Genomes and Genes
penicillin binding proteins
Summary: Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.
- Sauvage E, Kerff F, Terrak M, Ayala J, Charlier P. The penicillin-binding proteins: structure and role in peptidoglycan biosynthesis. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2008;32:234-58 pubmed publisher..An overview of the content in PBPs of some bacteria is provided with an emphasis on comparing the biochemical properties of homologous PBPs (orthologues) belonging to different bacteria...
- Poole K. Resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2004;61:2200-23 pubmed
- Fuda C, Suvorov M, Vakulenko S, Mobashery S. The basis for resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics by penicillin-binding protein 2a of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:40802-6 pubmed..The observed conformational changes are likely to be a hallmark for how this enzyme carries out its catalytic function in cross-linking the bacterial cell wall. ..
- Meberg B, Paulson A, Priyadarshini R, Young K. Endopeptidase penicillin-binding proteins 4 and 7 play auxiliary roles in determining uniform morphology of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:8326-36 pubmed
- Avison M, Niumsup P, Nurmahomed K, Walsh T, Bennett P. Role of the 'cre/blr-tag' DNA sequence in regulation of gene expression by the Aeromonas hydrophila beta-lactamase regulator, BlrA. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2004;53:197-202 pubmed
- Zapun A, Vernet T, Pinho M. The different shapes of cocci. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2008;32:345-60 pubmed publisher..The present review aims to integrate older ultra-structural data with recent localization studies, in order to clarify the relation between the mechanisms of cell wall synthesis and the determination of cell shape in various cocci. ..
- Stapleton P, Shah S, Ehlert K, Hara Y, Taylor P. The beta-lactam-resistance modifier (-)-epicatechin gallate alters the architecture of the cell wall of Staphylococcus aureus. Microbiology. 2007;153:2093-103 pubmed..Thus, ECg-mediated alterations to the physical nature of the bilayer will elicit structural changes to WTA that result in modulation of the cell-surface properties necessary to maintain the beta-lactam-resistant phenotype. ..
- Macheboeuf P, Contreras Martel C, Job V, Dideberg O, Dessen A. Penicillin binding proteins: key players in bacterial cell cycle and drug resistance processes. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2006;30:673-91 pubmed
- Fuda C, Hesek D, Lee M, Morio K, Nowak T, Mobashery S. Activation for catalysis of penicillin-binding protein 2a from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by bacterial cell wall. J Am Chem Soc. 2005;127:2056-7 pubmed
- Stefanova M, Tomberg J, Olesky M, Höltje J, Gutheil W, Nicholas R. Neisseria gonorrhoeae penicillin-binding protein 3 exhibits exceptionally high carboxypeptidase and beta-lactam binding activities. Biochemistry. 2003;42:14614-25 pubmed..gonorrhoeae, although deletion of both PBP 3 and PBP 4, the other low-molecular-mass PBP in N. gonorrhoeae, resulted in a decreased growth rate and marked morphological abnormalities. ..
- Korsak D, Vollmer W, Markiewicz Z. Listeria monocytogenes EGD lacking penicillin-binding protein 5 (PBP5) produces a thicker cell wall. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2005;251:281-8 pubmed..A Listeria monocytogenes mutant lacking functional PBP5 was constructed. Cells of the mutant are viable, showing that the protein is dispensable for growth, but grow slower and have thickened cell walls. ..
- Spröte P, Hynes M, Hortschansky P, Shelest E, Scharf D, Wolke S, et al. Identification of the novel penicillin biosynthesis gene aatB of Aspergillus nidulans and its putative evolutionary relationship to this fungal secondary metabolism gene cluster. Mol Microbiol. 2008;70:445-61 pubmed..Our findings suggest that aatB is a paralogue of aatA. They extend the model of evolution of the penicillin biosynthesis gene cluster by recruitment of a biosynthesis gene and its cis-regulatory sites upon gene duplication. ..
- Scheffers D, Pinho M. Bacterial cell wall synthesis: new insights from localization studies. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2005;69:585-607 pubmed..We discuss a model in which, at least for a subset of PBPs, the presence of substrate is a major factor in determining PBP localization. ..
