arachidonate lipoxygenases


Summary: Enzymes catalyzing the oxidation of arachidonic acid to hydroperoxyarachidonates. These products are then rapidly converted by a peroxidase to hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. The positional specificity of the enzyme reaction varies from tissue to tissue. The final lipoxygenase pathway leads to the leukotrienes. EC 1.13.11.- .

Top Publications

  1. Comba A, Pasqualini M. Primers on molecular pathways - lipoxygenases: their role as an oncogenic pathway in pancreatic cancer. Pancreatology. 2009;9:724-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A novel approach for pancreatic cancer chemoprevention would involve targeting LOX activities, alone or in combination with other pathways as a major anticancer strategy. ..
  2. Wong P, Westlund P, Hamberg M, Granstrom E, Chao P, Samuelsson B. 15-Lipoxygenase in human platelets. J Biol Chem. 1985;260:9162-5 pubmed
    ..The present investigation thus demonstrates the occurrence of a 15-lipoxygenase in human platelets in addition to the previously known 12-lipoxygenase. ..
  3. Degreef H, Dockx P, De Doncker P, De Beule K, Cauwenbergh G. A double-blind vehicle-controlled study of R 68 151 in psoriasis: a topical 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990;22:751-5 pubmed
    ..05).(abstract truncated at 250 words) ..
  4. Nakamura M, Matsumoto T, Noguchi M, Yamashita I, Noma M. Expression of a cDNA encoding human 5-lipoxygenase under control of the STA1 promoter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Gene. 1990;89:231-7 pubmed
    ..A human 5LO-secretion vector containing the STA1 signal sequence was also constructed. When this hybrid gene was expressed in S. cerevisiae, its product was glycosylated and accumulated in the fractions related to the secretory pathway. ..
  5. Peters Golden M, Shelly C. Inhibitory effect of exogenous arachidonic acid on alveolar macrophage 5-lipoxygenase metabolism. Role of ATP depletion. J Immunol. 1988;140:1958-66 pubmed
    ..Our results further suggest that this inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase may be mediated by ATP depletion. ..
  6. Furstenberger G, Marks F, Krieg P. Arachidonate 8(S)-lipoxygenase. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2002;68-69:235-43 pubmed
    ..Tumor-specific up-regulation of 8(S)-lipoxygenase expression and activity indicate a critical role of this enzyme in malignant progression during tumor development in mouse skin. ..
  7. Vogel R, Jansen C, Roffeis J, Reddanna P, Forsell P, Claesson H, et al. Applicability of the triad concept for the positional specificity of mammalian lipoxygenases. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:5369-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The specificity of the platelet 12-LOX was partly explained by the triad hypothesis, but the concept was not applicable for 15-LOX2 and (12R)-LOX. ..
  8. Tateson J, Randall R, Reynolds C, Jackson W, Bhattacherjee P, Salmon J, et al. Selective inhibition of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase by novel acetohydroxamic acids: biochemical assessment in vitro and ex vivo. Br J Pharmacol. 1988;94:528-39 pubmed
    ..Inhibition of LTB4 synthesis persisted for up to 6 h after a single oral dose of 50 mg kg-1. 6. The plasma concentrations of unchanged compound determined by h.p.l.c. correlated with the inhibition of LTB4 synthesis ex vivo. ..
  9. Katoh T, Lakkis F, Makita N, Badr K. Co-regulated expression of glomerular 12/15-lipoxygenase and interleukin-4 mRNAs in rat nephrotoxic nephritis. Kidney Int. 1994;46:341-9 pubmed
    ..This represents the first demonstration of tandem regulated in vivo gene expression for a lymphokine (IL-4) and a lipoxygenase, both of which promote counter-inflammatory influences in immune complex-mediated injury. ..

