cysteine dioxygenase


Summary: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-CYSTEINE to 3-sulfinoalanine (3-sulfino-L-alanine) in the CYSTEINE metabolism and TAURINE and hypotaurine metabolic pathways.

Top Publications

  1. Kumar D, Sastry G, Goldberg D, de Visser S. Mechanism of S-oxygenation by a cysteine dioxygenase model complex. J Phys Chem A. 2012;116:582-91 pubmed publisher
    In this work, we present the first computational study on a biomimetic cysteine dioxygenase model complex, [Fe(II)(LN(3)S)](+), in which LN(3)S is a tetradentate ligand with a bis(imino)pyridyl scaffold and a pendant arylthiolate group...
  2. Jeschke J, O Hagan H, Zhang W, Vatapalli R, Calmon M, Danilova L, et al. Frequent inactivation of cysteine dioxygenase type 1 contributes to survival of breast cancer cells and resistance to anthracyclines. Clin Cancer Res. 2013;19:3201-11 pubmed publisher
    ..To study mechanisms of cysteine dioxygenase type 1 (CDO1) inactivation and its functional significance in breast cancer in a comprehensive manner, we ..
  3. Oien D, Moskovitz J. Ablation of the mammalian methionine sulfoxide reductase A affects the expression level of cysteine deoxygenase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;352:556-9 pubmed
    ..We suggest that both enzymes are working in coordination to balance cellular antioxidant defense. ..
  4. Kwon Y, Lee S, Koh J, Kim S, Lee H, Kang M, et al. Genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation and the gene expression change in lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol. 2012;7:20-33 pubmed publisher
  5. Ueki I, Roman H, Valli A, Fieselmann K, Lam J, Peters R, et al. Knockout of the murine cysteine dioxygenase gene results in severe impairment in ability to synthesize taurine and an increased catabolism of cysteine to hydrogen sulfide. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2011;301:E668-84 pubmed publisher
    Cysteine homeostasis is dependent on the regulation of cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) in response to changes in sulfur amino acid intake...
  6. de Visser S, Straganz G. Why do cysteine dioxygenase enzymes contain a 3-His ligand motif rather than a 2His/1Asp motif like most nonheme dioxygenases?. J Phys Chem A. 2009;113:1835-46 pubmed publisher
    Density functional theory calculations on the oxygen activation process in cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) and three active site mutants whereby one histidine group is replaced by a carboxylic acid group are reported...
  7. Imsand E, Njeri C, Ellis H. Addition of an external electron donor to in vitro assays of cysteine dioxygenase precludes the need for exogenous iron. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2012;521:10-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) utilizes a 3-His facial triad for coordination of its metal center. Recombinant CDO present in cellular lysate exists primarily in the ferrous form and exhibits significant catalytic activity...
  8. Brait M, Ling S, Nagpal J, Chang X, Park H, Lee J, et al. Cysteine dioxygenase 1 is a tumor suppressor gene silenced by promoter methylation in multiple human cancers. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44951 pubmed publisher
    The human cysteine dioxygenase 1 (CDO1) gene is a non-heme structured, iron-containing metalloenzyme involved in the conversion of cysteine to cysteine sulfinate, and plays a key role in taurine biosynthesis...
  9. Dominy J, Hirschberger L, Coloso R, Stipanuk M. Regulation of cysteine dioxygenase degradation is mediated by intracellular cysteine levels and the ubiquitin-26 S proteasome system in the living rat. Biochem J. 2006;394:267-73 pubmed
    ..One of the enzymes the liver uses to regulate cysteine levels is CDO (cysteine dioxygenase)...

More Information


  1. Crawford J, Li W, Pierce B. Single turnover of substrate-bound ferric cysteine dioxygenase with superoxide anion: enzymatic reactivation, product formation, and a transient intermediate. Biochemistry. 2011;50:10241-53 pubmed publisher
    b>Cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) is a non-heme mononuclear iron enzyme that catalyzes the O(2)-dependent oxidation of L-cysteine (Cys) to produce cysteine sulfinic acid (CSA)...