- Korsak D, Popowska M, Markiewicz Z. Analysis of the murein of a Listeria monocytogenes EGD mutant lacking functional penicillin binding protein 5 (PBP5). Pol J Microbiol. 2005;54:339-42 pubmed
- Storey C, Chopra I. Affinities of beta-lactams for penicillin binding proteins of Chlamydia trachomatis and their antichlamydial activities. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001;45:303-5 pubmedBinding affinities of beta-lactam antibiotics for the three penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) from Chlamydia trachomatis were determined in vitro and compared with their antichlamydial activities...
- Meroueh S, Minasov G, Lee W, Shoichet B, Mobashery S. Structural aspects for evolution of beta-lactamases from penicillin-binding proteins. J Am Chem Soc. 2003;125:9612-8 pubmed
- Ghosh A, Young K. Sequences near the active site in chimeric penicillin binding proteins 5 and 6 affect uniform morphology of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:2178-86 pubmed..coli PBP 5. ..
- Dabernat H, Delmas C, Seguy M, Pelissier R, Faucon G, Bennamani S, et al. Diversity of beta-lactam resistance-conferring amino acid substitutions in penicillin-binding protein 3 of Haemophilus influenzae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002;46:2208-18 pubmed..The level of resistance remains low but opens the way to greater resistance in the future. ..
- Pinho M, de Lencastre H, Tomasz A. An acquired and a native penicillin-binding protein cooperate in building the cell wall of drug-resistant staphylococci. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:10886-91 pubmed..aureus from an extra species source. ..
- Koch A. Penicillin binding proteins, beta-lactams, and lactamases: offensives, attacks, and defensive countermeasures. Crit Rev Microbiol. 2000;26:205-20 pubmed..This led to the evolution of beta-lactamases and resistant penicillin binding proteins (PBPs)...
- Matic V, Bozdogan B, Jacobs M, Ubukata K, Appelbaum P. Contribution of beta-lactamase and PBP amino acid substitutions to amoxicillin/clavulanate resistance in beta-lactamase-positive, amoxicillin/clavulanate-resistant Haemophilus influenzae. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2003;52:1018-21 pubmed..We concluded that amoxicillin/clavulanate resistance in the two BLPACR strains was due to changes in PBP3. The possibility of the presence of an extended spectrum beta-lactamase was excluded in the BLPACR strains studied. ..
- Fernandez F, Cardoza R, Montenegro E, Velasco J, Gutierrez S, Martin J. The isopenicillin N acyltransferases of Aspergillus nidulans and Penicillium chrysogenum differ in their ability to maintain the 40-kDa alphabeta heterodimer in an undissociated form. Eur J Biochem. 2003;270:1958-68 pubmed
- Korsak D, Zawadzka J, Siwińska M, Markiewicz Z. Penicillin-binding proteins of listeria monocytogenes--a re-evaluation. Acta Microbiol Pol. 2002;51:5-12 pubmed..cells or membranes isolated from them were treated with [3H]penicillin to allow identification of the penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) located in the cytoplasmic membrane...
- Meberg B, Sailer F, Nelson D, Young K. Reconstruction of Escherichia coli mrcA (PBP 1a) mutants lacking multiple combinations of penicillin binding proteins. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:6148-9 pubmed
- Nelson D, Young K. Contributions of PBP 5 and DD-carboxypeptidase penicillin binding proteins to maintenance of cell shape in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:3055-64 pubmedEscherichia coli has 12 recognized penicillin binding proteins (PBPs), four of which (PBPs 4, 5, and 6 and DacD) have DD-carboxypeptidase activity...
- Goffin C, Ghuysen J. Biochemistry and comparative genomics of SxxK superfamily acyltransferases offer a clue to the mycobacterial paradox: presence of penicillin-susceptible target proteins versus lack of efficiency of penicillin as therapeutic agent. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2002;66:702-38, table of contents pubmed..Shifting the wall peptidoglycan from the (4-->3) type to the (3-->3) type could help Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae survive by making them penicillin resistant. ..
