fatty acid desaturases


Summary: A family of enzymes that catalyze the stereoselective, regioselective, or chemoselective syn-dehydrogenation reactions. They function by a mechanism that is linked directly to reduction of molecular OXYGEN.

Top Publications

  1. Rzehak P, Thijs C, Standl M, Mommers M, Glaser C, Jansen E, et al. Variants of the FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster, blood levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and eczema in children within the first 2 years of life. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13261 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus the hypothesis of an inflammatory-link between PUFA and eczema by the metabolic-pathway of LC-PUFAs as precursors for inflammatory prostaglandins and leukotrienes could not be confirmed by these data. ..
  2. Ingelsson E, Langenberg C, Hivert M, Prokopenko I, Lyssenko V, Dupuis J, et al. Detailed physiologic characterization reveals diverse mechanisms for novel genetic Loci regulating glucose and insulin metabolism in humans. Diabetes. 2010;59:1266-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings emphasize the importance of detailed physiological characterization of such loci for improved understanding of pathways associated with alterations in glucose homeostasis and eventually type 2 diabetes. ..
  3. Yang Q, Fan C, Guo Z, Qin J, Wu J, Li Q, et al. Identification of FAD2 and FAD3 genes in Brassica napus genome and development of allele-specific markers for high oleic and low linolenic acid contents. Theor Appl Genet. 2012;125:715-29 pubmed publisher
    ..napus. ..
  4. Monroig O, Zheng X, Morais S, Leaver M, Taggart J, Tocher D. Multiple genes for functional 6 fatty acyl desaturases (Fad) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): gene and cDNA characterization, functional expression, tissue distribution and nutritional regulation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1801:1072-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed differences in tissue expression and nutritional regulation of the fad genes are discussed in relation to gene structures and fish physiology. ..
  5. Lu Y, Chi X, Li Z, Yang Q, Li F, Liu S, et al. Isolation and characterization of a stress-dependent plastidial delta12 fatty acid desaturase from the Antarctic microalga Chlorella vulgaris NJ-7. Lipids. 2010;45:179-87 pubmed publisher
    ..acids of the Antarctic Chlorella vulgaris NJ-7 prompted us to speculate about the involvement of Delta(12)-fatty acid desaturases (FAD) in its adaptation to the extremely unfavorable ambience...
  6. Zietemann V, Kröger J, Enzenbach C, Jansen E, Fritsche A, Weikert C, et al. Genetic variation of the FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster and n-6 PUFA composition in erythrocyte membranes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam study. Br J Nutr. 2010;104:1748-59 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, genetic variation in the FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster affects n-6 PUFA profiles in erythrocytes reflecting altered D5D activity. ..
  7. Meesapyodsuk D, Qiu X. The front-end desaturase: structure, function, evolution and biotechnological use. Lipids. 2012;47:227-37 pubmed publisher
  8. Standl M, Lattka E, Stach B, Koletzko S, Bauer C, von Berg A, et al. FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster, PUFA intake and blood lipids in children: results from the GINIplus and LISAplus studies. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37780 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetically determined blood lipid levels during childhood might differentially predispose individuals to the development of cardiovascular diseases later in life. ..
  9. Zhang J, Liu H, Sun J, Li B, Zhu Q, Chen S, et al. Arabidopsis fatty acid desaturase FAD2 is required for salt tolerance during seed germination and early seedling growth. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30355 pubmed publisher
    b>Fatty acid desaturases play important role in plant responses to abiotic stresses. However, their exact function in plant resistance to salt stress is unknown...

More Information


  1. Zhou X, Green A, Singh S. Caenorhabditis elegans Delta12-desaturase FAT-2 is a bifunctional desaturase able to desaturate a diverse range of fatty acid substrates at the Delta12 and Delta15 positions. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:43644-50 pubmed publisher
    ..elegans ?12-desaturase CeFAT-2 might have arisen independently from other reported dual ?12/?15-desaturases from fungi and protozoa. ..
  2. Gostincar C, Turk M, Gunde Cimerman N. The evolution of fatty acid desaturases and cytochrome b5 in eukaryotes. J Membr Biol. 2010;233:63-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings answer some of the previously unresolved questions and contribute to the quickly expanding field of research on desaturases. ..
