succinate dehydrogenase

Summary

Summary: A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.

Top Publications

  1. McNeil M, Hampton H, Hards K, Watson B, Cook G, Fineran P. The succinate dehydrogenase assembly factor, SdhE, is required for the flavinylation and activation of fumarate reductase in bacteria. FEBS Lett. 2014;588:414-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that the FAD assembly factor SdhE, which flavinylates and activates the respiratory enzyme succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), is also required for the complete activation and flavinylation of FRD...
  2. Gill A. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and mitochondrial driven neoplasia. Pathology. 2012;44:285-92 pubmed publisher
    The genes for the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) subunits SDHA, SDHB, SDHC and SDHD are encoded in the autosome...
  3. Opocher G, Schiavi F. Functional consequences of succinate dehydrogenase mutations. Endocr Pract. 2011;17 Suppl 3:64-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Germline mutations of succinate dehydrogenase confer susceptibilities as follows: SDHD confers susceptibility to PGL1 syndrome, SDHAF2 to PGL2 syndrome,..
  4. Frezza C, Pollard P, Gottlieb E. Inborn and acquired metabolic defects in cancer. J Mol Med (Berl). 2011;89:213-20 pubmed publisher
  5. Zhang D, Wang W, Xiang B, Li N, Huang S, Zhou W, et al. Reduced succinate dehydrogenase B expression is associated with growth and de-differentiation of colorectal cancer cells. Tumour Biol. 2013;34:2337-47 pubmed publisher
  6. Gill A, Toon C, Clarkson A, Sioson L, Chou A, Winship I, et al. Succinate dehydrogenase deficiency is rare in pituitary adenomas. Am J Surg Pathol. 2014;38:560-6 pubmed publisher
    Germline mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase genes (SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD) are established as causes of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma, renal carcinoma, and gastrointestinal stromal tumor...
  7. Xekouki P, Pacak K, Almeida M, Wassif C, Rustin P, Nesterova M, et al. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) D subunit (SDHD) inactivation in a growth-hormone-producing pituitary tumor: a new association for SDH?. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:E357-66 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in the subunits B, C, and D of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) mitochondrial complex II have been associated with the development of paragangliomas (PGL), gastrointestinal stromal tumors, papillary thyroid and renal carcinoma (..
  8. Mendenhall W, Amdur R, Vaysberg M, Mendenhall C, Werning J. Head and neck paragangliomas. Head Neck. 2011;33:1530-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Approximately 90% are sporadic; the remainder are familial and related to mutations of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) gene complex...
  9. Janeway K, Kim S, Lodish M, Nose V, Rustin P, Gaal J, et al. Defects in succinate dehydrogenase in gastrointestinal stromal tumors lacking KIT and PDGFRA mutations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:314-8 pubmed publisher
    ..to gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and paraganglioma, is caused by germline mutations in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) subunits B, C, or D, leading to dysfunction of complex II of the electron transport chain...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Doyle L, Hornick J. Gastrointestinal stromal tumours: from KIT to succinate dehydrogenase. Histopathology. 2014;64:53-67 pubmed publisher
    ..of this heterogeneous group of tumours, a large subset of which are now known to represent succinate dehydrogenase-deficient GISTs...
  2. Papathomas T, Gaal J, Corssmit E, Oudijk L, Korpershoek E, Heimdal K, et al. Non-pheochromocytoma (PCC)/paraganglioma (PGL) tumors in patients with succinate dehydrogenase-related PCC-PGL syndromes: a clinicopathological and molecular analysis. Eur J Endocrinol. 2014;170:1-12 pubmed publisher
    Although the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)-related tumor spectrum has been recently expanded, there are only rare reports of non-pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma tumors in SDHx-mutated patients...
  3. Szeto S, Reinke S, Sykes B, Lemire B. Mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae succinate dehydrogenase result in distinct metabolic phenotypes revealed through (1)H NMR-based metabolic footprinting. J Proteome Res. 2010;9:6729-39 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is a component of both the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the mitochondrial respiratory chain...
