urate oxidase


Summary: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urate and unidentified products. It is a copper protein. The initial products decompose to form allantoin. EC

Top Publications

  1. Annemans L, Moeremans K, Lamotte M, Garcia Conde J, van den Berg H, Myint H, et al. Pan-European multicentre economic evaluation of recombinant urate oxidase (rasburicase) in prevention and treatment of hyperuricaemia and tumour lysis syndrome in haematological cancer patients. Support Care Cancer. 2003;11:249-57 pubmed
    ..was to assess incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) of preventing/treating HU and TLS with recombinant urate oxidase, rasburicase (Fasturtec/Elitek). Incidence and costs of HU and TLS were based on a multi-country chart review...
  2. Wu X, Lee C, Muzny D, Caskey C. Urate oxidase: primary structure and evolutionary implications. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:9412-6 pubmed
    b>Urate oxidase, or uricase (EC, is a peroxisomal enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of uric acid to allantoin in most mammals. In humans and certain other primates, however, the enzyme has been lost by some unknown mechanism...
  3. Wang L, Shih L, Chang H, Jou S, Lin K, Yeh T, et al. Recombinant urate oxidase (rasburicase) for the prevention and treatment of tumor lysis syndrome in patients with hematologic malignancies. Acta Haematol. 2006;115:35-8 pubmed
    ..In this multicenter, nonrandomized, open-label clinical trial conducted from July 2003 to July 2004, recombinant urate oxidase (rasburicase) was administered to patients at risk for tumor lysis syndrome before or during the initiation of ..
  4. Ramazzina I, Folli C, Secchi A, Berni R, Percudani R. Completing the uric acid degradation pathway through phylogenetic comparison of whole genomes. Nat Chem Biol. 2006;2:144-8 pubmed
    ..Until recently, it had long been thought that urate oxidase was the only enzyme responsible for this conversion...
  5. Oldfield V, Perry C. Rasburicase: a review of its use in the management of anticancer therapy-induced hyperuricaemia. Drugs. 2006;66:529-45 pubmed
    ..Thus, rasburicase is a useful option for the prophylaxis or treatment of anticancer therapy-induced hyperuricaemia in both adult and paediatric patients. ..
  6. Bayol A, Capdevielle J, Malazzi P, Buzy A, Claude Bonnet M, Colloc h N, et al. Modification of a reactive cysteine explains differences between rasburicase and Uricozyme, a natural Aspergillus flavus uricase. Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2002;36:21-31 pubmed
    b>Urate oxidase is used in humans for the control of uric acid in patients receiving chemotherapy...
  7. Liu C, Sims McCallum R, Schiffer C. A single dose of rasburicase is sufficient for the treatment of hyperuricemia in patients receiving chemotherapy. Leuk Res. 2005;29:463-5 pubmed
    ..The levels remained below 4 mg/dL throughout the administration of chemotherapy for up to 96 h. Utilizing the guidelines resulted in a significant cost savings of 100,000 US dollars. ..
  8. Pession A, Barbieri E. Treatment and prevention of tumor lysis syndrome in children. Experience of Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica. Contrib Nephrol. 2005;147:80-92 pubmed
    ..Clinical trials have shown rasburicase, a recombinant urate oxidase to be more effective than allopurinol for the prevention and treatment of malignancy-associated hyperuricemia...
  9. Wallrath L, Burnett J, Friedman T. Molecular characterization of the Drosophila melanogaster urate oxidase gene, an ecdysone-repressible gene expressed only in the malpighian tubules. Mol Cell Biol. 1990;10:5114-27 pubmed
    The urate oxidase (UO) gene of Drosophila melanogaster is expressed during the third-instar larval and adult stages, exclusively within a subset of cells of the Malpighian tubules...

More Information


  1. Shin H, Kang H, Park E, Choi H, Ahn H, Kim S, et al. Recombinant urate oxidase (Rasburicase) for the treatment of hyperuricemia in pediatric patients with hematologic malignancies: Results of a compassionate prospective multicenter study in Korea. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2006;46:439-45 pubmed
    ..To confirm the efficacy of recombinant urate oxidase (rasburicase) and its safety profile, a phase IV compassionate use prospective study was performed in Korean ..