  3. Wang H, Liénard M, Zhao C, Wang C, Löfstedt C. Neofunctionalization in an ancestral insect desaturase lineage led to rare ?6 pheromone signals in the Chinese tussah silkworm. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2010;40:742-51 pubmed publisher
  4. Ding B, Liénard M, Wang H, Zhao C, Löfstedt C. Terminal fatty-acyl-CoA desaturase involved in sex pheromone biosynthesis in the winter moth (Operophtera brumata). Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2011;41:715-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide evidence that a terminal desaturation step is involved in the winter moth pheromone biosynthesis, prior to the decarboxylation. ..
  5. Andreu V, Lagunas B, Collados R, Picorel R, Alfonso M. The GmFAD7 gene family from soybean: identification of novel genes and tissue-specific conformations of the FAD7 enzyme involved in desaturase activity. J Exp Bot. 2010;61:3371-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest the existence of tissue-specific post-translational regulatory mechanisms affecting the distribution and conformation of the FAD7 enzymes related with the control of its activity. ..
  6. Hellstrand S, Sonestedt E, Ericson U, Gullberg B, Wirfalt E, Hedblad B, et al. Intake levels of dietary long-chain PUFAs modify the association between genetic variation in FADS and LDL-C. J Lipid Res. 2012;53:1183-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that dietary intake levels of different PUFAs modify the associated effect of genetic variation in FADS on LDL and HDL. ..
  7. Song L, Lu W, Hu J, Zhang Y, Yin W, Chen Y, et al. Identification and functional analysis of the genes encoding Delta6-desaturase from Ribes nigrum. J Exp Bot. 2010;61:1827-38 pubmed publisher
  8. Dumont J, Huybrechts I, Spinneker A, Gottrand F, Grammatikaki E, Bevilacqua N, et al. FADS1 genetic variability interacts with dietary ?-linolenic acid intake to affect serum non-HDL-cholesterol concentrations in European adolescents. J Nutr. 2011;141:1247-53 pubmed publisher
    ..01). These results suggest that dietary ALA intake modulates the association between FADS1 rs174546 and serum total and non-HDL-cholesterol concentrations at a young age. ..
  9. Sayanova O, Haslam R, Calerón M, López N, Worthy C, Rooks P, et al. Identification and functional characterisation of genes encoding the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic pathway from the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi. Phytochemistry. 2011;72:594-600 pubmed publisher
  10. Wadhwani N, Manglekar R, Dangat K, Kulkarni A, Joshi S. Effect of maternal micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12) and omega 3 fatty acids on liver fatty acid desaturases and transport proteins in Wistar rats. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2012;86:21-7 pubmed publisher
    ..the effect of maternal micronutrients on the fatty acid composition, desaturase activity, mRNA levels of fatty acid desaturases and transport proteins in the liver...
  11. Bocianowski J, Mikołajczyk K, Bartkowiak Broda I. Determination of fatty acid composition in seed oil of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) by mutated alleles of the FAD3 desaturase genes. J Appl Genet. 2012;53:27-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results revealed high specificity of the markers for effective monitoring of the wild-type and mutated alleles of the Brassica napus FAD3 desaturase genes in the low linolenic mutant recombinants in breeding programs...
  12. Tu W, Cook Johnson R, James M, Muhlhausler B, Gibson R. Omega-3 long chain fatty acid synthesis is regulated more by substrate levels than gene expression. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2010;83:61-8 pubmed publisher
  13. Das U. A defect in ?6 and ?5 desaturases may be a factor in the initiation and progression of insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome and ischemic heart disease in South Asians. Lipids Health Dis. 2010;9:130 pubmed publisher
  14. Wadhwani N, Dangat K, Joshi A, Joshi S. Maternal micronutrients and omega 3 fatty acids affect placental fatty acid desaturases and transport proteins in Wistar rats. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2013;88:235-42 pubmed publisher
    ..maternal micronutrients (folic acid and vitamin B12) and omega 3 fatty acids on placental mRNA levels of fatty acid desaturases (?5 and ?6) and transport proteins...
  15. Morales E, Bustamante M, Gonzalez J, Guxens M, Torrent M, Mendez M, et al. Genetic variants of the FADS gene cluster and ELOVL gene family, colostrums LC-PUFA levels, breastfeeding, and child cognition. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17181 pubmed publisher
    ..Breastfeeding effects on cognition are modified by child genetic variation in fatty acid desaturase and elongase enzymes. ..
  16. Domínguez T, Hernandez M, Pennycooke J, Jimenez P, Martínez Rivas J, Sanz C, et al. Increasing omega-3 desaturase expression in tomato results in altered aroma profile and enhanced resistance to cold stress. Plant Physiol. 2010;153:655-65 pubmed publisher
    ..To address this possibility, we have overexpressed the omega-3 fatty acid desaturases FAD3 and FAD7 that catalyze the conversion of linoleic acid (18:2) to linolenic acid (18:3), the precursor ..