  4. Dwight T, Benn D, Clarkson A, Vilain R, Lipton L, Robinson B, et al. Loss of SDHA expression identifies SDHA mutations in succinate dehydrogenase-deficient gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Am J Surg Pathol. 2013;37:226-33 pubmed publisher
    b>Succinate dehydrogenase-deficient gastrointestinal stromal tumors (SDH-deficient GISTs) are a unique class of GIST defined by negative immunohistochemical staining for succinate dehydrogenase B (SDHB)...
  5. Thakur C, Sama J, Jackson M, Chen B, Dayie T. Selective 13C labeling of nucleotides for large RNA NMR spectroscopy using an E. coli strain disabled in the TCA cycle. J Biomol NMR. 2010;48:179-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Even under conditions of slow tumbling, all the expected carbon correlations were observed, which indicates this approach of using nucleotides obtained from DL323 E. coli will be applicable to high molecular weight RNA systems. ..
  6. Sierotzki H, Scalliet G. A review of current knowledge of resistance aspects for the next-generation succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor fungicides. Phytopathology. 2013;103:880-7 pubmed publisher
    The new broad-spectrum fungicides from the succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) class have been quickly adopted by the market, which may lead to a high selection pressure on various pathogens...
  7. McNeil M, Iglesias Cans M, Clulow J, Fineran P. YgfX (CptA) is a multimeric membrane protein that interacts with the succinate dehydrogenase assembly factor SdhE (YgfY). Microbiology. 2013;159:1352-65 pubmed publisher
    ..with sdhE, an FAD assembly factor essential for the flavinylation and activation of the SdhA subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), a central enzyme in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and electron transport chain...
  8. Hensen E, Siemers M, Jansen J, Corssmit E, Romijn J, Tops C, et al. Mutations in SDHD are the major determinants of the clinical characteristics of Dutch head and neck paraganglioma patients. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2011;75:650-5 pubmed publisher
    Head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGL) are associated with mutations in genes encoding subunits of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)...
  9. Muth A, Abel F, Jansson S, Nilsson O, Ahlman H, Wängberg B. Prevalence of germline mutations in patients with pheochromocytoma or abdominal paraganglioma and sporadic presentation: a population-based study in Western Sweden. World J Surg. 2012;36:1389-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of the present study was to establish population-based data on the frequency of germline mutations in patients with apparently sporadic Pheo or abdominal PGL in Western Sweden...
  10. Killian J, Kim S, Miettinen M, Smith C, Merino M, Tsokos M, et al. Succinate dehydrogenase mutation underlies global epigenomic divergence in gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Cancer Discov. 2013;3:648-57 pubmed publisher
    ..kinases such as KIT, or, alternatively, manifest loss-of-function defects in the mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex, a component of the Krebs cycle and electron transport chain...
  11. Chou A, Chen J, Clarkson A, Samra J, Clifton Bligh R, Hugh T, et al. Succinate dehydrogenase-deficient GISTs are characterized by IGF1R overexpression. Mod Pathol. 2012;25:1307-13 pubmed publisher
    b>Succinate dehydrogenase-deficient gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) demonstrate unique pathological and clinical features, including the absence of activating mutations of KIT and PDGFRA, and primary resistance to imatinib...
  12. Boedeker C. [Paragangliomas and paraganglioma syndromes]. Laryngorhinootologie. 2011;90 Suppl 1:S56-82 pubmed publisher
    ..PGL 1 is associated with mutations of the succinate dehydrogenase subunit D (SDHD) gene, PGL 3 is caused by SDHC and PGL 4 by SDHB gene mutations...
  13. Sciacovelli M, Guzzo G, Morello V, Frezza C, Zheng L, Nannini N, et al. The mitochondrial chaperone TRAP1 promotes neoplastic growth by inhibiting succinate dehydrogenase. Cell Metab. 2013;17:988-99 pubmed publisher
    ..TRAP1 binds to and inhibits succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), the complex II of the respiratory chain...