  2. Watanabe S, Kang D, Feng L, Nakagawa T, Kanellis J, Lan H, et al. Uric acid, hominoid evolution, and the pathogenesis of salt-sensitivity. Hypertension. 2002;40:355-60 pubmed
    Humans have elevated serum uric acid as a result of a mutation in the urate oxidase (uricase) gene that occurred during the Miocene...
  3. Ribeiro R, Pui C. Recombinant urate oxidase for prevention of hyperuricemia and tumor lysis syndrome in lymphoid malignancies. Clin Lymphoma. 2003;3:225-32 pubmed
    ..Rasburicase, a recombinant form of the enzyme urate oxidase, has recently become available and may further reduce the morbidity of hyperuricemia and TLS...
  4. Hicks K, O Leary S, Begley T, Ealick S. Structural and mechanistic studies of HpxO, a novel flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent urate oxidase from Klebsiella pneumoniae. Biochemistry. 2013;52:477-87 pubmed publisher
    HpxO is a flavin-dependent urate oxidase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of uric acid to 5-hydroxyisourate and functions in a novel pathway for purine catabolism found in Klebsiella pneumoniae...
  5. Zhang C, Yang X, Feng J, Yuan Y, Li X, Bu Y, et al. Effects of modification of amino groups with poly(ethylene glycol) on a recombinant uricase from Bacillus fastidiosus. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2010;74:1298-301 pubmed
    ..Thus, this uricase can be formulated via modification with monomethoxyl-poly(ethylene glycol). ..
  6. Safra N, Ling G, Schaible R, Bannasch D. Exclusion of urate oxidase as a candidate gene for hyperuricosuria in the Dalmatian dog using an interbreed backcross. J Hered. 2005;96:750-4 pubmed
    ..Whereas high levels of uric acid are known to be caused by the silencing of the urate oxidase (uox) gene in humans and higher primates, the molecular basis for the Dalmatian defect is unknown...
  7. Chen X, Burdett T, Desjardins C, Logan R, Cipriani S, Xu Y, et al. Disrupted and transgenic urate oxidase alter urate and dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:300-5 pubmed publisher
    ..is the end product of purine metabolism in humans, owing to the evolutionary disruption of the gene encoding urate oxidase (UOx). Elevated urate can cause gout and urolithiasis and is associated with cardiovascular and other diseases...
  8. Colloc h N, Mornon J, Camadro J. Towards a new T-fold protein?: the coproporphyrinogen III oxidase sequence matches many structural features from urate oxidase. FEBS Lett. 2002;526:5-10 pubmed
    b>Urate oxidase (UOX) and coproporphyrinogen III oxidase (CPO) are two unusual oxidases as they accomplish their catalytic act with no co-factor nor metal ion...
  9. Keedy F, Vadgama P. Determination of urate in undiluted whole blood by enzyme electrode. Biosens Bioelectron. 1991;6:491-9 pubmed
    ..Electrode steady state and dynamic response were found to be dependent upon the amount of enzyme loading, and could be further optimised by the incorporation of catalase in the enzyme layer. ..
  10. Navolanic P, Pui C, Larson R, Bishop M, Pearce T, Cairo M, et al. Elitek-rasburicase: an effective means to prevent and treat hyperuricemia associated with tumor lysis syndrome, a Meeting Report, Dallas, Texas, January 2002. Leukemia. 2003;17:499-514 pubmed
    ..Allopurinol, a xanthine analogue, blocks xanthine oxidase and formation of uric acid. Urate oxidase converts uric acid to allantoin, which is 5-10 times more soluble than uric acid...
  11. Bieber J, Terkeltaub R. Gout: on the brink of novel therapeutic options for an ancient disease. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50:2400-14 pubmed
  12. Pui C. Rasburicase: a potent uricolytic agent. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2002;3:433-42 pubmed
    Rasburicase (Fasurtec, Elitek, Sanofi-Synthelabo) is a new recombinant urate oxidase developed for the prevention and treatment of hyperuricaemia...
  13. Arora K, Sumana G, Saxena V, Gupta R, Gupta S, Yakhmi J, et al. Improved performance of polyaniline-uricase biosensor. Anal Chim Acta. 2007;594:17-23 pubmed
    ..These PANI-uricase electrodes can be used for about 30 times for electrochemical measurements while retaining about 90% of its activity indicating improved performance. ..