- Simor A, Ofner Agostini M, Bryce E, Mcgeer A, Paton S, Mulvey M. Laboratory characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Canadian hospitals: results of 5 years of National Surveillance, 1995-1999. J Infect Dis. 2002;186:652-60 pubmed..This study confirms that the epidemiology of MRSA in Canada is evolving, but most isolates at this time appear to belong to one of a small number of epidemic clones. ..
- Laich F, Fierro F, Martin J. Production of penicillin by fungi growing on food products: identification of a complete penicillin gene cluster in Penicillium griseofulvum and a truncated cluster in Penicillium verrucosum. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2002;68:1211-9 pubmed..Antibacterial activities due to the production of secondary metabolites other than penicillin were observed in some fungi. ..
- Navratna V, Nadig S, Sood V, Prasad K, Arakere G, Gopal B. Molecular basis for the role of Staphylococcus aureus penicillin binding protein 4 in antimicrobial resistance. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:134-44 pubmed publisherb>Penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) are membrane-associated proteins that catalyze the final step of murein biosynthesis...
- Lovering A, De Castro L, Lim D, Strynadka N. Structural analysis of an "open" form of PBP1B from Streptococcus pneumoniae. Protein Sci. 2006;15:1701-9 pubmed..These findings are discussed in the context of enzyme functionality and the possible conformational sampling of PBP1b between active and inactive states. ..
- Cheng T, Sung M, Liao H, Chang Y, Chen C, Huang C, et al. Domain requirement of moenomycin binding to bifunctional transglycosylases and development of high-throughput discovery of antibiotics. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:431-6 pubmed publisher..On the basis of these findings, a fluorescence anisotropy-based high-throughput assay was developed and used successfully for identification of transglycosylase inhibitors. ..
- Katayama Y, Zhang H, Chambers H. Effect of disruption of Staphylococcus aureus PBP4 gene on resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. Microb Drug Resist. 2003;9:329-36 pubmed..These data indicate that PBP 4 is a relatively unimportant target of beta-lactams not only in methicillin-susceptible but also methicillin-resistant S. aureus. ..
- Valbuena N, Letek M, Ramos A, Ayala J, Nakunst D, Kalinowski J, et al. Morphological changes and proteome response of Corynebacterium glutamicum to a partial depletion of FtsI. Microbiology. 2006;152:2491-503 pubmed..glutamicum RESF1 strain expressing a chromosomal copy of a divIVA-gfp transcriptional fusion. Overexpression of DivIVA was not observed when FtsI was inhibited by cephalexin treatment or by partial depletion of FtsZ. ..
- Sanbongi Y, Suzuki T, Osaki Y, Senju N, Ida T, Ubukata K. Molecular evolution of beta-lactam-resistant Haemophilus influenzae: 9-year surveillance of penicillin-binding protein 3 mutations in isolates from Japan. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50:2487-92 pubmed publisher..4% to 5.0%). The ROB-1 beta-lactamase was rare, but this is the first report of this beta-lactamase in Japan...
- Schweizer I, BlÃ¤ttner S, Maurer P, Peters K, Vollmer D, Vollmer W, et al. New Aspects of the Interplay between Penicillin Binding Proteins, murM, and the Two-Component System CiaRH of Penicillin-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 19A Isolates from Hungary. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017;61: pubmed publisher..Most importantly, the proportion of branched peptides relative to the proportion of linear muropeptides increased in cells containing mosaic PBPs, suggesting an altered enzymatic activity of these proteins. ..
- Renzoni A, Kelley W, Rosato R, Martínez M, Roch M, Fatouraei M, et al. Molecular Bases Determining Daptomycin Resistance-Mediated Resensitization to Î²-Lactams (Seesaw Effect) in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017;61: pubmed publisher..These observations provide for the first time evidence that synergistic effects between DAP and Î²-lactams involve PrsA posttranscriptional regulation of CM-associated PBP 2a. ..