  14. Butler J, Ventura N, Johnson T, Rea S. Long-lived mitochondrial (Mit) mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans utilize a novel metabolism. FASEB J. 2010;24:4977-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggests long-lived, genetically specified Mit mutants employ a novel metabolism and that life span may well arise as a function of metabolic state. ..
  15. Acevedo R, Maiale S, Pessino S, Bottini R, Ruiz O, Sansberro P. A succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein subunit-like transcript is upregulated in Ilex paraguariensis leaves in response to water deficit and abscisic acid. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2013;65:48-54 pubmed publisher
    ..showing strong homology with the flavoprotein subunit (SDH1) of succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (succinate dehydrogenase, SDH, EC 1.3.5.1) was upregulated in plants exposed to drought...
  16. Aitken R, Whiting S, De Iuliis G, McClymont S, Mitchell L, Baker M. Electrophilic aldehydes generated by sperm metabolism activate mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation and apoptosis by targeting succinate dehydrogenase. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:33048-60 pubmed
    ..The activation of mitochondrial electron leakage by 4HNE is shown to involve the disruption of succinate dehydrogenase activity and subsequent activation of an intrinsic apoptotic cascade beginning with a loss of ..
  17. Venkatesan A, Trivedi H, Adams K, Kebebew E, Pacak K, Hughes M. Comparison of clinical and imaging features in succinate dehydrogenase-positive versus sporadic paragangliomas. Surgery. 2011;150:1186-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical, genetic (succinate dehydrogenase [SDHB] vs no SDHx), and imaging (computed tomography [CT], magnetic resonance imaging, (18)F-fluoro-deoxy-..
  18. Kim H, Winge D. Emerging concepts in the flavinylation of succinate dehydrogenase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1827:627-36 pubmed publisher
    The Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH) heterotetrameric complex catalyzes the oxidation of succinate to fumarate in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and in the aerobic respiratory chains of eukaryotes and bacteria...
  19. Gill A, Pachter N, Chou A, Young B, Clarkson A, Tucker K, et al. Renal tumors associated with germline SDHB mutation show distinctive morphology. Am J Surg Pathol. 2011;35:1578-85 pubmed publisher
    Germline succinate dehydrogenase B (SDHB) mutation causes pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma syndrome type 4 (PGL4)...
  20. Doyle L, Nelson D, Heinrich M, Corless C, Hornick J. Loss of succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) expression is limited to a distinctive subset of gastric wild-type gastrointestinal stromal tumours: a comprehensive genotype-phenotype correlation study. Histopathology. 2012;61:801-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies have suggested that these tumours can be identified by loss of succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) expression...
  21. Gaal J, Stratakis C, Carney J, Ball E, Korpershoek E, Lodish M, et al. SDHB immunohistochemistry: a useful tool in the diagnosis of Carney-Stratakis and Carney triad gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Mod Pathol. 2011;24:147-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In case of negative SDHB staining in GISTs, Carney-Stratakis syndrome or Carney triad should be considered and appropriate clinical surveillance should be instituted. ..
  22. Raab A, Gebhardt G, Bolotina N, Weuster Botz D, Lang C. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the biotechnological production of succinic acid. Metab Eng. 2010;12:518-25 pubmed publisher
    ..11 mol (mol glucose)(-1). Succinic acid is not accumulated intracellularly. This makes the yeast S. cerevisiae a suitable and promising candidate for the biotechnological production of succinic acid on an industrial scale. ..
  23. Xekouki P, Stratakis C. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDHx) mutations in pituitary tumors: could this be a new role for mitochondrial complex II and/or Krebs cycle defects?. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2012;19:C33-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) or mitochondrial complex II is a multimeric enzyme that is bound to the inner membrane of mitochondria and has a dual role as it serves both as a critical step of the tricarboxylic acid or Krebs cycle and as ..