  14. Sundy J, Baraf H, Yood R, Edwards N, Gutierrez Urena S, Treadwell E, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of pegloticase for the treatment of chronic gout in patients refractory to conventional treatment: two randomized controlled trials. JAMA. 2011;306:711-20 pubmed publisher
    ..clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00325195. ..
  15. Ganson N, Kelly S, Scarlett E, Sundy J, Hershfield M. Control of hyperuricemia in subjects with refractory gout, and induction of antibody against poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), in a phase I trial of subcutaneous PEGylated urate oxidase. Arthritis Res Ther. 2006;8:R12 pubmed
    PEG-modified recombinant mammalian urate oxidase (PEG-uricase) is being developed as a treatment for patients with chronic gout who are intolerant of, or refractory to, available therapy for controlling hyperuricemia...
  16. Zhang C, Fan K, Luo H, Ma X, Liu R, Yang L, et al. Characterization, efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and biodistribution of 5kDa mPEG modified tetrameric canine uricase variant. Int J Pharm. 2012;430:307-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Non-specific tissue distribution was observed after administration of (125)I-labeled mPEG-UHC in rats, and elimination by the kidneys into the urine is the primary excretion route...
  17. Retailleau P, Colloc h N, Vivares D, Bonneté F, Castro B, El Hajji M, et al. Urate oxidase from Aspergillus flavus: new crystal-packing contacts in relation to the content of the active site. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2005;61:218-29 pubmed
    b>Urate oxidase from Aspergillus flavus (uricase or Uox; EC is a 135 kDa homotetramer with a subunit consisting of 301 amino acids. It catalyses the first step of the degradation of uric acid into allantoin...
  18. Colloc h N, Girard E, Dhaussy A, Kahn R, Ascone I, Mezouar M, et al. High pressure macromolecular crystallography: the 140-MPa crystal structure at 2.3 A resolution of urate oxidase, a 135-kDa tetrameric assembly. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1764:391-7 pubmed
    ..determined by high-pressure macromolecular crystallography (HPMX) of a 135-kDa homo-tetrameric enzyme, urate oxidase from Aspergillus flavus complexed with its potent inhibitor 8-azaxanthin...
  19. Wu X, Muzny D, Lee C, Caskey C. Two independent mutational events in the loss of urate oxidase during hominoid evolution. J Mol Evol. 1992;34:78-84 pubmed
    b>Urate oxidase was lost in hominoids during primate evolution. The mechanism and biological reason for this loss remain unknown...
  20. Wang X, Hagiwara T, Uchiyama S. Immobilization of uricase within polystyrene using polymaleimidostyrene as a stabilizer and its application to uric acid sensor. Anal Chim Acta. 2007;587:41-6 pubmed
    ..The concentration of uric acid was determined at a negative potential based on the decrease in the reduction current of oxygen and the interference of l-ascorbic acid can be completely eliminated. ..
  21. Tipton P. Urate oxidase: single-turnover stopped-flow techniques for detecting two discrete enzyme-bound intermediates. Methods Enzymol. 2002;354:310-9 pubmed
  22. Liao C, Chou J, Sun T, Hsiung S, Hsieh J. Preliminary investigations on a new disposable potentiometric biosensor for uric acid. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2006;53:1401-8 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the recorded voltage was relatively constant during the first 28 days of measurement. Consequently, a potentiometric uric acid biosensor was realized with the advantages of low cost and simple fabrication. ..
  23. Marassio G, Prang T, David H, Santos J, Gabison L, Delcroix N, et al. Pressure-response analysis of anesthetic gases xenon and nitrous oxide on urate oxidase: a crystallographic study. FASEB J. 2011;25:2266-75 pubmed publisher
    ..poorly known, we performed both crystallography under a large range of gas pressure and biochemical studies on urate oxidase, a prototype of globular gas-binding proteins whose activity is modulated by inert gases...
  24. Patte C, Sakiroglu O, Sommelet D. European experience in the treatment of hyperuricemia. Semin Hematol. 2001;38:9-12 pubmed
    The nonrecombinant form of urate oxidase has been routinely used in France since 1975 as standard practice in the initial management of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and for prevention of tumor ..