More Information


  1. Vacas M, Keller Sarmiento M, Etchegoyen G, Pereyra E, Gimeno M, Cardinali D. Involvement of 5-lipoxygenase pathway in norepinephrine stimulation of rat pineal melatonin synthesis. Neuroendocrinology. 1987;46:412-6 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the 5-lipoxygenase pathway plays a significant role in NE-stimulated melatonin production by the rat pineal gland. ..
  2. Varjas T, Nowrasteh G, Budán F, Horvath G, Cseh J, Gyöngyi Z, et al. The effect of fenugreek on the gene expression of arachidonic acid metabolizing enzymes. Phytother Res. 2011;25:221-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In COX1 gene, the fenugreek diet could suppress the expression, except for spleen, independently from carcinogen exposure. Therefore by inhibiting the arachidonic acid metabolism fenugreek may prevent tumorigenesis...
  3. Ueda N, Hiroshima A, Natsui K, Shinjo F, Yoshimoto T, Yamamoto S, et al. Localization of arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase in parenchymal cells of porcine anterior pituitary. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:2311-6 pubmed
    ..These biochemical and immunohistochemical results provide a good reason for considering that 12-lipoxygenase does play an important role in pituitary function. ..
  4. Rouzer C, Samuelsson B. Reversible, calcium-dependent membrane association of human leukocyte 5-lipoxygenase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:7393-7 pubmed
    ..Ca2+ also caused a destabilization of the 5-lipoxygenase. Homogenates prepared in the presence of Ca2+ contained lower total enzyme activity, and retention of activity in these samples over time was also diminished. ..
  5. Balcarek J, Theisen T, Cook M, Varrichio A, Hwang S, Strohsacker M, et al. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone encoding rat 5-lipoxygenase. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:13937-41 pubmed
    ..The cDNA recognizes a 2.6-kb mRNA species which is detected in all tissues but is particularly abundant in RNA from lung. ..
  6. Robak J, Shridi F, Wolbiś M, Krolikowska M. Screening of the influence of flavonoids on lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase activity, as well as on nonenzymic lipid oxidation. Pol J Pharmacol Pharm. 1988;40:451-8 pubmed
    ..A good correlation between the chemical structure and the tested activity was observed. The most active compounds in all tests were luteolin, 6-hydroxyluteolin, nepetin, quercetagetin, patuletin and myricetin. ..
  7. Maruyama T, Ueda N, Yoshimoto T, Yamamoto S, Komatsu N, Watanabe K. Immunohistochemical study of arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase in porcine tissues. J Histochem Cytochem. 1989;37:1125-31 pubmed
    ..In these organs, resident mast cells and granulocytes infiltrating the interstitial tissues were positively immunostained. The enzyme was not detected in parenchymal cells of these organs under our experimental conditions. ..
  8. Chang W, Nakao J, Orimo H, Murota S. Effects of reduced glutathione on the 12-lipoxygenase pathways in rat platelets. Biochem J. 1982;202:771-6 pubmed
    ..Fractionation of cell homogenates indicates that the cytosol fraction possesses almost all the 12-lipoxygenase activity, whereas the microsomal fraction exhibits little enzyme activity. ..
  9. Tieman T, Steel D, Gor Y, Kehoe J, Schwartz J, Feinmark S. A pertussis toxin-sensitive 8-lipoxygenase pathway is activated by a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in aplysia neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2001;85:2150-8 pubmed
    ..Our results are consistent with the idea that the nicotinic ACh receptor that activates the sustained chloride conductance can, independent of the chloride ion influx, initiate lipid messenger synthesis. ..
  10. Prosiegel M, Neu I, Mallinger J, Wildfeuer A, Mehlber L, Vogl S, et al. Suppression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by dual cyclo-oxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase inhibition. Acta Neurol Scand. 1989;79:223-6 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the application of leukotriene inhibitors could contribute to the future treatment of MS. ..
  11. Foley T. 5-HPETE is a potent inhibitor of neuronal Na+, K(+)-ATPase activity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997;235:374-6 pubmed
    ..It is proposed that 5-HPETE production by 5-lipoxygenase and subsequent inhibition of neuronal Na+, K(+)-ATPase activity may be a mechansim for modulating synaptic transmission. ..