  24. Miettinen M, Wang Z, Sarlomo Rikala M, Osuch C, Rutkowski P, Lasota J. Succinate dehydrogenase-deficient GISTs: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic study of 66 gastric GISTs with predilection to young age. Am J Surg Pathol. 2011;35:1712-21 pubmed publisher
    ..by KIT or PDGFRA-activating mutations, but a small subset is associated with loss of function of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex of mitochondrial inner membrane proteins...
  25. Kregiel D, Berlowska J, Ambroziak W. Growth and metabolic activity of conventional and non-conventional yeasts immobilized in foamed alginate. Enzyme Microb Technol. 2013;53:229-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The activities of two key enzymes, succinate dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase, together with the ATP content were measured in both the free and immobilized ..
  26. Kim H, Jeong M, Na U, Winge D. Flavinylation and assembly of succinate dehydrogenase are dependent on the C-terminal tail of the flavoprotein subunit. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:40670-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) requires a covalent addition of FAD for catalytic function. Mutational analyses of Sdh1 implicate C-terminal region Arg residues involvement in covalent flavinylation and SDH assembly...
  27. Nannini M, Astolfi A, Paterini P, Urbini M, Santini D, Catena F, et al. Expression of IGF-1 receptor in KIT/PDGF receptor-? wild-type gastrointestinal stromal tumors with succinate dehydrogenase complex dysfunction. Future Oncol. 2013;9:121-6 pubmed publisher
    ..More recently, germline and somatic mutations in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) subunits A, B and C have been identified in KIT/PDGFRA WT sporadic GIST...
  28. McNeil M, Clulow J, Wilf N, Salmond G, Fineran P. SdhE is a conserved protein required for flavinylation of succinate dehydrogenase in bacteria. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:18418-28 pubmed publisher
    ..we have investigated two conserved uncharacterized proteins, YgfY (a DUF339 protein, renamed SdhE; succinate dehydrogenase protein E) and YgfX (a DUF1434 protein)...
  29. Miettinen M, Killian J, Wang Z, Lasota J, Lau C, Jones L, et al. Immunohistochemical loss of succinate dehydrogenase subunit A (SDHA) in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) signals SDHA germline mutation. Am J Surg Pathol. 2013;37:234-40 pubmed publisher
    ..to 10%) of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) is notable for the immunohistochemical loss of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) subunit B (SDHB), which signals the loss of function of the SDH complex consisting of mitochondrial ..
  30. Finley L, Haas W, Desquiret Dumas V, Wallace D, Procaccio V, Gygi S, et al. Succinate dehydrogenase is a direct target of sirtuin 3 deacetylase activity. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23295 pubmed publisher
    ..Two subunits of complex II (also known as succinate dehydrogenase, or SDH), SDHA and SDHB, interacted specifically with SIRT3...
  31. Bardella C, Pollard P, Tomlinson I. SDH mutations in cancer. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1807:1432-43 pubmed publisher
    The SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD genes encode the four subunits of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH; mitochondrial complex II), a mitochondrial enzyme involved in two essential energy-producing metabolic processes of the cell, the Krebs cycle and ..
  32. Ishii H, Miyamoto T, Ushio S, Kakishima M. Lack of cross-resistance to a novel succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor, fluopyram, in highly boscalid-resistant isolates of Corynespora cassiicola and Podosphaera xanthii. Pest Manag Sci. 2011;67:474-82 pubmed publisher
    Recently in Japan, isolates resistant to boscalid, a succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI), have been detected in Corynespora cassiicola (Burk. & Curt...
  33. Ara jo W, Nunes Nesi A, Osorio S, Usadel B, Fuentes D, Nagy R, et al. Antisense inhibition of the iron-sulphur subunit of succinate dehydrogenase enhances photosynthesis and growth in tomato via an organic acid-mediated effect on stomatal aperture. Plant Cell. 2011;23:600-27 pubmed publisher
    ..lycopersicum) plants expressing a fragment of the Sl SDH2-2 gene encoding the iron sulfur subunit of the succinate dehydrogenase protein complex in the antisense orientation under the control of the 35S promoter exhibit an enhanced ..