  2. McCoy J, Bailey L, Bitto E, Bingman C, Aceti D, Fox B, et al. Structure and mechanism of mouse cysteine dioxygenase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:3084-9 pubmed
    b>Cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) catalyzes the oxidation of l-cysteine to cysteine sulfinic acid. Deficiencies in this enzyme have been linked to autoimmune diseases and neurological disorders...
  3. Souness R, Kleffmann T, Tchesnokov E, Wilbanks S, Jameson G, Jameson G. Mechanistic implications of persulfenate and persulfide binding in the active site of cysteine dioxygenase. Biochemistry. 2013;52:7606-17 pubmed publisher
    Describing the organization of substrates and substrate analogues in the active site of cysteine dioxygenase identifies potential intermediates in this critical yet poorly understood reaction, the oxidation of cysteine to cysteine ..
  4. Kumar D, Thiel W, de Visser S. Theoretical study on the mechanism of the oxygen activation process in cysteine dioxygenase enzymes. J Am Chem Soc. 2011;133:3869-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) is a vital enzyme for human health involved in the biodegradation of toxic cysteine and thereby regulation of the cysteine concentration in the body...
  5. Jiang Y, Widger L, Kasper G, Siegler M, Goldberg D. Iron(II)-thiolate S-oxygenation by O2: synthetic models of cysteine dioxygenase. J Am Chem Soc. 2010;132:12214-5 pubmed publisher
    The synthesis of structural and functional models of the active site of the nonheme iron enzyme cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) is reported...
  6. Dominy J, Hirschberger L, Coloso R, Stipanuk M. In vivo regulation of cysteine dioxygenase via the ubiquitin-26S proteasome system. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2006;583:37-47 pubmed
  7. Honjoh K, Matsuura K, Machida T, Nishi K, Nakao M, Yano T, et al. Enhancement of menadione stress tolerance in yeast by accumulation of hypotaurine and taurine: co-expression of cDNA clones, from Cyprinus carpio, for cysteine dioxygenase and cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Amino Acids. 2010;38:1173-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Two types of cDNA clones corresponding to genes encoding cysteine dioxygenase (CDO1 and CDO2) and a cDNA clone for cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSD) were isolated from Cyprinus ..
  8. Chai S, Jerkins A, Banik J, Shalev I, Pinkham J, Uden P, et al. Heterologous expression, purification, and characterization of recombinant rat cysteine dioxygenase. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:9865-9 pubmed
    b>Cysteine dioxygenase (CDO, EC catalyzes the oxidation of cysteine to cysteine sulfinic acid, which is the first major step in cysteine catabolism in mammalian tissues...
  9. Dietrich D, Krispin M, Dietrich J, Fassbender A, Lewin J, Harbeck N, et al. CDO1 promoter methylation is a biomarker for outcome prediction of anthracycline treated, estrogen receptor-positive, lymph node-positive breast cancer patients. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:247 pubmed publisher
    ..05).Promoter DNA methylation of cysteine dioxygenase 1 (CDO1) was confirmed in univariate and in pairwise multivariate analysis adjusting for age at surgery, ..
  10. Chai S, Bruyere J, Maroney M. Probes of the catalytic site of cysteine dioxygenase. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:15774-9 pubmed
    ..major step of cysteine catabolism, the oxidation of cysteine to cysteine sulfinic acid, is catalyzed by cysteine dioxygenase (CDO)...
  11. Siakkou E, Wilbanks S, Jameson G. Simplified cysteine dioxygenase activity assay allows simultaneous quantitation of both substrate and product. Anal Biochem. 2010;405:127-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The method was used to measure the activity of the non-heme mono-iron enzyme cysteine dioxygenase. The substrate cysteine and the product cysteine sulfinic acid are very weak chromophores, making direct ..
  12. Ye S, Wu X, Wei L, Tang D, Sun P, Bartlam M, et al. An insight into the mechanism of human cysteine dioxygenase. Key roles of the thioether-bonded tyrosine-cysteine cofactor. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:3391-402 pubmed
    b>Cysteine dioxygenase is a non-heme mononuclear iron metalloenzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of cysteine to cysteine sulfinic acid with addition of molecular dioxygen...
