protoporphyrinogen oxidase

Summary

Summary: A membrane-bound flavoenzyme that catalyzes the oxygen-dependent aromatization of protoporphyrinogen IX (Protogen) to protoporphyrin IX (Proto IX). It is the last enzyme of the common branch of the HEME and CHLOROPHYLL pathways in plants, and is the molecular target of diphenyl ether-type herbicides. VARIEGATE PORPHYRIA is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with deficiency of protoporphyrinogen oxidase.

Top Publications

  1. Puy H, Robreau A, Rosipal R, Nordmann Y, Deybach J. Protoporphyrinogen oxidase: complete genomic sequence and polymorphisms in the human gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996;226:226-30 pubmed
    ..porphyria (VP) is an autosomal dominant disorder of heme synthesis caused by a partial deficiency of protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOX)...
  2. Hao G, Tan Y, Yang S, Wang Z, Zhan C, Xi Z, et al. Computational and experimental insights into the mechanism of substrate recognition and feedback inhibition of protoporphyrinogen oxidase. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e69198 pubmed publisher
    ..The novel mechanistic insights obtained from this study present a new starting point for future rational design of more efficient PPO inhibitors based on the product-bound PPO structure. ..
  3. Hift R, Meissner D, Meissner P. A systematic study of the clinical and biochemical expression of variegate porphyria in a large South African family. Br J Dermatol. 2004;151:465-71 pubmed
    ..Plasma scanning is more sensitive than faecal porphyrin analysis, but neither is sufficiently sensitive for the detection of carrier status. ..
  4. Soldatova O, Apchelimov A, Radukina N, Ezhova T, Shestakov S, Ziemann V, et al. An Arabidopsis mutant that is resistant to the protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor acifluorfen shows regulatory changes in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis. Mol Genet Genomics. 2005;273:311-8 pubmed
    ..of the ecotype Dijon were isolated that show resistance to the herbicide acifluorfen, which inactivates protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOX), an enzyme of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis...
  5. Wiman A, Harper P, Floderus Y. Nine novel mutations in the protoporphyrinogen oxidase gene in Swedish families with variegate porphyria. Clin Genet. 2003;64:122-30 pubmed
    ..is an autosomal-dominant disorder that is caused by inheritance of a partial deficiency of the enzyme protoporphyrinogen oxidase (EC 1.3.3.4)...
  6. de Pater S, Pinas J, Hooykaas P, van der Zaal B. ZFN-mediated gene targeting of the Arabidopsis protoporphyrinogen oxidase gene through Agrobacterium-mediated floral dip transformation. Plant Biotechnol J. 2013;11:510-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we designed zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) for induction of DSBs in the natural protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) gene, which can be conveniently utilized for GT experiments...
  7. Kusaba A, Ansai T, Akifusa S, Nakahigashi K, Taketani S, Inokuchi H, et al. Cloning and expression of a Porphyromonas gingivalis gene for protoporphyrinogen oxidase by complementation of a hemG mutant of Escherichia coli. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2002;17:290-5 pubmed
    ..The deduced amino acid sequence of the ORF3 gene had significant similarity to sequences of protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) from Myxococcus xanthus (30% identical residues). When the ORF3 gene was overexpressed in E...
  8. Palmer R, Elder G, Barrett D, Keohane S. Homozygous variegate porphyria: a compound heterozygote with novel mutations in the protoporphyrinogen oxidase gene. Br J Dermatol. 2001;144:866-9 pubmed
    Homozygous variegate porphyria results from mutations in both alleles of the protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOX) gene. Our patient, a 36-year-old woman, has severe cutaneous manifestations...
  9. Che F, Watanabe N, Iwano M, Inokuchi H, Takayama S, Yoshida S, et al. Molecular characterization and subcellular localization of protoporphyrinogen oxidase in spinach chloroplasts. Plant Physiol. 2000;124:59-70 pubmed
    b>Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (Protox) is the last common enzyme in the biosynthesis of chlorophylls and heme. In plants, there are two isoenzymes of Protox, one located in plastids and other in the mitochondria...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Qin X, Sun L, Wen X, Yang X, Tan Y, Jin H, et al. Structural insight into unique properties of protoporphyrinogen oxidase from Bacillus subtilis. J Struct Biol. 2010;170:76-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These crystallographic findings uncover biochemically unique properties of bsPPO, providing important information for further understanding the enzymatic mechanism. ..