  34. Fraaije B, Bayon C, Atkins S, Cools H, Lucas J, Fraaije M. Risk assessment studies on succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors, the new weapons in the battle to control Septoria leaf blotch in wheat. Mol Plant Pathol. 2012;13:263-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Carboxamides inhibit succinate dehydrogenase (Sdh) of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (complex II) but, because of their single-site specificity, ..
  35. Celestino R, Lima J, Faustino A, Máximo V, Gouveia A, Vinagre J, et al. A novel germline SDHB mutation in a gastrointestinal stromal tumor patient without bona fide features of the Carney-Stratakis dyad. Fam Cancer. 2012;11:189-94 pubmed publisher
    ..In Carney-Stratakis dyad, patients portray germline mutations of the succinate dehydrogenase subunits B (SDHB), C (SDHC) and D (SDHD) and develop multifocal GISTs and multicentric paragangliomas (..
  36. Raimundo N, Baysal B, Shadel G. Revisiting the TCA cycle: signaling to tumor formation. Trends Mol Med. 2011;17:641-9 pubmed publisher
    ..in tumor formation is suggested by mutations in enzymes of the TCA cycle: isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and fumarate hydratase (FH)...
  37. Cao H, Yue M, Li S, Bai X, Zhao X, Du Y. The impact of MIG1 and/or MIG2 disruption on aerobic metabolism of succinate dehydrogenase negative Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;89:733-8 pubmed publisher
    ..effect would result in an increase in aerobic succinate production, MIG1 and/or MIG2 were disrupted in a succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)-negative S. cerevisiae strain. Moreover, their impacts on physiology of the SDH-negative S...
  38. Puissegur M, Mazure N, Bertero T, Pradelli L, Grosso S, Robbe Sermesant K, et al. miR-210 is overexpressed in late stages of lung cancer and mediates mitochondrial alterations associated with modulation of HIF-1 activity. Cell Death Differ. 2011;18:465-78 pubmed publisher
    ..The transcript coding for one of these ETC components, SDHD, subunit D of succinate dehydrogenase complex (SDH), was validated as a bona fide miR-210 target...
  39. Matyakhina L, Bei T, McWhinney S, Pasini B, Cameron S, Gunawan B, et al. Genetics of carney triad: recurrent losses at chromosome 1 but lack of germline mutations in genes associated with paragangliomas and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:2938-43 pubmed
    ..Inactivating mutations of the mitochondrial complex II succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) enzyme subunits SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD are found in PGLs, gain-of-function mutations of c-kit (KIT), ..
  40. van Nederveen F, Korpershoek E, Lenders J, de Krijger R, Dinjens W. Somatic SDHB mutation in an extraadrenal pheochromocytoma. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:306-8 pubmed
  41. Gimenez Roqueplo A, Burnichon N, Amar L, Favier J, Jeunemaitre X, Plouin P. Recent advances in the genetics of phaeochromocytoma and functional paraganglioma. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2008;35:376-9 pubmed publisher
    ..3. Fundamental research studies have shown that SDH genes are tumour suppressor genes and that succinate dehydrogenase inactivation induces abnormal stimulation of the hypoxia-angiogenesis pathway. 4...
  42. Erlic Z, Neumann H. Familial pheochromocytoma. Hormones (Athens). 2009;8:29-38 pubmed
    ..PGL syndromes have been genetically characterized as PGL 1, 3 and 4 and are caused by mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) subunit D, C and B genes, respectively (SDHD, SDHC and SDHB)...
  43. He J, Makey D, Fojo T, Adams K, Havekes B, Eisenhofer G, et al. Successful chemotherapy of hepatic metastases in a case of succinate dehydrogenase subunit B-related paraganglioma. Endocrine. 2009;36:189-93 pubmed publisher
    Compared to other familial pheochromocytoma/paragangliomas (PHEO/PGLs), the succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB)-related PHEO/PGLs often present with aggressive and rapidly growing metastatic lesions...