  25. Pui C. Urate oxidase in the prophylaxis or treatment of hyperuricemia: the United States experience. Semin Hematol. 2001;38:13-21 pubmed
    Nonrecombinant urate oxidase (Uricozyme, Sanofi-Synthélabo, Inc, Paris, France) is a highly effective uricolytic agent, but its use is associated with hypersensitivity reaction manifested mainly by bronchospasm in approximately 5% of ..
  26. Saeed H, Abdel Fattah Y, Gohar Y, Elbaz M. Purification and characterization of extracellular Pseudomonas aeruginosa urate oxidase enzyme. Pol J Microbiol. 2004;53:45-52 pubmed
    b>Urate oxidase (uricase) was isolated and purified from Pseudomonas aeruginosa to apparent homogeneity using ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography...
  27. SHERMAN M, Saifer M, Perez Ruiz F. PEG-uricase in the management of treatment-resistant gout and hyperuricemia. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2008;60:59-68 pubmed
    ..Unlike most mammals, humans lack the enzyme uricase (urate oxidase) that catalyzes the oxidation of uric acid to a more soluble product...
  28. Cammalleri L, Malaguarnera M. Rasburicase represents a new tool for hyperuricemia in tumor lysis syndrome and in gout. Int J Med Sci. 2007;4:83-93 pubmed
    ..these consequences, a new therapeutic option is represented by rasburicase, a recombinant form of an enzyme, urate oxidase. This enzyme converts hypoxanthine and xanthine into allantoin, a more soluble molecule, easily cleared by ..
  29. Gabison L, Chiadmi M, Colloc h N, Castro B, El Hajji M, Prangé T. Recapture of [S]-allantoin, the product of the two-step degradation of uric acid, by urate oxidase. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:2087-91 pubmed
    b>Urate oxidase from Aspergillus flavus catalyzes the degradation of uric acid to [S]-allantoin through 5-hydroxyisourate as a metastable intermediate...
  30. Andersen i, Aas T, Skugor S, Takle H, van Nes S, Grisdale Helland B, et al. Purine-induced expression of urate oxidase and enzyme activity in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Cloning of urate oxidase liver cDNA from three teleost species and the African lungfish Protopterus annectens. FEBS J. 2006;273:2839-50 pubmed publisher
    The peroxisomal enzyme urate oxidase plays a pivotal role in the degradation of purines in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. However, knowledge about the purine-induced expression of the encoding gene is lacking in vertebrates...
  31. Vogt B. Urate oxidase (rasburicase) for treatment of severe tophaceous gout. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2005;20:431-3 pubmed
  32. Chen M, Cai L, Fang Z, Tian H, Gao X, Yao W. Site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids into urate oxidase in Escherichia coli. Protein Sci. 2008;17:1827-33 pubmed publisher
    b>Urate oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of uric acid with poor solubility to produce 5-hydroxyisourate and allantoin. Since allantoin is excreted in vivo, urate oxidase has the potential to be a therapeutic target for the treatment of gout...
  33. Gu Y, Hershfield M, Cohen A. The danger within. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:2721-2; author reply 2721-2 pubmed
  34. Chohan S, Becker M. Update on emerging urate-lowering therapies. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2009;21:143-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent advances in therapeutics promise to provide the opportunity for much needed improvement in patient outcomes in this disorder. ..
  35. Colloc h N, el Hajji M, Bachet B, L Hermite G, Schiltz M, Prange T, et al. Crystal structure of the protein drug urate oxidase-inhibitor complex at 2.05 A resolution. Nat Struct Biol. 1997;4:947-52 pubmed
    The gene coding for urate oxidase, an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of uric acid to allantoin, is inactivated in humans...
  36. Zhang C, Fan K, Zhang W, Zhu R, Zhang L, Wei D. Structure-based characterization of canine-human chimeric uricases and its evolutionary implications. Biochimie. 2012;94:1412-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The loss of hominoid uricase should be caused by progressive multistep mutations rather than a single mutation event. ..
  37. Bomalaski J, Holtsberg F, Ensor C, Clark M. Uricase formulated with polyethylene glycol (uricase-PEG 20): biochemical rationale and preclinical studies. J Rheumatol. 2002;29:1942-9 pubmed
    Humans have a non-sense codon inserted into the 5 prime end of the open reading frame of urate oxidase, and thus express an enzymatically inactive fragment of this enzyme; and consequently are unable to metabolize uric acid into ..