  12. Anderson K, Ondrey F, Harris J. Do lipoxygenases modulate normal or aberrant lympho-hematopoiesis?. Leuk Res. 1999;23:51-6 pubmed
    ..Recent evidence concerning these questions is reviewed and some reasons for these difficulties are considered. ..
  13. Coffa G, Hill E. Discovery of an 11 (R)- and 12(S)-lipoxygenase activity in ovaries of the mussel Mytilus edulis. Lipids. 2000;35:1195-204 pubmed
    ..This study shows that female gonads of the mussel express an 11(R)- and 12(S)-lipoxygenase activity whose expression is dependent on differentiation of the ovary. ..
  14. Jisaka M, Boeglin W, Kim R, Brash A. Site-directed mutagenesis studies on a putative fifth iron ligand of mouse 8S-lipoxygenase: retention of catalytic activity on mutation of serine-558 to asparagine, histidine, or alanine. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2001;386:136-42 pubmed
    ..We conclude that mouse 8-LOX is catalytically competent with only four amino acid iron ligands, and that Ser-558 of the wild-type enzyme does not play an essential role in catalysis. ..
  15. Jaschonek K, Steinhilber D, Einsele H, Ehninger G, Roth H. 5-Lipoxygenase inhibition by antifungal azole derivatives: new tools for immunosuppression?. Eicosanoids. 1989;2:189-90 pubmed
    ..In contrast, fluconazole, an antifungal agent with bistriazole structure, had no effect on the Ca2+ ionophore A 23187-induced formation of 5-lipoxygenase metabolites in PMNL. ..
  16. Daret D, Blin P, Larrue J. Synthesis of hydroxy fatty acids from linoleic acid by human blood platelets. Prostaglandins. 1989;38:203-14 pubmed
    ..Since these compounds remained essentially associated with the platelets, their presence may significantly participate in the mechanisms of platelet activation. ..
  17. Johnson H, Stout B, Ruppel P. Inhibition of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway with piriprost (U-60,257) protects normal primates from ozone-induced methacholine hyperresponsive small airways. Prostaglandins. 1988;35:459-66 pubmed
  18. White D, Basbaum A, Goetzl E, Levine J. The 15-lipoxygenase product, 8R,15S-diHETE, stereospecifically sensitizes C-fiber mechanoheat nociceptors in hairy skin of rat. J Neurophysiol. 1990;63:966-70 pubmed
    ..5. 8R,15S-diHETE also sensitized C-MHs (n = 9) to a thermal stimulus consisting of 37 degrees C for 5 min.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  19. Mori M, Izumi T, Shimizu T. Energy-dependent export of leukotriene B4 in Xenopus oocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1993;1168:23-9 pubmed
    ..It was thus shown that the two potent lipid mediators are exported from cells in a different manner and that oocytes are a good model for analyzing export systems for bioactive mediators. ..
  20. Jin J, Boeglin W, Cha J, Brash A. 8R-Lipoxygenase-catalyzed synthesis of a prominent cis-epoxyalcohol from dihomo-?-linolenic acid: a distinctive transformation compared with S-lipoxygenases. J Lipid Res. 2012;53:292-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This characteristic and the synthesis of cis-epoxy epoxyalcohol may be a feature of R-specific lipoxygenases. ..
  21. Peters Golden M, Shelly C. Inhibition of alveolar macrophage 5-lipoxygenase metabolism by auranofin. Biochem Pharmacol. 1989;38:1589-95 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that, at therapeutic concentrations, AF acts in vitro as a selective inhibitor of macrophage 5-lipoxygenase metabolism. This likely represents an important mechanism of action of AF in chronic inflammatory disorders. ..
