and resolution of a covalent protein-DNA intermediate...
  67. Andersen S, Bergstralh D, Kohl K, Larocque J, Moore C, Sekelsky J. Drosophila MUS312 and the vertebrate ortholog BTBD12 interact with DNA structure-specific endonucleases in DNA repair and recombination. Mol Cell. 2009;35:128-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic and biochemical evidence described here and in related papers suggest that MUS312 and BTBD12 direct Holliday junction resolution by at least two distinct endonucleases in different recombination and repair contexts. ..
  68. Turan S, Zehe C, Kuehle J, Qiao J, Bode J. Recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) - a rapidly-expanding toolbox for targeted genomic modifications. Gene. 2013;515:1-27 pubmed publisher
    Starting in 1991, the advance of Tyr-recombinases Flp and Cre enabled superior strategies for the predictable insertion of transgenes into compatible target sites of mammalian cells...
  69. Giri B, Smaldino P, Thys R, Creacy S, Routh E, Hantgan R, et al. G4 resolvase 1 tightly binds and unwinds unimolecular G4-DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:7161-78 pubmed publisher
    ..This report provides evidence that G4R1/RHAU tightly binds and unwinds unimolecular G4-DNA structures. ..
  70. Lopes A, Amarir Bouhram J, Faure G, Petit M, Guerois R. Detection of novel recombinases in bacteriophage genomes unveils Rad52, Rad51 and Gp2.5 remote homologs. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:3952-62 pubmed publisher
    ..structure-based modelling and gene-context analyses, we provide new views on the global landscape of recombinases in 465 bacteriophages...
  71. Suzuki E, Nakayama M. VCre/VloxP and SCre/SloxP: new site-specific recombination systems for genome engineering. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:e49 pubmed publisher
    ..Their recognition sites are different from Cre recognition sites because VCre and SCre recombinases share less protein similarity with Cre, even though the basic 13-8-13 structures of their recognition sites are ..
  72. Nolivos S, Pages C, Rousseau P, Le Bourgeois P, Cornet F. Are two better than one? Analysis of an FtsK/Xer recombination system that uses a single recombinase. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:6477-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Most Xer systems, as XerCD/dif, include two different recombinases. However, some, as the Lactococcus lactis XerS/dif(SL) system, include only one recombinase...
  73. Stein R, Deng S, Higgins N. Measuring chromosome dynamics on different time scales using resolvases with varying half-lives. Mol Microbiol. 2005;56:1049-61 pubmed
    ..Rather than the 150 domains detected with the Tn3 resolvase, wild-type cells measured over a 10 min time span have more than 400 domains per genome equivalent, and some gyrase mutants exceed 1000. ..
  74. Floss T, Schnütgen F. Conditional gene trapping using the FLEx system. Methods Mol Biol. 2008;435:127-38 pubmed publisher
    ..This chapter will finally provide guidance on possible uses of conditional gene trap alleles as well as detailed protocols for the application of this recent technology. ..
  75. Kuroda T, Martuza R, Todo T, Rabkin S. Flip-Flop HSV-BAC: bacterial artificial chromosome based system for rapid generation of recombinant herpes simplex virus vectors using two independent site-specific recombinases. BMC Biotechnol. 2006;6:40 pubmed
    ..This system has the following features: (i) two site-specific recombinases, Cre and FLPe, are used sequentially to integrate desired sequences and to excise the BAC sequences, ..
  76. Kim Y, Spitz G, Veturi U, Lach F, Auerbach A, Smogorzewska A. Regulation of multiple DNA repair pathways by the Fanconi anemia protein SLX4. Blood. 2013;121:54-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that SLX4 modulates multiple DNA repair pathways by regulating appropriate nucleases. ..
  77. Lorenz A, Osman F, Sun W, Nandi S, Steinacher R, Whitby M. The fission yeast FANCM ortholog directs non-crossover recombination during meiosis. Science. 2012;336:1585-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The conservation of these proteins from yeast to humans suggests that this interplay may be a general feature of meiotic recombination. ..
  78. Bui D, Ramiscal J, Trigueros S, Newmark J, Do A, Sherratt D, et al. Differences in resolution of mwr-containing plasmid dimers mediated by the Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli XerC recombinases: potential implications in dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:2812-20 pubmed
    ..This characteristic may result in restriction of the host range of plasmids carrying this site, a phenomenon that may have important implications in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. ..
  79. Wyman C. Monomer networking activates recombinases. Structure. 2006;14:949-50 pubmed
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    ..Electron microscopy has revealed that, in the absence of ATP and DNA, RadB forms a filament with a similar diameter to that of the hypothetical assembly, although its helical properties were not confirmed...
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    Site-specific DNA recombinases can "cut and paste" DNA. For example, they can promote excision of specific DNA segments or insertion of new DNA segments in specific places...
  83. Bryan A, Roesch P, Davis L, Moritz R, Pellett S, Welch R. Regulation of type 1 fimbriae by unlinked FimB- and FimE-like recombinases in uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain CFT073. Infect Immun. 2006;74:1072-83 pubmed
    ..Alignment of the predicted amino acid sequences showed that the five recombinases range in sequence similarity from 63 to 70%...
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    ..The stage is now set for a more comprehensive understanding of the specific roles these enzymes play in the response of cells to DSBs, collapsed replication forks, telomere dysfunction, and meiotic recombination. ..
  85. Martínez Granero F, Capdevila S, Sanchez Contreras M, Martin M, Rivilla R. Two site-specific recombinases are implicated in phenotypic variation and competitive rhizosphere colonization in Pseudomonas fluorescens. Microbiology. 2005;151:975-83 pubmed
    ..variants under both culture and rhizosphere colonization conditions, implying that both site-specific recombinases are involved in phenotypic variation...
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    ..These studies also suggest that an essential function of Rec102 and Rec104 is to connect Mei4 and Rec114 to Spo11. ..
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    Site-specific recombinases are tremendously valuable tools for basic research and genetic engineering...
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    ..Recent structural, biochemical, and genetic findings are now revealing the molecular mechanisms of Dmc1-mediated homologous recombination and its regulation by various recombination mediators. ..