  17. Mroczka A, Roberts P, Fillatti J, Wiggins B, Ulmasov T, Voelker T. An intron sense suppression construct targeting soybean FAD2-1 requires a double-stranded RNA-producing inverted repeat T-DNA insert. Plant Physiol. 2010;153:882-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that this T-DNA configuration produces an inverted repeat transcript and that small interfering RNAs accumulate against the target sequence. ..
  18. Pham A, Lee J, Shannon J, Bilyeu K. Mutant alleles of FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B combine to produce soybeans with the high oleic acid seed oil trait. BMC Plant Biol. 2010;10:195 pubmed publisher
    ..The resources described here for the creation of high oleic acid soybeans provide a framework to efficiently develop soybean varieties to meet changing market demands. ..
  19. Wang M, Barkley N, Chen Z, Pittman R. FAD2 gene mutations significantly alter fatty acid profiles in cultivated peanuts (Arachis hypogaea). Biochem Genet. 2011;49:748-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Both FAD2A and FAD2B are involved in the conversion of oleic acid to linoleic acid in peanuts. Overall, these results demonstrate the combined power of genetic analysis with biochemical analysis on peanut fatty acid research. ..
  20. Singh A, Fu D, El Habbak M, Navarre D, Ghabrial S, Kachroo A. Silencing genes encoding omega-3 fatty acid desaturase alters seed size and accumulation of Bean pod mottle virus in soybean. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2011;24:506-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that loss of GmFAD3 enhances JA accumulation and, thereby, susceptibility to BPMV in soybean...
  21. Xue Z, He H, Hollerbach D, Macool D, Yadav N, Zhang H, et al. Identification and characterization of new ?-17 fatty acid desaturases. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013;97:1973-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of these ?-17 desaturases provides a set of powerful new tools for genetic engineering of microbes and plants to produce ?-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentanoic acid and docosahexanoic acid, at high levels...
  22. Tavares S, Grotkjær T, Obsen T, Haslam R, Napier J, Gunnarsson N. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of Eicosapentaenoic Acid, using a novel {Delta}5-Desaturase from Paramecium tetraurelia. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:1854-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Saccharomyces cerevisiae using glucose as the sole carbon source through expression of five heterologous fatty acid desaturases and an elongase...
  23. Keays M, Barker D, Wicker Thomas C, Ritchie M. Signatures of selection and sex-specific expression variation of a novel duplicate during the evolution of the Drosophila desaturase gene family. Mol Ecol. 2011;20:3617-30 pubmed publisher
    ..It seems likely that both sexual selection and ecological adaptation have influenced the evolution of this gene family in Drosophila...
  24. Koletzko B, Lattka E, Zeilinger S, Illig T, Steer C. Genetic variants of the fatty acid desaturase gene cluster predict amounts of red blood cell docosahexaenoic and other polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnant women: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93:211-9 pubmed publisher
    ..FADS genotypes influence DHA amounts in maternal RBC phospholipids and might affect the child's DHA supply during pregnancy. It is highly likely that a gene product of FADS3 has a desaturating activity. ..
  25. Khadake R, Khonde V, Mhaske V, Ranjekar P, Harsulkar A. Functional and bioinformatic characterisation of sequence variants of Fad3 gene from flax. J Sci Food Agric. 2011;91:2689-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study was to analyse these gene variants for their functionality and to predict the tertiary structure of the protein in order to correlate the functional differences with the protein structure...
  26. Bokor S, Dumont J, Spinneker A, Gonzalez Gross M, Nova E, Widhalm K, et al. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the FADS gene cluster are associated with delta-5 and delta-6 desaturase activities estimated by serum fatty acid ratios. J Lipid Res. 2010;51:2325-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that rare alleles of several SNPs in the FADS gene cluster are associated with higher D6D activity and lower D5D activity in European adolescents. ..
  27. Kobayashi T, Sakaguchi K, Matsuda T, Abe E, Hama Y, Hayashi M, et al. Increase of eicosapentaenoic acid in thraustochytrids through thraustochytrid ubiquitin promoter-driven expression of a fatty acid {delta}5 desaturase gene. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:3870-6 pubmed publisher
  28. Fan Y, Monk J, Hou T, Callway E, Vincent L, Weeks B, et al. Characterization of an arachidonic acid-deficient (Fads1 knockout) mouse model. J Lipid Res. 2012;53:1287-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that this new mouse model will expand our understanding of how AA and its metabolites mediate inflammation and promote malignant transformation, with the eventual goal of identifying new drug targets upstream of Ptgs2. ..