  38. Luo X, Cai N, Cheng Z. Determination of uric acid in plasma by LC-MS/MS and its application to an efficacy evaluation of recombinant urate oxidase. Anal Sci. 2013;29:709-13 pubmed
    ..7 and 102.3%. This method was successfully applied to an efficacy study of intravenous recombinant urate oxidase produced by Escherichia coli in a clinical phase I study.
  39. Pui C, Mahmoud H, Wiley J, Woods G, Leverger G, Camitta B, et al. Recombinant urate oxidase for the prophylaxis or treatment of hyperuricemia in patients With leukemia or lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 2001;19:697-704 pubmed
    ..hyperuricemia in patients with leukemia or lymphoma, we tested a newly developed uricolytic agent, recombinant urate oxidase (SR29142; Rasburicase; Sanofi-Synthelabo, Inc, Paris, France), which catalyzes the oxidation of uric acid to ..
  40. Sundy J, Ganson N, Kelly S, Scarlett E, Rehrig C, Huang W, et al. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intravenous PEGylated recombinant mammalian urate oxidase in patients with refractory gout. Arthritis Rheum. 2007;56:1021-8 pubmed
    To evaluate the efficacy, immunogenicity, and tolerability of intravenous (IV) PEGylated recombinant mammalian urate oxidase (PEG-uricase) for the treatment of severe gout. Single infusions of PEG-uricase (at doses ranging from 0...
  41. Richette P, Bardin T. Successful treatment with rasburicase of a tophaceous gout in a patient allergic to allopurinol. Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol. 2006;2:338-42; quiz 343 pubmed
    ..Rasburicase infusions combined with fenofibrate and sodium bicarbonate achieved to maintain serum acid uric below 360 micromol/l. ..
  42. Chauhan N, Pundir C. An amperometric uric acid biosensor based on multiwalled carbon nanotube-gold nanoparticle composite. Anal Biochem. 2011;413:97-103 pubmed publisher
    ..A number of serum substances had practically no interference. The sensor was used in more than 200 assays and had a storage life of 120 days at 4°C. ..
  43. Nakamura Y, Ogura M, Ogura K, Tanaka D, Inagaki N. SIRT5 deacetylates and activates urate oxidase in liver mitochondria of mice. FEBS Lett. 2012;586:4076-81 pubmed publisher
    We identified urate oxidase (UOX) as a target of SIRT5 by comparing mitochondrial proteins in livers of SIRT5-overexpressing transgenic (SIRT5 Tg) and wild-type mice by using two-dimensional electrophoresis...
  44. Zhao Y, Zhao L, Yang G, Tao J, Bu Y, Liao F. Characterization of a uricase from Bacillus fastidious A.T.C.C. 26904 and its application to serum uric acid assay by a patented kinetic uricase method. Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2006;45:75-80 pubmed
    ..These results indicated that this kinetic uricase method using this uricase was reliable for serum uric acid assay with enhanced resistance to xanthine besides other common errors. ..
  45. Wössmann W, Schrappe M, Meyer U, Zimmermann M, Reiter A. Incidence of tumor lysis syndrome in children with advanced stage Burkitt's lymphoma/leukemia before and after introduction of prophylactic use of urate oxidase. Ann Hematol. 2003;82:160-5 pubmed
    To evaluate the clinical benefit of the prophylactic use of urate oxidase in children with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), we analyzed the incidence and complications of tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) in children with B-cell acute ..
  46. Li J, Chen Z, Hou L, Fan H, Weng S, Xu C, et al. High-level expression, purification, and characterization of non-tagged Aspergillus flavus urate oxidase in Escherichia coli. Protein Expr Purif. 2006;49:55-9 pubmed
    ..A scalable process aimed to produce and purify multi-gram quantities of highly pure, recombinant urate oxidase (rUox) from E. coli was developed...
  47. Goldman S, Holcenberg J, Finklestein J, Hutchinson R, Kreissman S, Johnson F, et al. A randomized comparison between rasburicase and allopurinol in children with lymphoma or leukemia at high risk for tumor lysis. Blood. 2001;97:2998-3003 pubmed
    ..b>Urate oxidase catalyzes the enzymatic oxidation of uric acid to a 5 times increased urine soluble product, allantoin...