  13. Stipanuk M, Ueki I, Dominy J, Simmons C, Hirschberger L. Cysteine dioxygenase: a robust system for regulation of cellular cysteine levels. Amino Acids. 2009;37:55-63 pubmed publisher
    Cysteine catabolism in mammals is dependent upon cysteine dioxygenase (CDO), an enzyme that adds molecular oxygen to the sulfur of cysteine, converting the thiol to a sulfinic acid known as cysteinesulfinic acid (3-sulfinoalanine)...
  14. Eppler B, Dawson R. Cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase and cysteine dioxygenase activities do not correlate with strain-specific changes in hepatic and cerebellar taurine content in aged rats. Mech Ageing Dev. 1999;110:57-72 pubmed
    ..We measured the activity of the major taurine biosynthetic enzymes, cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase and cysteine dioxygenase, in liver and cerebellar tissues of rats...
  15. Wilkinson L, Waring R. Cysteine dioxygenase: modulation of expression in human cell lines by cytokines and control of sulphate production. Toxicol In Vitro. 2002;16:481-3 pubmed
    b>Cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) is the initial and rate-limiting enzyme involved in the oxidative degradation of cysteine to inorganic sulphate. It is believed to be the major source of sulphate in vivo...
  16. McQuilken A, Jiang Y, Siegler M, Goldberg D. Addition of dioxygen to an N4S(thiolate) iron(II) cysteine dioxygenase model gives a structurally characterized sulfinato-iron(II) complex. J Am Chem Soc. 2012;134:8758-61 pubmed publisher
    The non-heme iron enzyme cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) catalyzes the S-oxygenation of cysteine by O(2) to give cysteine sulfinic acid...
  17. Satsu H, Terasawa E, Hosokawa Y, Shimizu M. Functional characterization and regulation of the taurine transporter and cysteine dioxygenase in human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells. Biochem J. 2003;375:441-7 pubmed
    We investigated the characterization and the regulation of TAUT (taurine transporter) and CDO (cysteine dioxygenase), one of the key enzymes of taurine biosynthesis, in human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells...
  18. Lee J, Londono M, Hirschberger L, Stipanuk M. Regulation of cysteine dioxygenase and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase is associated with hepatic cysteine level. J Nutr Biochem. 2004;15:112-22 pubmed
    Two hepatic enzymes, cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS), play important regulatory roles in the response of cysteine metabolism to changes in dietary sulfur amino acid or protein levels...
  19. Stipanuk M, Hirschberger L, Londono M, Cresenzi C, Yu A. The ubiquitin-proteasome system is responsible for cysteine-responsive regulation of cysteine dioxygenase concentration in liver. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004;286:E439-48 pubmed
    Hepatic cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) activity is a critical regulator of cellular cysteine concentration and availability of cysteine for anabolic processes and is markedly higher in animals fed diets containing excess sulfur amino acids ..
  20. Tsuboyama N, Hosokawa Y, Totani M, Oka J, Matsumoto A, Koide T, et al. Structural organization and tissue-specific expression of the gene encoding rat cysteine dioxygenase. Gene. 1996;181:161-5 pubmed
    b>Cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) is a key enzyme involved in the metabolism of L-cysteine. Genomic clones containing the 5'-flanking sequence of the rat CDO gene were isolated and characterized...
  21. Ueki I, Stipanuk M. Enzymes of the taurine biosynthetic pathway are expressed in rat mammary gland. J Nutr. 2007;137:1887-94 pubmed
    ..It is synthesized from cysteine via oxidation of cysteine to cysteinesulfinate by the enzyme cysteine dioxygenase (CDO), followed by the decarboxylation of cysteinesulfinate to hypotaurine, catalyzed by cysteine sulfinic ..
  22. Simmons C, Krishnamoorthy K, Granett S, Schuller D, Dominy J, Begley T, et al. A putative Fe2+-bound persulfenate intermediate in cysteine dioxygenase. Biochemistry. 2008;47:11390-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report a 1.4 A resolution crystal structure of the Fe(2+)-dependent enzyme cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) containing this putative intermediate trapped in its active site pocket...