  29. Glaser C, Lattka E, Rzehak P, Steer C, Koletzko B. Genetic variation in polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism and its potential relevance for human development and health. Matern Child Nutr. 2011;7 Suppl 2:27-40 pubmed publisher
  30. Mohd Yusof N, Monroig O, Mohd Adnan A, Wan K, Tocher D. Investigation of highly unsaturated fatty acid metabolism in the Asian sea bass, Lates calcarifer. Fish Physiol Biochem. 2010;36:827-43 pubmed publisher
    ..High expression of ?6 fad and elovl5 genes in brain may indicate a role for these enzymes in maintaining high DHA levels in neural tissues through conversion of 20:5n-3...
  31. Kang J, Snapp A, Lu C. Identification of three genes encoding microsomal oleate desaturases (FAD2) from the oilseed crop Camelina sativa. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2011;49:223-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the roles of CsFAD2 in PUFA synthesis were demonstrated by mutant analysis and by antisense gene expression in camelina seed...
  32. Zhang B, Shen J, Wei W, Xi W, Xu C, Ferguson I, et al. Expression of genes associated with aroma formation derived from the fatty acid pathway during peach fruit ripening. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:6157-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The increased levels of unsaturated fatty acids closely paralleled increasing expression of PpFAD1 and PpFAD2. The significance of gene expression changes in relation to aroma volatile production is discussed. ..
  33. Ameur A, Enroth S, Johansson A, Zaboli G, Igl W, Johansson A, et al. Genetic adaptation of fatty-acid metabolism: a human-specific haplotype increasing the biosynthesis of long-chain omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Am J Hum Genet. 2012;90:809-20 pubmed publisher
    ..In the modern world, this haplotype has been associated with lifestyle-related diseases, such as coronary artery disease. ..
  34. Blanchard H, Legrand P, Pedrono F. Fatty Acid Desaturase 3 (Fads3) is a singular member of the Fads cluster. Biochimie. 2011;93:87-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, it is essential to consider the desaturase diversity in terms of catalysis and substrates to elucidate the FADS3 function. ..
  35. Sergeant S, Hugenschmidt C, Rudock M, Ziegler J, Ivester P, Ainsworth H, et al. Differences in arachidonic acid levels and fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene variants in African Americans and European Americans with diabetes or the metabolic syndrome. Br J Nutr. 2012;107:547-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These differences may provide a genetic mechanism contributing to health disparities between populations of African and European descent. ..
  36. Lu Y, Vaarhorst A, Merry A, Dollé M, Hovenier R, Imholz S, et al. Markers of endogenous desaturase activity and risk of coronary heart disease in the CAREMA cohort study. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41681 pubmed publisher
    ..This should be investigated further in other independent studies. ..
  37. Hernandez M, Padilla M, Sicardo M, Mancha M, Martínez Rivas J. Effect of different environmental stresses on the expression of oleate desaturase genes and fatty acid composition in olive fruit. Phytochemistry. 2011;72:178-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The fatty acid analysis revealed the appearance of palmitolinoleic acid only in microsomal lipids, reaching a maximum 3h after wounding. ..
  38. Reardon H, Park W, Zhang J, Lawrence P, Kothapalli K, Brenna J. The polypyrimidine tract binding protein regulates desaturase alternative splicing and PUFA composition. J Lipid Res. 2011;52:2279-86 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal a novel role for PTB, regulating availability of membrane components and eicosanoid precursors for cell signaling. ..
  39. Banik M, Duguid S, Cloutier S. Transcript profiling and gene characterization of three fatty acid desaturase genes in high, moderate, and low linolenic acid genotypes of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and their role in linolenic acid accumulation. Genome. 2011;54:471-83 pubmed publisher
  40. Mathias R, Vergara C, Gao L, Rafaels N, Hand T, Campbell M, et al. FADS genetic variants and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in a homogeneous island population. J Lipid Res. 2010;51:2766-74 pubmed publisher
  41. Xie L, Innis S. Association of fatty acid desaturase gene polymorphisms with blood lipid essential fatty acids and perinatal depression among Canadian women: a pilot study. J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics. 2009;2:243-50 pubmed publisher
    ..028, and higher LA and lower ARA in plasma (p = 0.0001, p < 0.0001) and RBC ethanolamine phospholipids (p = 0.007, p = 0.005). We show that SNPs in FADS1/FADS2 are associated with higher blood lipid LA and lower ARA and PPD risk. ..