  2. Deybach J, Da Silva V, Grandchamp B, Nordmann Y. The mitochondrial location of protoporphyrinogen oxidase. Eur J Biochem. 1985;149:431-5 pubmed
    Using the digitonin method and subsequent fractionation of rat liver mitochondria, protoporphyrinogen oxidase (penultimate enzyme in the heme biosynthesis pathway) was found to be closely associated with the mitochondrial inner membrane ..
  3. Sasarman A, Letowski J, Czaika G, Ramirez V, Nead M, Jacobs J, et al. Nucleotide sequence of the hemG gene involved in the protoporphyrinogen oxidase activity of Escherichia coli K12. Can J Microbiol. 1993;39:1155-61 pubmed
    The hemG gene of Escherichia coli K12 is involved in the activity of protoporphyrinogen oxidase, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of protoporphyrinogen IX into protoporphyrin IX during heme and chlorophyll biosynthesis...
  4. Whatley S, Mason N, Woolf J, Newcombe R, Elder G, Badminton M. Diagnostic strategies for autosomal dominant acute porphyrias: retrospective analysis of 467 unrelated patients referred for mutational analysis of the HMBS, CPOX, or PPOX gene. Clin Chem. 2009;55:1406-14 pubmed publisher
  5. Meazza G, Bettarini F, La Porta P, Piccardi P, Signorini E, Portoso D, et al. Synthesis and herbicidal activity of novel heterocyclic protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitors. Pest Manag Sci. 2004;60:1178-88 pubmed
    ..They are active on both grass and broadleaf weeds at low rates. The synthesis and structure-activity relationships are presented. ..
  6. Boynton T, Gerdes S, Craven S, Neidle E, Phillips J, Dailey H. Discovery of a gene involved in a third bacterial protoporphyrinogen oxidase activity through comparative genomic analysis and functional complementation. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:4795-801 pubmed publisher
    ..verification utilizing Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1, to identify one of the missing enzymes, a new protoporphyrinogen oxidase, the penultimate enzyme in heme biosynthesis...
  7. Dailey T, Meissner P, Dailey H. Expression of a cloned protoporphyrinogen oxidase. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:813-5 pubmed
    ..The expressed protein has been shown to be the penultimate enzyme of the heme biosynthetic pathway, protoporphyrinogen oxidase (EC 1.3.3.4) and, thus, the gene designation should be hem G...
  8. Taketani S, Inazawa J, Abe T, Furukawa T, Kohno H, Tokunaga R, et al. The human protoporphyrinogen oxidase gene (PPOX): organization and location to chromosome 1. Genomics. 1995;29:698-703 pubmed
    We determined the structure of the human protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOX) gene after isolation and characterization of lambda phage clones mapping discrete regions of the cDNA...
  9. Boynton T, Daugherty L, Dailey T, Dailey H. Identification of Escherichia coli HemG as a novel, menadione-dependent flavodoxin with protoporphyrinogen oxidase activity. Biochemistry. 2009;48:6705-11 pubmed publisher
    b>Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO, EC 1.3.3.4) catalyzes the six-electron oxidation of protoporphyrinogen IX to the fully conjugated protoporphyrin IX...
  10. Qin X, Tan Y, Wang L, Wang Z, Wang B, Wen X, et al. Structural insight into human variegate porphyria disease. FASEB J. 2011;25:653-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Forty-seven VP-causing mutations were purified by chromatography and kinetically characterized in vitro. The effect of each mutation was demonstrated in the high-resolution crystal structure. ..
  11. Kato K, Tanaka R, Sano S, Tanaka A, Hosaka H. Identification of a gene essential for protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase activity in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:16649-54 pubmed publisher
    b>Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (Protox) catalyses the oxidation of protoporphyrinogen IX to protoporphyrin IX during the synthesis of tetrapyrrole molecules...