  23. Booken N, Gratchev A, Utikal J, Weiss C, Yu X, Qadoumi M, et al. Sézary syndrome is a unique cutaneous T-cell lymphoma as identified by an expanded gene signature including diagnostic marker molecules CDO1 and DNM3. Leukemia. 2008;22:393-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, CDO1 catalyzes taurine synthesis and taurine inhibits apoptosis and promotes chemoprotection. In summary, CDO1 and DNM3 may improve the diagnosis of SS and open novel clues to its pathogenesis. ..
  24. Cresenzi C, Lee J, Stipanuk M. Cysteine is the metabolic signal responsible for dietary regulation of hepatic cysteine dioxygenase and glutamate cysteine ligase in intact rats. J Nutr. 2003;133:2697-702 pubmed
    Cysteine, rather than a precursor or metabolite of cysteine, appears to mediate the upregulation of cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) and the downregulation of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) in cultured primary rat hepatocytes...
  25. Pierce B, Gardner J, Bailey L, Brunold T, Fox B. Characterization of the nitrosyl adduct of substrate-bound mouse cysteine dioxygenase by electron paramagnetic resonance: electronic structure of the active site and mechanistic implications. Biochemistry. 2007;46:8569-78 pubmed
    Mammalian cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) is a non-heme iron metalloenzyme that catalyzes the first committed step in oxidative cysteine catabolism...
  26. Simmons C, Liu Q, Huang Q, Hao Q, Begley T, Karplus P, et al. Crystal structure of mammalian cysteine dioxygenase. A novel mononuclear iron center for cysteine thiol oxidation. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:18723-33 pubmed
    b>Cysteine dioxygenase is a mononuclear iron-dependent enzyme responsible for the oxidation of cysteine with molecular oxygen to form cysteine sulfinate...
  27. Galván I, Ghanem G, Møller A. Has removal of excess cysteine led to the evolution of pheomelanin? Pheomelanogenesis as an excretory mechanism for cysteine. Bioessays. 2012;34:565-8 pubmed publisher
  28. Yun K, Ryu C, Oh J, Kim C, Lee K, Lee C, et al. Plasma homocysteine level and hepatic sulfur amino acid metabolism in mice fed a high-fat diet. Eur J Nutr. 2013;52:127-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite the decrease in hepatic cysteine, hepatic taurine synthesis was activated via up-regulation of cysteine dioxygenase. Hepatic levels of methionine adenosyltransferase I/III, methionine synthase, methylene tetrahydrofolate ..
  29. McQuilken A, Ha Y, Sutherlin K, Siegler M, Hodgson K, Hedman B, et al. Preparation of non-heme {FeNO}7 models of cysteine dioxygenase: sulfur versus nitrogen ligation and photorelease of nitric oxide. J Am Chem Soc. 2013;135:14024-7 pubmed publisher
    ..characterization of [Fe(NO)(N3PyS)]BF4 (3), the first structural and electronic model of NO-bound cysteine dioxygenase. The nearly isostructural all-N-donor analogue [Fe(NO)(N4Py)](BF4)2 (4) was also prepared, and comparisons ..
  30. Che X, Gao J, Zhang D, Liu C. How do the thiolate ligand and its relative position control the oxygen activation in the cysteine dioxygenase model?. J Phys Chem A. 2012;116:5510-7 pubmed publisher
    In the iron(II)-thiolate models of cysteine dioxygenase, the thiolate ligand is a key factor in the oxygen activation. In this contribution, four model compounds have been theoretically investigated...
  31. Karplus P, Diederichs K. Linking crystallographic model and data quality. Science. 2012;336:1030-3 pubmed publisher
    ..CC* also can be used to assess model and data quality on the same scale, and this reveals when data quality is limiting model improvement. ..
  32. Hennicke F, Grumbt M, Lermann U, Ueberschaar N, Palige K, Bottcher B, et al. Factors supporting cysteine tolerance and sulfite production in Candida albicans. Eukaryot Cell. 2013;12:604-13 pubmed publisher
    ..albicans relies on cysteine dioxygenase Cdg1, an enzyme with similar functions in humans...
  33. Hosokawa Y, Yamaguchi K, Kohashi N, Kori Y, Fujii O, Ueda I. Immaturity of the enzyme activity and the response to inducers of rat liver cysteine dioxygenase during development. J Biochem. 1980;88:389-94 pubmed
    b>Cysteine dioxygenase activity was not detected in the liver of either fetal or 2-day-old rat...