- Nicola G, Tomberg J, Pratt R, Nicholas R, Davies C. Crystal structures of covalent complexes of ?-lactam antibiotics with Escherichia coli penicillin-binding protein 5: toward an understanding of antibiotic specificity. Biochemistry. 2010;49:8094-104 pubmed publisher..Because the ring nitrogen occupies a similar position in all three complexes, this supports the hypothesis that deacylation is blocked by the continued presence of the leaving group after opening of the ?-lactam ring...
- Lloyd M, Lipscomb S, Hewitson K, Hensgens C, Baldwin J, Schofield C. Controlling the substrate selectivity of deacetoxycephalosporin/deacetylcephalosporin C synthase. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:15420-6 pubmed..The catalytic efficiency of mutant enzymes can be improved by combining active site mutations with other modifications including C-terminal truncation and modification of Asn-305. ..
- Sauvage E, Powell A, Heilemann J, Josephine H, Charlier P, Davies C, et al. Crystal structures of complexes of bacterial DD-peptidases with peptidoglycan-mimetic ligands: the substrate specificity puzzle. J Mol Biol. 2008;381:383-93 pubmed publisher..This striking deficiency may represent a sophisticated defense mechanism against low-molecular-mass substrate-analogue inhibitors/antibiotics; its discovery should focus new inhibitor design...
- Andersson M, Resman F, Eitrem R, Drobni P, Riesbeck K, Kahlmeter G, et al. Outbreak of a beta-lactam resistant non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae sequence type 14 associated with severe clinical outcomes. BMC Infect Dis. 2015;15:581 pubmed publisher..influenzae with high virulence, and furthermore emphasizes the importance of continuous surveillance of possible outbreaks in health care facilities and prompt measures when outbreaks occur. ..
- Nadarajah J, Lee M, Louie L, Jacob L, Simor A, Louie M, et al. Identification of different clonal complexes and diverse amino acid substitutions in penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2) associated with borderline oxacillin resistance in Canadian Staphylococcus aureus isolates. J Med Microbiol. 2006;55:1675-83 pubmed..The predominant ST25 lineage was not related to any of the five clonal complexes that contain meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), suggesting that ST25 cannot readily acquire mecA-mediated resistance. ..
- Datta P, Dasgupta A, Singh A, Mukherjee P, Kundu M, Basu J. Interaction between FtsW and penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3) directs PBP3 to mid-cell, controls cell septation and mediates the formation of a trimeric complex involving FtsZ, FtsW and PBP3 in mycobacteria. Mol Microbiol. 2006;62:1655-73 pubmed..smegmatis. Our findings raise the possibility that in the genus Mycobacterium binding of FtsZ to the C-tail of FtsW may modulate its interactions with PBP3, thereby potentially regulating septal peptidoglycan biogenesis. ..
- Bicmen M, Gulay Z, Ramaswamy S, Musher D, Gur D. Analysis of mutations in the pbp genes of penicillin-non-susceptible pneumococci from Turkey. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2006;12:150-5 pubmed..This is the first study to analyse alterations in the pbp sequences of pneumococci isolated in Turkey. ..
- Legaree B, Daniels K, Weadge J, Cockburn D, Clarke A. Function of penicillin-binding protein 2 in viability and morphology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2007;59:411-24 pubmed..The viability of cells lacking an active PBP 2 suggests that the organization of the peptidoglycan biosynthetic machinery is different in this pathogen compared with E. coli. ..
- Osborn M, Rothfield L. Cell shape determination in Escherichia coli. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2007;10:606-10 pubmed
- Varma A, Young K. In Escherichia coli, MreB and FtsZ direct the synthesis of lateral cell wall via independent pathways that require PBP 2. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:3526-33 pubmed publisher..However, cell shape was determined only by the presence or absence of MreB and not by the even distribution of new wall material as directed by FtsZ. ..