  12. Corrigall A, Hift R, Davids L, Hancock V, Meissner D, Kirsch R, et al. Homozygous variegate porphyria in South Africa: genotypic analysis in two cases. Mol Genet Metab. 2000;69:323-30 pubmed
    ..is an autosomal dominant disorder of heme metabolism which results from decreased activity of the enzyme protoporphyrinogen oxidase. Clinically, the disease manifests postpubertally and is characterized by photocutaneous sensitivity and/..
  13. Frank J, Aita V, Ahmad W, Lam H, Wolff C, Christiano A. Identification of a founder mutation in the protoporphyrinogen oxidase gene in variegate porphyria patients from chile. Hum Hered. 2001;51:160-8 pubmed
    Variegate porphyria (VP; OMIM 176200) is characterized by a partial defect in the activity of protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO), the seventh enzyme of the porphyrin-heme biosynthetic pathway...
  14. Meissner P, Dailey T, Hift R, Ziman M, Corrigall A, Roberts A, et al. A R59W mutation in human protoporphyrinogen oxidase results in decreased enzyme activity and is prevalent in South Africans with variegate porphyria. Nat Genet. 1996;13:95-7 pubmed
    ..of VP, it was shown in the early 1980's, and is now accepted, that VP is associated with decreased protoporphyrinogen oxidase activity (PPO) (E.C.1.3.3.4)...
  15. Hao G, Tan Y, Yu N, Yang G. Structure-activity relationships of diphenyl-ether as protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitors: insights from computational simulations. J Comput Aided Mol Des. 2011;25:213-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO, EC 1.3.3...
  16. Camadro J, Thome F, Brouillet N, Labbe P. Purification and properties of protoporphyrinogen oxidase from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mitochondrial location and evidence for a precursor form of the protein. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:32085-91 pubmed
    b>Protoporphyrinogen oxidase, the molecular target of diphenylether-type herbicides, was purified to homogeneity from yeast mitochondrial membranes and found to be a 55-kDa polypeptide with a pI of 8...
  17. Lecha M, Badenas C, Puig S, Orfila J, Mila M, To Figueras J, et al. Genetic studies in variegate porphyria in Spain. Identification of gene mutations and family study for carrier detection. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2006;20:974-9 pubmed
    ..DNA analysis is the most sensitive carrier detection method and also allows transmission behaviour of the genetic defect to be established in successive generations of the affected families. ..
  18. Deybach J, Puy H, Robreau A, Lamoril J, Da Silva V, Grandchamp B, et al. Mutations in the protoporphyrinogen oxidase gene in patients with variegate porphyria. Hum Mol Genet. 1996;5:407-10 pubmed
    ..VP) is an acute hepatic porphyria with autosomal dominant inheritance due to a partial deficiency of protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOX) activity...
  19. van Tuyll van Serooskerken A, de Rooij F, Edixhoven A, Bladergroen R, Baron J, Joussen S, et al. Digenic inheritance of mutations in the coproporphyrinogen oxidase and protoporphyrinogen oxidase genes in a unique type of porphyria. J Invest Dermatol. 2011;131:2249-54 pubmed publisher
    ..HCP and VP result from a partial enzymatic deficiency of coproporphyrinogen oxidase (CPOX) and protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOX), respectively...
  20. Corradi H, Corrigall A, Boix E, Mohan C, Sturrock E, Meissner P, et al. Crystal structure of protoporphyrinogen oxidase from Myxococcus xanthus and its complex with the inhibitor acifluorfen. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:38625-33 pubmed
    ..the position of the membrane anchor, differing from the one proposed for the tobacco mitochondrial protoporphyrinogen oxidase. Interestingly, there is a discrepancy between the dimerization state of the protein in solution and in ..
  21. Morgan R, Errington R, Elder G. Identification of sequences required for the import of human protoporphyrinogen oxidase to mitochondria. Biochem J. 2004;377:281-7 pubmed
    b>Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOX; EC 1.3.3.4), the penultimate enzyme of haem biosynthesis, is a nucleus-encoded flavoprotein strongly associated with the outer surface of the inner mitochondrial membrane...
  22. Jeong E, Houn T, Kuk Y, Kim E, Chandru H, Baik M, et al. A point mutation of valine-311 to methionine in Bacillus subtilis protoporphyrinogen oxidase does not greatly increase resistance to the diphenyl ether herbicide oxyfluorfen. Bioorg Chem. 2003;31:389-97 pubmed
    In an effort to asses the effect of Val311Met point mutation of Bacillus subtilis protoporphyrinogen oxidase on the resistance to diphenyl ether herbicides, a Val311Met point mutant of B...