  22. Moroney M, Alcaraz M, Forder R, Carey F, Hoult J. Selectivity of neutrophil 5-lipoxygenase and cyclo-oxygenase inhibition by an anti-inflammatory flavonoid glycoside and related aglycone flavonoids. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1988;40:787-92 pubmed
    ..These results are discussed in relation to possible mechanisms of hypolaetin-8-glucoside's protective actions and the concept that these inhibitory effects of flavonoids cannot be ascribed to a unitary free radical scavenging action. ..
  23. Ohuchi K, Takahashi C, Hirasawa N, Watanabe M, Fujiki H, Tsurufuji S. Stimulation of histamine release and arachidonic acid metabolism in rat peritoneal mast cells by thapsigargin, a non-TPA-type tumor promoter. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1989;1003:9-14 pubmed
    ..Time-course experiments of histamine release and the release of radioactivity from [3H]arachidonic acid-labeled mast cells also provide evidence for a difference in mechanism. ..
  24. Riendeau D, Denis D, Choo L, Nathaniel D. Stimulation of 5-lipoxygenase activity under conditions which promote lipid peroxidation. Biochem J. 1989;263:565-72 pubmed
    ..They also indicate that stimulation of 5-lipoxygenase activity can contribute to increase lipid peroxidation in iron and nucleotide-promoted reactions. ..
  25. De Vries G, Amdahl L, Mobasser A, Wenzel M, Wheeler L. Preferential inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase activity by manoalide. Biochem Pharmacol. 1988;37:2899-905 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that manoalide is a selective 5-LO inhibitor and suggest the possibility that its anti-inflammatory actions may be due, at least in part, to inhibition of leukotriene synthesis. ..
  26. Fruteau de Laclos B, Borgeat P. Conditions for the formation of the oxo derivatives of arachidonic acid from platelet 12-lipoxygenase and soybean 15-lipoxygenase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1988;958:424-33 pubmed
    ..5: 1.5 from 12-HPETE incubated with hematin (150 nM), 15-ketoeicosatetraenoic acid was the only carbonyl compound generated from 15-HPETE in the same conditions, emphasizing the unique reactivity of the 12-HPETE. ..
  27. Shimizu T, Watanabe T, Asano T, Seyama Y, Takakura K. Activation of the arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase pathway in the canine basilar artery after experimental subarachnoidal hemorrhage. J Neurochem. 1988;51:1126-31 pubmed
    ..1 nmol 5-HETE/5 min/mg of protein) after subarachnoidal hemorrhage. The observation that fatty acid hydroperoxides stimulated the 5-lipoxygenase activity indicates a possible role of lipid peroxides in the development of vasospasm. ..
  28. Walstra P, Verhagen J, Vermeer M, Veldink G, Vliegenthart J. Demonstration of a 12-lipoxygenase activity in bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1987;921:312-9 pubmed
  29. McColl S, Krump E, Naccache P, Caon A, Borgeat P. Activation of the human neutrophil 5-lipoxygenase by exogenous arachidonic acid: involvement of pertussis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. Br J Pharmacol. 1989;97:1265-73 pubmed
    ..6. These results imply that exogenous arachidonic acid is not only used as a substrate, but also activates the 5-lipoxygenase. Possible mechanisms of action are discussed. ..
  30. Blackham A, Griffiths R, Hallam C, Mann J, Mitchell P, Norris A, et al. FPL 62064, a topically active 5-lipoxygenase/cyclooxygenase inhibitor. Agents Actions. 1990;30:432-42 pubmed
    ..Co-injected with arachidonic acid in rabbit skin, FPL 62064 inhibited oedema and eicosanoid formation. ..
  31. Flament J, Schandene L, Boeynaems J. Effect of the 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor piriprost on superoxide production by human neutrophils. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1988;34:175-80 pubmed
  32. Hecker M, Ullrich V. 12(S)-Hydroxy-5,8,10 (Z,E,E)-heptadecatrienoic acid (HHT) is preferentially metabolized to its 12-keto derivative by human erythrocytes in vitro. Eicosanoids. 1988;1:19-25 pubmed
    ..The potential use of KHT for monitoring thromboxane synthase activity in vivo is discussed. ..