- Magnet S, Arbeloa A, Mainardi J, Hugonnet J, Fourgeaud M, Dubost L, et al. Specificity of L,D-transpeptidases from gram-positive bacteria producing different peptidoglycan chemotypes. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:13151-9 pubmed..Blocking the assembly of the side chain could therefore be used to combat antibiotic resistance involving L,D-transpeptidases. ..
- Metcalf B, Chochua S, Gertz R, Li Z, Walker H, Tran T, et al. Using whole genome sequencing to identify resistance determinants and predict antimicrobial resistance phenotypes for year 2015 invasive pneumococcal disease isolates recovered in the United States. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2016;22:1002.e1-1002.e8 pubmed publisher..The two rifampin-resistant isolates contained rpoB mutations. WGS-based antimicrobial phenotype prediction was an informative alternative to BDT for invasive pneumococci. ..
- Osaka K, Takakura T, Narukawa K, Takahata M, Endo K, Kiyota H, et al. Analysis of amino acid sequences of penicillin-binding protein 2 in clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with reduced susceptibility to cefixime and ceftriaxone. J Infect Chemother. 2008;14:195-203 pubmed publisher..These results also indicated that the mosaic structures and the above point mutation in PenA make a major contribution to the reduced susceptibility to cephem antibiotics. ..
- Fay A, Meyer P, Dworkin J. Interactions between late-acting proteins required for peptidoglycan synthesis during sporulation. J Mol Biol. 2010;399:547-61 pubmed publisher..Thus, SpoVE has a direct and functional interaction with SpoVD, and this conclusion will facilitate understanding the essential function that SpoVE and related SEDS proteins, such as FtsW and RodA, play in bacterial growth and division...
- Cha J, Ishiwata A, Mobashery S. A novel beta-lactamase activity from a penicillin-binding protein of Treponema pallidum and why syphilis is still treatable with penicillin. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:14917-21 pubmed..The physiological functions of Tp47 are not known, but it is likely that this is at least a bifunctional enzyme involved in the processing of the Treponema peptidoglycan as a substrate. ..
- Memmi G, Filipe S, Pinho M, Fu Z, Cheung A. Staphylococcus aureus PBP4 is essential for beta-lactam resistance in community-acquired methicillin-resistant strains. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008;52:3955-66 pubmed publisher..Thus, PBP4 represents a major target for drug rediscovery against CA-MRSA, and a combination of cefoxitin and synthetic penicillins may be an effective therapy for CA-MRSA infections. ..
- Whiley D, Bates J, Limnios A, Nissen M, Tapsall J, Sloots T. Use of a novel screening PCR indicates presence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with a mosaic penA gene sequence in Australia. Pathology. 2007;39:445-6 pubmed
- Ender M, McCallum N, BERGER BACHI B. Impact of mecA promoter mutations on mecA expression and beta-lactam resistance levels. Int J Med Microbiol. 2008;298:607-17 pubmed publisher..The tight repression of mecA expression in this drug clone in the absence of beta-lactams could contribute to the apparent fitness of this fast growing strain. ..
- Pinar A, Koseoglu O, Yenisehirli G, Sener B. Molecular epidemiology of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in a university hospital, Ankara, Turkey. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2004;10:718-23 pubmed..pneumoniae and viridans group streptococci may have occurred. ..
- Golemi Kotra D, Meroueh S, Kim C, Vakulenko S, Bulychev A, Stemmler A, et al. The importance of a critical protonation state and the fate of the catalytic steps in class A beta-lactamases and penicillin-binding proteins. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:34665-73 pubmed..As such, unprotonated Lys-73 could promote serine for acylation, a process that should be shared among all active-site serine beta-lactamases and penicillin-binding proteins. ..
- Stewart G. Taking shape: control of bacterial cell wall biosynthesis. Mol Microbiol. 2005;57:1177-81 pubmed..Recent genetic studies have provided important clues as to how these proteins are arranged in the cell and how they function to regulate cell shape. ..
- Rice L, Carias L, Rudin S, Hutton R, Marshall S, Hassan M, et al. Role of class A penicillin-binding proteins in the expression of beta-lactam resistance in Enterococcus faecium. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:3649-56 pubmed publisher..Thus, susceptibility of Pbp5-mediated peptidoglycan cross-linking to different beta-lactam antibiotics differed as a function of its partner glycosyltransferase. ..