  23. Maneli M, Corrigall A, Klump H, Davids L, Kirsch R, Meissner P. Kinetic and physical characterisation of recombinant wild-type and mutant human protoporphyrinogen oxidases. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003;1650:10-21 pubmed
    The effects of various protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOX) mutations responsible for variegate porphyria (VP), the roles of the arginine-59 residue and the glycines in the conserved flavin binding site, in catalysis and/or cofactor binding, ..
  24. von und zu Fraunberg M, Timonen K, Mustajoki P, Kauppinen R. Clinical and biochemical characteristics and genotype-phenotype correlation in Finnish variegate porphyria patients. Eur J Hum Genet. 2002;10:649-57 pubmed
    Variegate porphyria (VP) is an inherited metabolic disease resulting from the partial deficiency of protoporphyrinogen oxidase, the penultimate enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway...
  25. Dayan F, Daga P, Duke S, Lee R, Tranel P, Doerksen R. Biochemical and structural consequences of a glycine deletion in the alpha-8 helix of protoporphyrinogen oxidase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1804:1548-56 pubmed publisher
    A rare Gly210 deletion in protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) was recently discovered in herbicide-resistant Amaranthus tuberculatus...
  26. Nishimura K, Taketani S, Inokuchi H. Cloning of a human cDNA for protoporphyrinogen oxidase by complementation in vivo of a hemG mutant of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:8076-80 pubmed
    b>Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO; EC 1.3.3.4) is the enzyme that catalyzes in the penultimate step in the heme biosynthetic pathway. Hemes are essential components of redox enzymes, such as cytochromes...
  27. Roberts A, Puy H, Dailey T, Morgan R, Whatley S, Dailey H, et al. Molecular characterization of homozygous variegate porphyria. Hum Mol Genet. 1998;7:1921-5 pubmed
    ..porphyria (VP) is a low penetrance, autosomal dominant disorder that results from partial deficiency of protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOX) activity caused by mutation in the PPOX gene...
  28. Whatley S, Puy H, Morgan R, Robreau A, Roberts A, Nordmann Y, et al. Variegate porphyria in Western Europe: identification of PPOX gene mutations in 104 families, extent of allelic heterogeneity, and absence of correlation between phenotype and type of mutation. Am J Hum Genet. 1999;65:984-94 pubmed
    ..It results from partial deficiency of protoporphyrinogen oxidase encoded by the PPOX gene...
  29. Schneider Yin X, Minder E. Swiss patients with variegate porphyria have unique mutations. Swiss Med Wkly. 2006;136:515-9 pubmed
    ..porphyria, is a low-penetrance, autosomal dominant disorder as the result of a partial deficiency of protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOX)...
  30. Zhang L, Tan Y, Wang N, Wu Q, Xi Z, Yang G. Design, syntheses and 3D-QSAR studies of novel N-phenyl pyrrolidin-2-ones and N-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-ones as protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem. 2010;18:7948-56 pubmed publisher
    ..of low application rates, good crop selectivity, low residue and environmental safety exhibited by Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO, EC 1.3.3.4)-inhibiting herbicides have attracted a world-wide research interests...
  31. Hanaoka R, Dawid I, Kawahara A. Cloning and expression of zebrafish genes encoding the heme synthesis enzymes uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS) and protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO). DNA Seq. 2007;18:54-60 pubmed
    ..In this paper, we report two zebrafish heme synthesis enzymes, uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS) and protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) that are well conserved in comparison to their human counterparts...
  32. Hao G, Zhu X, Ji F, Zhang L, Yang G, Zhan C. Understanding the mechanism of drug resistance due to a codon deletion in protoporphyrinogen oxidase through computational modeling. J Phys Chem B. 2009;113:4865-75 pubmed publisher
    b>Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO; EC 1.3.3.4) is the last common enzyme for the enzymatic transformation of protoporphyrinogen-IX to protoporphyrin-IX, which is the key common intermediate leading to heme and chlorophyll...