  33. Furstenberger G, Hagedorn H, Jacobi T, Besemfelder E, Stephan M, Lehmann W, et al. Characterization of an 8-lipoxygenase activity induced by the phorbol ester tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in mouse skin in vivo. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:15738-45 pubmed
    ..5-8.0. 8-HPETE/8-HETE levels in mouse epidermis in vivo were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and found to be strongly increased after phorbol ester treatment, in agreement with the induction of 8-lipoxygenase observed. ..
  34. Vanderhoek J. Role of the 15-lipoxygenase in the immune system. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1988;524:240-51 pubmed
    ..Several stimuli, including HETEs, can convert the inactive 15-LO to an active species that can metabolize AA to a variety of products. Many of these metabolites have been reported to modulate various components of the immune response. ..
  35. Warner J, Lichtenstein L, MacGlashan D. Effects of a specific inhibitor of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway on mediator release from human basophils and mast cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1988;247:218-22 pubmed
    ..The specificity of the drug for the 5-lipoxygenase pathway was confirmed in three experiments with human lung mast cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  36. Funk C, Furci L, Fitzgerald G. Molecular cloning, primary structure, and expression of the human platelet/erythroleukemia cell 12-lipoxygenase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:5638-42 pubmed
    ..The availability of cDNA probes for human platelet/HEL cell 12-lipoxygenase should facilitate elucidation of the biological role of this pathway. ..
  37. Minich W, Evdokimova V, Oleinikov A, Hohne M, Thiele B, Rapoport S. Evidence for the appearance of a reticulocyte population low in lipoxygenase mRNA during the recovery from a phenylhydrazine-induced anemia in rabbits. FEBS Lett. 1989;245:127-30 pubmed
    ..A cell-free system prepared from the recovery-reticulocytes exhibits low endogenous synthesis of non-globin polypeptides, even without nuclease treatment, but retains full capacity to be stimulated by exogenous mRNA. ..
  38. Green F. Generation and metabolism of lipoxygenase products in normal and membrane-damaged cultured human keratinocytes. J Invest Dermatol. 1989;93:486-91 pubmed
  39. Mylari B, Carty T, Moore P, Zembrowski W. 1,2-Dihydro-1-oxopyrrolo[3,2,1-kl]phenothiazine-2-carboxamides and congeners, dual cyclooxygenase/5-lipoxygenase inhibitors with antiinflammatory activity. J Med Chem. 1990;33:2019-24 pubmed
    ..4 microM, respectively. It was active in the rat foot edema test for antiinflammatory effect (48% inhibition at 33 mg/kg po) and in the mouse phenylbenzoquinone induced writhing test for analgesic effect (93% inhibition at 32 mg/kg po). ..
  40. Duell E, Ellis C, Voorhees J. Determination of 5,12, and 15-lipoxygenase products in keratomed biopsies of normal and psoriatic skin. J Invest Dermatol. 1988;91:446-50 pubmed
    ..From a single keratome biopsy, multiple eicosanoids can be separated and quantitated; in addition, levels before, during, and after therapy for psoriasis may be compared. ..
  41. Jones T, Charette L, Denis D. Leukotriene and anti-IgE induced contractions of human isolated trachea: studies with leukotriene receptor antagonists and a novel 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1988;66:762-8 pubmed
    ..LTD4 antagonists, such as L-648,051, may be useful in assessing the role of leukotrienes in respiratory disease. ..
  42. Edwin S, Mitchell M. Arachidonate lipoxygenase metabolite formation in gestational tissues. J Lipid Mediat Cell Signal. 1994;9:291-300 pubmed
    ..We postulate that activation of protein kinase C can result in enhanced production of arachidonate lipoxygenase metabolites that may have actions on the parturient process. ..