- Watanuki Y. [Prevalence and treatment for antibiotic-resistant bacteria in respiratory infection]. Nihon Rinsho. 2007;65 Suppl 2 Pt. 1:502-7 pubmed
- Rimbara E, Noguchi N, Kawai T, Sasatsu M. Mutations in penicillin-binding proteins 1, 2 and 3 are responsible for amoxicillin resistance in Helicobacter pylori. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008;61:995-8 pubmed publisher..Multiple mutations in PBP2 and PBP3, in addition to mutations in PBP1, confer higher amoxicillin resistance in H. pylori. ..
- Bemis D, Jones R, Hiatt L, Ofori E, Rohrbach B, Frank L, et al. Comparison of tests to detect oxacillin resistance in Staphylococcus intermedius, Staphylococcus schleiferi, and Staphylococcus aureus isolates from canine hosts. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:3374-6 pubmed..Cefoxitin disk diffusion, using breakpoints for human isolates of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp., had low sensitivity for detection of oxacillin resistance in members of the Staphylococcus intermedius group. ..
- Gerrits M, Godoy A, Kuipers E, Ribeiro M, Stoof J, Mendonca S, et al. Multiple mutations in or adjacent to the conserved penicillin-binding protein motifs of the penicillin-binding protein 1A confer amoxicillin resistance to Helicobacter pylori. Helicobacter. 2006;11:181-7 pubmed..pylori. The findings of this study currently preclude the rapid detection of amoxicillin resistance in H. pylori by molecular tests. ..
- Boyle Vavra S, Yin S, Daum R. The VraS/VraR two-component regulatory system required for oxacillin resistance in community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2006;262:163-71 pubmed..Therefore, the vraS/vraR regulatory system plays a crucial role in allowing MRSA to respond to beta-lactams by regulation of a gene target other than the known effectors of methicillin resistance. ..
- Bozdogan B, Tristram S, Appelbaum P. Combination of altered PBPs and expression of cloned extended-spectrum beta-lactamases confers cefotaxime resistance in Haemophilus influenzae. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2006;57:747-9 pubmed..influenzae strains to produce cefotaxime resistance. Amoxicillin/clavulanate pre-diffusion disc tests can discriminate ESBL-producing strains from other strains. ..
- Scheffers D. Dynamic localization of penicillin-binding proteins during spore development in Bacillus subtilis. Microbiology. 2005;151:999-1012 pubmed..This work shows that various PBPs known to function during sporulation are redistributed from the cytoplasmic membrane to the prespore. ..
- Meng J, Hu B, Liu J, Hou Z, Meng J, Jia M, et al. Restoration of oxacillin susceptibility in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by blocking the MecR1-mediated signaling pathway. J Chemother. 2006;18:360-5 pubmed..Our results indicate that blocking the mecR1-mecI-mecA signaling pathway via an antisense approach might be a viable strategy to restore the susceptibility of MRSA to the existing beta-lactam antibiotics. ..
- Den Blaauwen T, de Pedro M, Nguyen Distèche M, Ayala J. Morphogenesis of rod-shaped sacculi. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2008;32:321-44 pubmed publisher..Although this multifunctionality and flexibility form a barrier to the functional elucidation of its individual subunits, it helps the cells to survive a variety of emergency situations and to proliferate securely. ..
- Yamada M, Watanabe T, Baba N, Takeuchi Y, Ohsawa F, Gomi S. Crystal structures of biapenem and tebipenem complexed with penicillin-binding proteins 2X and 1A from Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008;52:2053-60 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that interactions between the C-2 side chains of carbapenems and the conserved Trp and Thr residues in PBPs play important roles in the binding of carbapenems to PBPs. ..
- da Costa Darini A, Palazzo I. Cefoxitin does not induce production of penicillin binding protein 2a in methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus strains. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:4412; author reply 4412-3 pubmed