  48. Mulhbacher J, McGeeney K, Ispas Szabo P, Lenaerts V, Mateescu M. Modified high amylose starch for immobilization of uricase for therapeutic application. Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2002;36:163-70 pubmed
    b>Urate oxidase (uricase) was immobilized on carboxymethyl high amylose starch cross-linked 35 (CM-HASCL-35), on aminoethyl high amylose starch cross-linked 35, as well as on commercial supports, CNBr-activated Sepharose and ..
  49. Pui C, Jeha S, Irwin D, Camitta B. Recombinant urate oxidase (rasburicase) in the prevention and treatment of malignancy-associated hyperuricemia in pediatric and adult patients: results of a compassionate-use trial. Leukemia. 2001;15:1505-9 pubmed
    To confirm the efficacy of recombinant urate oxidase (rasburicase) and to establish its safety profile, we reviewed the data on 173 children and 72 adults with malignancy who were treated with this new uricolytic agent in a compassionate-..
  50. Trifilio S, Gordon L, Singhal S, Tallman M, Evens A, Rashid K, et al. Reduced-dose rasburicase (recombinant xanthine oxidase) in adult cancer patients with hyperuricemia. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2006;37:997-1001 pubmed
    Recombinant urate oxidase (rasburicase) lowers uric acid levels rapidly to very low levels at the labeled dose of 0.15-0.2 mg/kg daily for 5 days...
  51. Yeldandi A, Wang X, Alvares K, Kumar S, Rao M, Reddy J. Human urate oxidase gene: cloning and partial sequence analysis reveal a stop codon within the fifth exon. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1990;171:641-6 pubmed
    Using the cDNA and selected genomic probes of rat urate oxidase, we have screened the human genomic library and isolated seven clones; one clone (clone 13) contained exonic regions which correspond to the exons 5, 6, and 7 of rat urate ..
  52. Wu X, Wakamiya M, Vaishnav S, Geske R, Montgomery C, Jones P, et al. Hyperuricemia and urate nephropathy in urate oxidase-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:742-6 pubmed
    b>Urate oxidase, or uricase (EC, is a purine metabolic enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of uric acid to allantoin in most mammals except humans and certain other primates...
  53. Gabison L, Chopard C, Colloc h N, Peyrot F, Castro B, El Hajji M, et al. X-ray, ESR, and quantum mechanics studies unravel a spin well in the cofactor-less urate oxidase. Proteins. 2011;79:1964-76 pubmed publisher
    b>Urate oxidase (EC or UOX) catalyzes the conversion of uric acid using gaseous molecular oxygen to 5-hydroxyisourate and hydrogen peroxide in absence of any cofactor or transition metal...
  54. Moreau D. Pharmacological treatment of acute renal failure in intensive care unit patients. Contrib Nephrol. 2005;147:161-73 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this chapter is to review the pharmacological tools currently available and their optimal use in the treatment of patients admitted in intensive care unit with hyperuricemia and severe acute renal failure. ..
  55. Macfarlane R, McCully B, Fernandez C. Rasburicase prevents tumor lysis syndrome despite extreme hyperleukocytosis. Pediatr Nephrol. 2004;19:924-7 pubmed
    ..Rasburicase (recombinant urate oxidase) is very effective for the prophylaxis and treatment of hyperuricemia, but its efficacy in marked ..
  56. Góth L, Bigler N. Catalase deficiency may complicate urate oxidase (rasburicase) therapy. Free Radic Res. 2007;41:953-5 pubmed
    ..Blood catalase activity should be measured for patients at risk of tumour lysis syndrome prior to uric acid oxidase treatment. ..
  57. Kelly S, Delnomdedieu M, Oliverio M, Williams L, Saifer M, Sherman M, et al. Diabetes insipidus in uricase-deficient mice: a model for evaluating therapy with poly(ethylene glycol)-modified uricase. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2001;12:1001-9 pubmed
    ..PEG-uricase could provide an effective therapy for uric acid nephropathy and refractory gout in human patients...
  58. Goldman S. Rasburicase: potential role in managing tumor lysis in patients with hematological malignancies. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2003;3:429-33 pubmed
    ..Rasburicase is a recombinant urate oxidase enzyme that converts uric acid to allantoin, which has increased urine solubility...