  42. Matteucci M, D Angeli S, Errico S, Lamanna R, Perrotta G, Altamura M. Cold affects the transcription of fatty acid desaturases and oil quality in the fruit of Olea europaea L. genotypes with different cold hardiness. J Exp Bot. 2011;62:3403-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Hypotheses relating FAD desaturation to storage and membrane lipids, and genotype cold hardiness are discussed. ..
  43. Kröger J, Zietemann V, Enzenbach C, Weikert C, Jansen E, Döring F, et al. Erythrocyte membrane phospholipid fatty acids, desaturase activity, and dietary fatty acids in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93:127-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The long-term role of fatty acids (FAs) in the cause of diabetes remains largely unclear...
  44. Weylandt K, Krause L, Gomolka B, Chiu C, Bilal S, Nadolny A, et al. Suppressed liver tumorigenesis in fat-1 mice with elevated omega-3 fatty acids is associated with increased omega-3 derived lipid mediators and reduced TNF-?. Carcinogenesis. 2011;32:897-903 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings also point to a potential anticancer role for the n-3 PUFA-derived lipid mediators 18-HEPE and 17-HDHA, which can downregulate the important proinflammatory and proproliferative factor TNF-?. ..
  45. Gao Q, Venugopal S, Navarre D, Kachroo A. Low oleic acid-derived repression of jasmonic acid-inducible defense responses requires the WRKY50 and WRKY51 proteins. Plant Physiol. 2011;155:464-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Exogenous SA inhibited JA-inducible PDF1.2 expression in the wild type but not in wrky50 or wrky51 mutant plants. These results show that the WRKY50 and WRKY51 proteins mediate both SA- and low-18:1-dependent repression of JA signaling. ..
  46. Vanhercke T, Shrestha P, Green A, Singh S. Mechanistic and structural insights into the regioselectivity of an acyl-CoA fatty acid desaturase via directed molecular evolution. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:12860-9 pubmed publisher
    Membrane-bound fatty acid desaturases and related enzymes play a pivotal role in the biosynthesis of unsaturated and various unusual fatty acids...
  47. Standl M, Sausenthaler S, Lattka E, Koletzko S, Bauer C, Wichmann H, et al. FADS gene cluster modulates the effect of breastfeeding on asthma. Results from the GINIplus and LISAplus studies. Allergy. 2012;67:83-90 pubmed publisher
    ..For individuals carrying the homozygous major allele, BF showed no significant effect on the development of asthma. ? The association between exclusive BF and asthma is modified by the genetic variants of FADS genotypes in children. ..
  48. Merino D, Ma D, Mutch D. Genetic variation in lipid desaturases and its impact on the development of human disease. Lipids Health Dis. 2010;9:63 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent evidence indicates that fatty acid desaturases have an important role in defining plasma and tissue lipid profiles...
  49. Pham A, Lee J, Shannon J, Bilyeu K. A novel FAD2-1 A allele in a soybean plant introduction offers an alternate means to produce soybean seed oil with 85% oleic acid content. Theor Appl Genet. 2011;123:793-802 pubmed publisher
    ..The newly identified indel mutation in the FAD2-1A gene offers a simple method for the development of high oleic acid commercial soybean varieties...
  50. Li Y, Monroig O, Zhang L, Wang S, Zheng X, Dick J, et al. Vertebrate fatty acyl desaturase with ?4 activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:16840-5 pubmed publisher
  51. O Quin J, Bourassa L, Zhang D, Shockey J, Gidda S, Fosnot S, et al. Temperature-sensitive post-translational regulation of plant omega-3 fatty-acid desaturases is mediated by the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation pathway. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:21781-96 pubmed publisher
  52. Lattka E, Rzehak P, Szabo E, Jakobik V, Weck M, Weyermann M, et al. Genetic variants in the FADS gene cluster are associated with arachidonic acid concentrations of human breast milk at 1.5 and 6 mo postpartum and influence the course of milk dodecanoic, tetracosenoic, and trans-9-octadecenoic acid concentrations ove. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93:382-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our data indicate an interrelation between the LC-PUFA pathway and saturated and monounsaturated FAs. ..
  53. D Angeli S, Falasca G, Matteucci M, Altamura M. Cold perception and gene expression differ in Olea europaea seed coat and embryo during drupe cold acclimation. New Phytol. 2013;197:123-38 pubmed publisher
    ..The results show cold responsiveness in the seed coat and cold tolerance in the embryo. We propose a role for the seed coat in maintaining embryo cold tolerance by increasing endosperm cutinization through FAD2 and osmotin activities...