  44. Hao H, Khalimonchuk O, Schraders M, Dephoure N, Bayley J, Kunst H, et al. SDH5, a gene required for flavination of succinate dehydrogenase, is mutated in paraganglioma. Science. 2009;325:1139-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Both yeast and human Sdh5 interact with the catalytic subunit of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex, a component of both the electron transport chain and the tricarboxylic acid cycle...
  45. Cerecer Gil N, Figuera L, Llamas F, Lara M, Escamilla J, Ramos R, et al. Mutation of SDHB is a cause of hypoxia-related high-altitude paraganglioma. Clin Cancer Res. 2010;16:4148-54 pubmed publisher
    ..A rapidly recurrent head and neck paraganglioma is a very rare finding in an SDH mutation carrier, suggesting a gene-environment interaction. Neither patient showed evidence of sympathetic paraganglioma. ..
  46. Greaves L, Yu Wai Man P, Blakely E, Krishnan K, Beadle N, Kerin J, et al. Mitochondrial DNA defects and selective extraocular muscle involvement in CPEO. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:3340-6 pubmed publisher
    ..enzyme function was determined in EOM and quadriceps muscle sections with cytochrome c oxidase (COX)/succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) histochemistry, and the mutation load in single muscle fibers was quantified by real-time PCR and ..
  47. Goffrini P, Ercolino T, Panizza E, Giachè V, Cavone L, Chiarugi A, et al. Functional study in a yeast model of a novel succinate dehydrogenase subunit B gene germline missense mutation (C191Y) diagnosed in a patient affected by a glomus tumor. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:1860-8 pubmed publisher
    Mutations of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) subunits B, C and D are associated to pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PGL) development. The mechanisms linking SDH mutations to tumorigenesis are currently unknown...
  48. Leroux P, Gredt M, Leroch M, Walker A. Exploring mechanisms of resistance to respiratory inhibitors in field strains of Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of gray mold. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:6615-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Most are strobilurins and carboxamides, inhibiting the cytochrome b of mitochondrial complex III and the succinate dehydrogenase of mitochondrial complex II, respectively...
  49. Gill A, Chou A, Vilain R, Clarkson A, Lui M, JIN R, et al. Immunohistochemistry for SDHB divides gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) into 2 distinct types. Am J Surg Pathol. 2010;34:636-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We postulated that these GISTs would show negative staining for succinate dehydrogenase B (SDHB)...
  50. Mercado Lubo R, Gauger E, Leatham M, Conway T, Cohen P. A Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium succinate dehydrogenase/fumarate reductase double mutant is avirulent and immunogenic in BALB/c mice. Infect Immun. 2008;76:1128-34 pubmed
    ..synthetase), which prevents the conversion of succinyl-CoA to succinate, and a DeltasdhCDA mutant (succinate dehydrogenase), which blocks the conversion of succinate to fumarate, were both attenuated, whereas an SR-11 DeltaaspA ..
  51. Oyedotun K, Sit C, Lemire B. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae succinate dehydrogenase does not require heme for ubiquinone reduction. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1767:1436-45 pubmed
    The coupling of succinate oxidation to the reduction of ubiquinone by succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) constitutes a pivotal reaction in the aerobic generation of energy...
  52. MacKenzie E, Selak M, Tennant D, Payne L, Crosby S, Frederiksen C, et al. Cell-permeating alpha-ketoglutarate derivatives alleviate pseudohypoxia in succinate dehydrogenase-deficient cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:3282-9 pubmed
    b>Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and fumarate hydratase (FH) are components of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and tumor suppressors...
  53. Roschzttardtz H, Fuentes I, Vásquez M, Corvalán C, León G, Gomez I, et al. A nuclear gene encoding the iron-sulfur subunit of mitochondrial complex II is regulated by B3 domain transcription factors during seed development in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2009;150:84-95 pubmed publisher
    Mitochondrial complex II (succinate dehydrogenase) is part of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the respiratory chain. Three nuclear genes encode its essential iron-sulfur subunit in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana)...