  59. Retailleau P, Colloc h N, Vivares D, Bonneté F, Castro B, El Hajji M, et al. Complexed and ligand-free high-resolution structures of urate oxidase (Uox) from Aspergillus flavus: a reassignment of the active-site binding mode. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2004;60:453-62 pubmed
    High-resolution X-ray structures of the complexes of Aspergillus flavus urate oxidase (Uox) with three inhibitors, 8-azaxanthin (AZA), 9-methyl uric acid (MUA) and oxonic acid (OXC), were determined in an orthorhombic space group (I222)...
  60. Oda M, Satta Y, Takenaka O, Takahata N. Loss of urate oxidase activity in hominoids and its evolutionary implications. Mol Biol Evol. 2002;19:640-53 pubmed publisher
    We have determined and compared the promoter, coding, and intronic sequences of the urate oxidase (Uox) gene of various primate species...
  61. Caliceti P, Schiavon O, Veronese F. Biopharmaceutical properties of uricase conjugated to neutral and amphiphilic polymers. Bioconjug Chem. 1999;10:638-46 pubmed
    ..7) Finally, all the enzyme forms slowly disposed in kidneys with higher levels for the poly(N-acryloilmorpholine) derivative (15% after 2880 min) and unmodified uricase (14% after 1440 min). ..
  62. Vivares D, Bonneté F. X-ray scattering studies of Aspergillus flavus urate oxidase: towards a better understanding of PEG effects on the crystallization of large proteins. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2002;58:472-9 pubmed
    ..The present study, by small-angle X-ray scattering, of urate oxidase from Aspergillus flavus, a homotetrameric enzyme of 128kDa, allowed the extension of the results to the ..
  63. Schumacher H, Chen L. Newer therapeutic approaches: gout. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2006;32:235-44, xii pubmed
    ..New agents under investigation include pegylated formulations of uricase and a new potent xanthine oxidase inhibitor, febuxostat. Some cardiovascular drugs have been shown to be uricosuric. ..
  64. Imhoff R, Power N, Borrok M, Tipton P. General base catalysis in the urate oxidase reaction: evidence for a novel Thr-Lys catalytic diad. Biochemistry. 2003;42:4094-100 pubmed
    b>Urate oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of urate without the involvement of any cofactors. The gene encoding urate oxidase from Bacillus subtilis has been cloned and expressed, and the enzyme was purified and characterized...
  65. Kahn K, Tipton P. Kinetic mechanism and cofactor content of soybean root nodule urate oxidase. Biochemistry. 1997;36:4731-8 pubmed
    The kinetic mechanism of urate oxidase isolated from soybean root nodules has been determined by initial velocity kinetic studies monitoring oxygen uptake, in order to avoid potential artifacts in the spectrophotometric assay which arise ..
  66. Choi H, Mount D, Reginato A. Pathogenesis of gout. Ann Intern Med. 2005;143:499-516 pubmed
  67. Patte C, Sakiroglu C, Ansoborlo S, Baruchel A, Plouvier E, Pacquement H, et al. Urate-oxidase in the prevention and treatment of metabolic complications in patients with B-cell lymphoma and leukemia, treated in the Société Française d'Oncologie Pédiatrique LMB89 protocol. Ann Oncol. 2002;13:789-95 pubmed
    ..Urate-oxidase was well tolerated, and used as prophylaxis and/or treatment of hyperuricemia and tumor lysis syndrome consistently gave a lower rate of renal and metabolic complications than in other series of similar patients. ..
  68. Scaraffia P, Tan G, Isoe J, Wysocki V, Wells M, Miesfeld R. Discovery of an alternate metabolic pathway for urea synthesis in adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:518-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Ae. aegypti express all three genes in this pathway, namely, urate oxidase, allantoinase, and allantoicase...
  69. Tan Q, Wang N, Yang H, Zhang L, Liu S, Chen L, et al. Characterization, stabilization and activity of uricase loaded in lipid vesicles. Int J Pharm. 2010;384:165-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Lastly, in vitro study explicitly indicated that the uricase entrapped by UOXLVs possessed higher uricolytic activity than that of native uricase solution. ..