  33. von und zu Fraunberg M, Nyröen T, Kauppinen R. Mitochondrial targeting of normal and mutant protoporphyrinogen oxidase. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:13376-81 pubmed
    ..of mutants (I12T, 78insC, IVS2-2a-->c, 338G-->C, R152C, 470A-->C, and L401F) and the wild type protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOX), which is the penultimate enzyme in the heme biosynthesis...
  34. Schneider Yin X, van Tuyll van Serooskerken A, Went P, Tyblewski W, Poblete Gutierrez P, Minder E, et al. Hepatocellular carcinoma in variegate porphyria: a serious complication. Acta Derm Venereol. 2010;90:512-5 pubmed publisher
    Variegate porphyria is an acute hepatic porphyria resulting from a partial deficiency of protoporphyrinogen oxidase, the penultimate enzyme in haem biosynthesis...
  35. Kauppinen R, Timonen K, von und zu Fraunberg M, Laitinen E, Ahola H, Tenhunen R, et al. Homozygous variegate porphyria: 20 y follow-up and characterization of molecular defect. J Invest Dermatol. 2001;116:610-3 pubmed
    ..A 35T to C transition in exon 2 (I12T) and a 767C to G transversion in exon 7 (P256R) of the protoporphyrinogen oxidase gene were identified from both alleles of the patient's cDNA and genomic DNA samples...
  36. Ferreira G, Andrew T, Karr S, Dailey H. Organization of the terminal two enzymes of the heme biosynthetic pathway. Orientation of protoporphyrinogen oxidase and evidence for a membrane complex. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:3835-9 pubmed
    ..However, examination of solubilized and membrane-reconstituted enzymes shows no evidence for a stable complex. Based upon these and previous data a model for the terminal three-pathway enzymes is presented. ..
  37. Dailey H, Dailey T. Protoporphyrinogen oxidase of Myxococcus xanthus. Expression, purification, and characterization of the cloned enzyme. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:8714-8 pubmed
    b>Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (EC 1.3.3.4) catalyzes the six electron oxidation of protoporphyrinogen IX to protoporphyrin IX. The enzyme from the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus has been cloned, expressed, purified, and characterized...
  38. Dailey T, Dailey H, Meissner P, Prasad A. Cloning, sequence, and expression of mouse protoporphyrinogen oxidase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1995;324:379-84 pubmed
    b>Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (EC 1.3.3.4) is the penultimate enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway, catalyzing the six-electron oxidation of protoporphyrinogen to protoporphyrin...
  39. Engström P, Nguyen B, Normark J, Nilsson I, Bastidas R, Gylfe A, et al. Mutations in hemG mediate resistance to salicylidene acylhydrazides, demonstrating a novel link between protoporphyrinogen oxidase (HemG) and Chlamydia trachomatis infectivity. J Bacteriol. 2013;195:4221-30 pubmed publisher
    ..the acquired mutations are located in the active site of the enzyme, suggesting that IS-INP0341 inhibits this domain of HemG and that protoporphyrinogen oxidase (HemG) and heme metabolism are important for C. trachomatis infectivity.
  40. Koch M, Breithaupt C, Kiefersauer R, Freigang J, Huber R, Messerschmidt A. Crystal structure of protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase: a key enzyme in haem and chlorophyll biosynthesis. EMBO J. 2004;23:1720-8 pubmed
    ..This modelled transmembrane complex provides a structural explanation for the uncoupling of haem biosynthesis observed in variegate porphyria patients and in plants after inhibiting PPO. ..
  41. Hift R, Davidson B, van der Hooft C, Meissner D, Meissner P. Plasma fluorescence scanning and fecal porphyrin analysis for the diagnosis of variegate porphyria: precise determination of sensitivity and specificity with detection of protoporphyrinogen oxidase mutations as a reference standard. Clin Chem. 2004;50:915-23 pubmed
    Variegate porphyria (VP) is the autosomal dominant disorder associated with deficiency of the enzyme protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOX)...
  42. Lermontova I, Grimm B. Reduced activity of plastid protoporphyrinogen oxidase causes attenuated photodynamic damage during high-light compared to low-light exposure. Plant J. 2006;48:499-510 pubmed
    b>Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (EC 1.3.3...