  34. Straganz G, Diebold A, Egger S, Nidetzky B, Solomon E. Kinetic and CD/MCD spectroscopic studies of the atypical, three-His-ligated, non-heme Fe2+ center in diketone dioxygenase: the role of hydrophilic outer shell residues in catalysis. Biochemistry. 2010;49:996-1004 pubmed publisher
    ..Arg80 and Tyr70 are shown to promote O(2) reduction, while Thr107 stabilizes the Fe(II) cofactor. ..
  35. Ohkuma S, Tomono S, Tanaka Y, Kuriyama K, Mukainaka T. Development of taurine biosynthesizing system in cerebral cortical neurons in primary culture. Int J Dev Neurosci. 1986;4:383-95 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, the activities of cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase and cysteine dioxygenase, both of which are involved in the biosynthesis of taurine, were found to be increased progressively both ..
  36. Dominy J, Hwang J, Guo S, Hirschberger L, Zhang S, Stipanuk M. Synthesis of amino acid cofactor in cysteine dioxygenase is regulated by substrate and represents a novel post-translational regulation of activity. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:12188-201 pubmed publisher
    b>Cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) catalyzes the conversion of cysteine to cysteinesulfinic acid and is important in the regulation of intracellular cysteine levels in mammals and in the provision of oxidized cysteine metabolites such as sulfate ..
  37. Ko K, Torres C, Fascetti A, Stipanuk M, Hirschberger L, Rogers Q. Copper deficiency does not lead to taurine deficiency in rats. J Nutr. 2006;136:2502-5 pubmed
    ..We determined whether Cu deficiency would decrease taurine status and the hepatic activities of cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) and/or cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (CSAD) in rats...
  38. Stipanuk M, Dominy J, Lee J, Coloso R. Mammalian cysteine metabolism: new insights into regulation of cysteine metabolism. J Nutr. 2006;136:1652S-1659S pubmed publisher
    ..Cysteine catabolism is tightly regulated via regulation of cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) levels in the liver, with the turnover of CDO protein being dramatically decreased when intracellular ..
  39. Gardner J, Pierce B, Fox B, Brunold T. Spectroscopic and computational characterization of substrate-bound mouse cysteine dioxygenase: nature of the ferrous and ferric cysteine adducts and mechanistic implications. Biochemistry. 2010;49:6033-41 pubmed publisher
    b>Cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) is a mononuclear non-heme Fe-dependent dioxygenase that catalyzes the initial step of oxidative cysteine catabolism...
  40. Zhao X, Deng P, Feng J, Wang Z, Xiang Z, Han X, et al. Cysteine Dioxygenase Type 1 Inhibits Osteogenesis by Regulating Wnt Signaling in Primary Mouse Bone Marrow Stromal Cells. Sci Rep. 2016;6:19296 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously, we have shown that cysteine dioxygenase type 1 (Cdo1) promoted adipogenesis of primary mouse bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and 3T3-L1 pre-..
  41. Bagley P, Hirschberger L, Stipanuk M. Evaluation and modification of an assay procedure for cysteine dioxygenase activity: high-performance liquid chromatography method for measurement of cysteine sulfinate and demonstration of physiological relevance of cysteine dioxygenase activity in . Anal Biochem. 1995;227:40-8 pubmed
    Conflicting reports in the literature of appropriate assay procedures for measurement of cysteine dioxygenase activity led us to evaluate the procedure for assay of cysteine dioxygenase activity in rat liver preparations...
  42. Parsons R, Sampson D, Huggins C, Waring R, Williams A, Ramsden D. Renal localisation of rat cysteine dioxygenase. Nephron. 2001;88:340-6 pubmed
    b>Cysteine dioxygenase (CDO, EC catalyses the conversion of cysteine to cysteine sulphinic acid and controls the rate-limiting step of sulphate production...