  43. Flavin D. A lipoxygenase inhibitor in breast cancer brain metastases. J Neurooncol. 2007;82:91-3 pubmed
    ..The results suggest a potential new area of therapy for breast cancer patients with brain metastases that may be useful as an adjuvant to our standard therapy. ..
  44. Kargman S, Rouzer C. Studies on the regulation, biosynthesis, and activation of 5-lipoxygenase in differentiated HL60 cells. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:13313-20 pubmed
    ..Finally, additional 5-lipoxygenase was able to translocate to the membrane in response to subsequent ionophore challenges. ..
  45. Buckle D, Bumstead J, Clarke G, Foster K, Parr H, Taylor J, et al. Inhibition of mammalian 5-lipoxygenase by 2-benzylaminophenols. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1988;33:29-33 pubmed
    ..Two compounds evaluated for their effects on anaphylactic contractions in isolated human lung were shown to attenuate the leukotriene-induced component of the response. ..
  46. Sperling R, Austen K. Regulation of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway in human leucocytes. Br J Rheumatol. 1988;27:469-76 pubmed
    ..A more comprehensive understanding of the regulation and modulation of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway may result in more effective management of inflammatory and immune disorders. ..
  47. Romero R, Quintero R, Emamian M, Wan M, Grzyboski C, Hobbins J, et al. Arachidonate lipoxygenase metabolites in amniotic fluid of women with intra-amniotic infection and preterm labor. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1987;157:1454-60 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the amniotic fluid concentrations of arachidonate lipoxygenase metabolites are affected differently by the presence of infection and labor in women with premature rupture of membranes. ..
  48. Medina J, Odlander B, Funk C, Fu J, Claesson H, Radmark O. B-lymphocytic cell line Raji expresses the leukotriene A4 hydrolase gene but not the 5-lipoxygenase gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1989;161:740-5 pubmed
    ..Thus, the genes coding for the two enzymes required for biosynthesis of leukotriene B4 from arachidonic acid, 5-lipoxygenase and LTA4 hydrolase, were differentially expressed in the Raji cells. ..
  49. Turk J, Wolf B, Easom R, Hughes J, McDaniel M. Arachidonic acid metabolism in isolated pancreatic islets. V. The enantiomeric composition of 12-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid indicates synthesis by a 12-lipoxygenase rather than a monooxygenase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1989;1001:16-24 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that islet 12-HETE is a product of a 12-lipoxygenase rather than of a cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase and further implicate 12-lipoxygenase products in stimulus-secretion coupling. ..
  50. Kudryavtsev I, Gudkova M, Pavlova O, Oreshkin A, Myasishcheva N. Lipoxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism in growth control of tumor cells of different type. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2005;70:1396-403 pubmed
    ..Treatment of these cultures with 12-HETE virtually restored the growth potential of the tumor cells. The findings suggest that the lipoxygenase metabolite of AA, 12-HETE, is a growth-limiting factor for tumor cells of definite type. ..
  51. Yu Z, Schneider C, Boeglin W, Brash A. Epidermal lipoxygenase products of the hepoxilin pathway selectively activate the nuclear receptor PPARalpha. Lipids. 2007;42:491-7 pubmed
    ..Formation of a ligand for the nuclear receptor PPARalpha may be one possibility by which 12R-LOX and eLOX3 contribute to epidermal differentiation. ..
  52. Nagase T, Fukuchi Y, Jo C, Teramoto S, Uejima Y, Ishida K, et al. Endothelin-1 stimulates arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase activity and oxygen radical formation in the rat distal lung. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1990;168:485-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, endothelin-1 may contribute to the inflammatory and hyperreactive process of lungs, by enhancing the release of 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and oxygen radicals in the distal lung unit. ..
  53. Green F. In vivo generation of 5-lipoxygenase products in frogs and toads. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1987;148:1533-9 pubmed
    ..These observations of in vivo eicosanoid production confirm the participation of 5-lipoxygenase activity in the inflammatory response to infection. ..