  70. Freitas D, Spencer P, Vassão R, Abrahão Neto J. Biochemical and biopharmaceutical properties of PEGylated uricase. Int J Pharm. 2010;387:215-22 pubmed publisher
    ..This indicates sufficient reduction of the immunogenicity this enzyme by mPEG-pNP or mPEG-CN conjugation, making it suitable for a possible therapeutical use. ..
  71. Bhambi M, Sumana G, Malhotra B, Pundir C. An amperomertic uric acid biosensor based on immobilization of uricase onto polyaniline-multiwalled carbon nanotube composite film. Artif Cells Blood Substit Immobil Biotechnol. 2010;38:178-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Efficiency of the present amperometric uric acid biosensor was validated by quantitative estimation of uric acid level in biological serum of healthy individuals and the persons suffering from hyperuricemia and gout. ..
  72. Altarsha M, Castro B, Monard G. Intrinsic reactivity of uric acid with dioxygen: Towards the elucidation of the catalytic mechanism of urate oxidase. Bioorg Chem. 2009;37:111-25 pubmed publisher
    b>Urate oxidase catalyzes the transformation of uric acid in 5-hydroxyisourate, an unstable compound which is latter decomposed into allantoïn...
  73. Bosly A, Sonet A, Pinkerton C, McCowage G, Bron D, Sanz M, et al. Rasburicase (recombinant urate oxidase) for the management of hyperuricemia in patients with cancer: report of an international compassionate use study. Cancer. 2003;98:1048-54 pubmed
    ..Rasburicase, a recombinant urate oxidase that converts uric acid (UA) into the soluble compound allantoin, has been shown to control hyperuricemia ..
  74. Colloc h N, Gabison L, Monard G, Altarsha M, Chiadmi M, Marassio G, et al. Oxygen pressurized X-ray crystallography: probing the dioxygen binding site in cofactorless urate oxidase and implications for its catalytic mechanism. Biophys J. 2008;95:2415-22 pubmed publisher
    ..An application is given on urate oxidase (UOX), a cofactorless enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of uric acid to 5-hydroxyisourate in the presence of ..
  75. Yim B, Sims McCallum R, Chong P. Rasburicase for the treatment and prevention of hyperuricemia. Ann Pharmacother. 2003;37:1047-54 pubmed
    ..Rasburicase, a recombinant urate oxidase, has been shown to be effective in lowering uric acid and preventing uric acid accumulation in patients with ..
  76. Lootens S, Burnett J, Friedman T. An intraspecific gene duplication polymorphism of the urate oxidase gene of Drosophila virilis: a genetic and molecular analysis. Mol Biol Evol. 1993;10:635-46 pubmed publisher
    ..locations were examined by genetic and molecular analyses, revealing (a) 12 strains with a single copy of the urate oxidase (UO) gene per haploid genome and (b) 7 strains with a tandem duplication of the UO locus. The D...
  77. Moolenburgh J, Reinders M, Jansen T. Rasburicase treatment in severe tophaceous gout: a novel therapeutic option. Clin Rheumatol. 2006;25:749-52 pubmed
    ..In modern medicine, potent urate-debulking medication with urate oxidase (uricase) derivatives is at our disposal, and it is a challenge for rheumatologists to install the right ..
  78. McDonnell A, Lenz K, Frei Lahr D, Hayslip J, Hall P. Single-dose rasburicase 6 mg in the management of tumor lysis syndrome in adults. Pharmacotherapy. 2006;26:806-12 pubmed
    ..These results warrant further investigation of a single 6-mg dose of rasburicase in adults with TLS or at high-risk for developing TLS. ..
  79. Jeha S, Pui C. Recombinant urate oxidase (rasburicase) in the prophylaxis and treatment of tumor lysis syndrome. Contrib Nephrol. 2005;147:69-79 pubmed
    ..Unlike allopurinol, urate oxidase promptly reduces the existing uric acid pool, prevents accumulation of xanthine and hypoxanthine, and does not ..
  80. Lee Y, Lee D, Kho C, Lee A, Jang M, Cho S, et al. Transthyretin-related proteins function to facilitate the hydrolysis of 5-hydroxyisourate, the end product of the uricase reaction. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:4769-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these results, we propose that transthyretin-related proteins present in diverse organisms are not functionally related to transthyretin but actually function as a hydroxyisourate hydrolase...