  43. Patzoldt W, Hager A, McCormick J, Tranel P. A codon deletion confers resistance to herbicides inhibiting protoporphyrinogen oxidase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:12329-34 pubmed
    Herbicides that act by inhibiting protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) are widely used to control weeds in a variety of crops...
  44. Davids L, Corrigall A, Meissner P. Mitochondrial targeting of human protoporphyrinogen oxidase. Cell Biol Int. 2006;30:416-26 pubmed
    Variegate porphyria is an autosomal dominant disorder of heme metabolism resulting from a deficiency in protoporphyrinogen oxidase, an enzyme located on the inner mitochondrial membrane...
  45. Wan J, Zhang L, Yang G, Zhan C. Quantitative structure-activity relationship for cyclic imide derivatives of protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitors: a study of quantum chemical descriptors from density functional theory. J Chem Inf Comput Sci. 2004;44:2099-105 pubmed
    ..charge (Qi), in quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies on a class of important protoporphyrinogen oxidase (Protox) inhibitors including a series of cyclic imide derivatives with various heterocyclic rings and ..
  46. Meissner P, Corrigall A, Hift R. Fifty years of porphyria at the University of Cape Town. S Afr Med J. 2012;102:422-6 pubmed
    ..Equally important has been the comprehensive and holistic care offered to patients with porphyria, and to their families. ..
  47. Bazzocco S, Dopeso H, Cartón García F, Macaya I, Andretta E, Chionh F, et al. Highly Expressed Genes in Rapidly Proliferating Tumor Cells as New Targets for Colorectal Cancer Treatment. Clin Cancer Res. 2015;21:3695-704 pubmed publisher
    ..Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOX) were shown to have higher expression in faster growing cell lines and primary tumors...
  48. Phung T, Jung H, Park J, Kim J, Back K, Jung S. Porphyrin biosynthesis control under water stress: sustained porphyrin status correlates with drought tolerance in transgenic rice. Plant Physiol. 2011;157:1746-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We monitored transgenic rice (Oryza sativa) plants expressing Myxococcus xanthus protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) for their response to drought stress...
  49. Jung S, Lee H, Lee Y, Kang K, Kim Y, Grimm B, et al. Toxic tetrapyrrole accumulation in protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase-overexpressing transgenic rice plants. Plant Mol Biol. 2008;67:535-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The transgenic phenotype is the consequence of a highly modified tetrapyrrole metabolism due to additional expression of human PPO. A possible regulatory role of PPO in graminaceous seedlings is discussed. ..
  50. Poblete Gutierrez P, Wiederholt T, Martinez Mir A, Merk H, Connor J, Christiano A, et al. Demystification of Chester porphyria: a nonsense mutation in the Porphobilinogen Deaminase gene. Physiol Res. 2006;55 Suppl 2:S137-44 pubmed
    ..However, we could not detect a mutation in the coding or the promotor region of the protoporphyrinogen oxidase gene that is mutated in variegate porphyria...
  51. Dailey T, Woodruff J, Dailey H. Examination of mitochondrial protein targeting of haem synthetic enzymes: in vivo identification of three functional haem-responsive motifs in 5-aminolaevulinate synthase. Biochem J. 2005;386:381-6 pubmed
    ..PPO (protoporphyrinogen oxidase) lacks a typical mitochondrial targeting leader sequence and was found to be effectively targeted by ..
  52. Frank J, McGrath J, Poh Fitzpatrick M, Hawk J, Christiano A. Mutations in the translation initiation codon of the protoporphyrinogen oxidase gene underlie variegate porphyria. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1999;24:296-301 pubmed
    ..porphyria (VP), one of the acute hepatic porphyrias, is characterized by a reduced catalytic activity of protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO), the penultimate enzyme in the porphyrin-haem biosynthetic pathway...
  53. Hansson M, Gustafsson M, Kannangara C, Hederstedt L. Isolated Bacillus subtilis HemY has coproporphyrinogen III to coproporphyrin III oxidase activity. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997;1340:97-104 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the coproporphyrinogen III to coproporphyrin III activity of HemY is either avoided in B. subtilis in vivo or that coproporphyrin III is a heme biosynthetic intermediate in this bacterium. ..