  43. Simmons C, Hirschberger L, Machi M, Stipanuk M. Expression, purification, and kinetic characterization of recombinant rat cysteine dioxygenase, a non-heme metalloenzyme necessary for regulation of cellular cysteine levels. Protein Expr Purif. 2006;47:74-81 pubmed
    b>Cysteine dioxygenase (CDO, EC is a non-heme mononuclear iron enzyme that oxidizes cysteine to cysteinesulfinate...
  44. Jung Y, Kim S, Kwon D, Kim Y. Comparison of the effects of buthioninesulfoximine and phorone on the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids in rat liver. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;368:913-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The activity of cysteine dioxygenase was increased, resulting in an elevation of hypotaurine and taurine concentrations...
  45. Ueki I, Roman H, Hirschberger L, Junior C, Stipanuk M. Extrahepatic tissues compensate for loss of hepatic taurine synthesis in mice with liver-specific knockout of cysteine dioxygenase. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012;302:E1292-9 pubmed publisher
    Because hepatic cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) appears to play the major role in controlling cysteine catabolism in the intact rat, we characterized the effect of a lack of hepatic CDO on the regulation of cysteine and its metabolites at the ..
  46. Andresen K, Boberg K, Vedeld H, Honne H, Hektoen M, Wadsworth C, et al. Novel target genes and a valid biomarker panel identified for cholangiocarcinoma. Epigenetics. 2012;7:1249-57 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the novel methylation-based biomarker panel showed high sensitivity and specificity for cholangiocarcinoma. The potential of these markers in early diagnosis of this cancer type should be further explored. ..
  47. Simmons C, Hao Q, Stipanuk M. Preparation, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis to 1.5 A resolution of rat cysteine dioxygenase, a mononuclear iron enzyme responsible for cysteine thiol oxidation. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2005;61:1013-6 pubmed
    b>Cysteine dioxygenase (CDO; EC is an approximately 23 kDa non-heme iron metalloenzyme that is responsible for the oxidation of cysteine by O2, yielding cysteinesulfinate...
  48. Higuchi M, Miura C, Iwai T, Miura T. Trypsin regulates meiotic initiation in the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) by promoting the uptake of taurine into germ cells during spermatogenesis. Biol Reprod. 2013;89:58 pubmed publisher
    ..We further found that this up-regulation of the taurine signal is required for Spo11a expression and meiotic initiation. ..
  49. Uberto R, Moomaw E. Protein similarity networks reveal relationships among sequence, structure, and function within the Cupin superfamily. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e74477 pubmed publisher
    ..It is anticipated that the application of PSNs to this superfamily will inform experimental work and influence the functional annotation of databases. ..
  50. Li W, Blaesi E, Pecore M, Crowell J, Pierce B. Second-sphere interactions between the C93-Y157 cross-link and the substrate-bound Fe site influence the O₂ coupling efficiency in mouse cysteine dioxygenase. Biochemistry. 2013;52:9104-19 pubmed publisher
    b>Cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) is a non-heme iron enzyme that catalyzes the O₂-dependent oxidation of l-cysteine (l-Cys) to produce cysteinesulfinic acid (CSA)...
  51. Morrow W, Sardar S, Thapa P, Hossain M, Foss F, Pierce B. Thiol dioxygenase turnover yields benzothiazole products from 2-mercaptoaniline and O2-dependent oxidation of primary alcohols. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2017;631:66-74 pubmed publisher
    ..FeIII-O2- intermediate that precedes substrate oxidation in Mus musculus cysteine dioxygenase (Mm CDO)...
  52. Song H, Her A, Raso F, Zhen Z, Huo Y, Liu P. Cysteine oxidation reactions catalyzed by a mononuclear non-heme iron enzyme (OvoA) in ovothiol biosynthesis. Org Lett. 2014;16:2122-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Remarkably, these OvoA-catalyzed reactions can be systematically modulated by a slight modification of one of its substrates, histidine. ..
  53. Kim Y, Kim S, Kwon J, Park O, Kim S, Kim Y, et al. Effects of cysteine on amino acid concentrations and transsulfuration enzyme activities in rat liver with protein-calorie malnutrition. Life Sci. 2003;72:1171-81 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the availability of sulfur amino acid(s) especially cysteine appears to play a role in determining the flux of cysteine between cysteine catabolism and GSH synthesis. ..