oxidoreductases acting on sulfur group donors


Summary: Oxidoreductases with specificity for oxidation or reduction of SULFUR COMPOUNDS.

Top Publications

  1. Grumbt B, Stroobant V, Terziyska N, Israel L, Hell K. Functional characterization of Mia40p, the central component of the disulfide relay system of the mitochondrial intermembrane space. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:37461-70 pubmed
    ..In summary, we reconstituted a disulfide relay system consisting of Mia40C and Erv1p. ..
  2. Koprivova A, North K, Kopriva S. Complex signaling network in regulation of adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase by salt stress in Arabidopsis roots. Plant Physiol. 2008;146:1408-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate an extensive posttranscriptional regulation of plant APR and reveal that the sulfate assimilation pathway is controlled by a complex network of multiple signals on different regulatory levels. ..
  3. Gabriel K, Milenkovic D, Chacinska A, Müller J, Guiard B, Pfanner N, et al. Novel mitochondrial intermembrane space proteins as substrates of the MIA import pathway. J Mol Biol. 2007;365:612-20 pubmed
    ..However, tagging of MIA substrates can interfere with their subcellular localization, indicating that the proper localization of mitochondrial IMS proteins requires the characterization of the authentic untagged proteins. ..
  4. Tu B, Weissman J. The FAD- and O(2)-dependent reaction cycle of Ero1-mediated oxidative protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. Mol Cell. 2002;10:983-94 pubmed
    ..Thus Ero1p directly couples disulfide formation to the consumption of molecular oxygen, but its activity is modulated by free lumenal FAD levels, potentially linking disulfide formation to a cell's nutritional or metabolic status. ..
  5. Bulleid N, Ellgaard L. Multiple ways to make disulfides. Trends Biochem Sci. 2011;36:485-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we discuss these various pathways for disulfide formation in the mammalian ER and highlight the central role played by glutathione in regulating this process...
  6. Zheng W, Chu Y, Yin Q, Xu L, Yang C, Zhang W, et al. Crucial effect of the first CXXC motif of human QSOX 1b on the activity to different substrates. J Biochem. 2011;149:293-300 pubmed publisher
  7. Pérez Jiménez J, Kerkhof L. Phylogeography of sulfate-reducing bacteria among disturbed sediments, disclosed by analysis of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase genes (dsrAB). Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:1004-11 pubmed
    ..Rather, a patchy SRB distribution is encountered, implying an initially uniform SRB community that has differentiated over time. ..
  8. Noh Y, Baek J, Jeong W, Rhee S, Chang T. Sulfiredoxin Translocation into Mitochondria Plays a Crucial Role in Reducing Hyperoxidized Peroxiredoxin III. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:8470-7 pubmed publisher
  9. Woo H, Jeong W, Chang T, Park K, Park S, Yang J, et al. Reduction of cysteine sulfinic acid by sulfiredoxin is specific to 2-cys peroxiredoxins. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:3125-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that reduction of Cys-SO2H by Srx is specific to 2-Cys Prx isoforms. For proteins such as Prx VI and GAPDH, sulfinic acid formation might be an irreversible process that causes protein damage. ..

More Information


  1. Kim S, Rahman A, Bick J, Conover R, Johnson M, Mason J, et al. Properties of the cysteine residues and iron-sulfur cluster of the assimilatory 5'-adenylyl sulfate reductase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Biochemistry. 2004;43:13478-86 pubmed
    ..The remaining two cysteines present in the enzyme, Cys140 and Cys256, form a redox-active disulfide/dithiol couple (E(m) = -300 mV at pH 7.0) that appears to play a role in the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme. ..
  2. Allen S, Balabanidou V, Sideris D, Lisowsky T, Tokatlidis K. Erv1 mediates the Mia40-dependent protein import pathway and provides a functional link to the respiratory chain by shuttling electrons to cytochrome c. J Mol Biol. 2005;353:937-44 pubmed
    ..In this context, the protein import process is linked to the respiratory chain via the communication of Erv1 with cyt c. ..
  3. Rissler M, Wiedemann N, Pfannschmidt S, Gabriel K, Guiard B, Pfanner N, et al. The essential mitochondrial protein Erv1 cooperates with Mia40 in biogenesis of intermembrane space proteins. J Mol Biol. 2005;353:485-92 pubmed
    ..Moreover, Erv1 associated with Mia40 in a reductant-sensitive manner. We conclude that two essential proteins, Mia40 and Erv1, cooperate in the assembly pathway of small proteins of the mitochondrial IMS. ..
  4. Tienson H, Dabir D, Neal S, Loo R, Hasson S, Boontheung P, et al. Reconstitution of the mia40-erv1 oxidative folding pathway for the small tim proteins. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:3481-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we demonstrate that Mia40, Erv1, and oxygen are the minimal machinery for Tim13 oxidation. ..
  5. Heldman N, Vonshak O, Sevier C, Vitu E, Mehlman T, Fass D. Steps in reductive activation of the disulfide-generating enzyme Ero1p. Protein Sci. 2010;19:1863-76 pubmed publisher
    ..This study illustrates the diverse and interconnected roles that disulfides can play in redox regulation of protein activity. ..
  6. Hendriks G, Atallah M, Morolli B, Calléja F, Ras Verloop N, Huijskens I, et al. The ToxTracker assay: novel GFP reporter systems that provide mechanistic insight into the genotoxic properties of chemicals. Toxicol Sci. 2012;125:285-98 pubmed publisher
    ..The novel (geno)toxicity assay (ToxTracker) that utilize the differential responsiveness of various reporter cell lines will enable prediction of the primary reactive properties of known and unknown chemicals. ..
  7. Sevier C, Kaiser C. Ero1 and redox homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1783:549-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Ero1 plays an essential role in setting the redox potential in the ER and regulation of Ero1 activity is central to maintain redox homeostasis and proper ER folding activity. ..
  8. Kodali V, Thorpe C. Quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase from Trypanosoma brucei: catalytic activity and mechanism of a QSOX family member with a single thioredoxin domain. Biochemistry. 2010;49:2075-85 pubmed publisher
    ..In sum, the single-Trx domain QSOX studied here shows a striking similarity in enzymatic behavior to its double-Trx metazoan counterparts. ..
  9. Alon A, Heckler E, Thorpe C, Fass D. QSOX contains a pseudo-dimer of functional and degenerate sulfhydryl oxidase domains. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:1521-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In QSOX evolution, a further concatenation to a member of the protein disulfide isomerase family resulted in an enzyme capable of both disulfide formation and efficient transfer to substrate proteins. ..
  10. Dabir D, Leverich E, Kim S, Tsai F, Hirasawa M, Knaff D, et al. A role for cytochrome c and cytochrome c peroxidase in electron shuttling from Erv1. EMBO J. 2007;26:4801-11 pubmed
    ..By coupling these pathways, cytochrome c and Ccp1 function efficiently as Erv1-dependent electron acceptors. Thus, we propose that Erv1 utilizes diverse pathways for electron shuttling in the IMS. ..
  11. Sevier C. Erv2 and quiescin sulfhydryl oxidases: Erv-domain enzymes associated with the secretory pathway. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2012;16:800-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, determining when Erv2 and QSOX function during growth and development, and how changes in levels of active Erv2 and QSOX impact cell function, is necessary to facilitate a better understanding of these intriguing enzymes. ..
  12. Soloviev M, Esteves M, Amiri F, Crompton M, Rider C. Elevated transcription of the gene QSOX1 encoding quiescin Q6 sulfhydryl oxidase 1 in breast cancer. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e57327 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that QSOX1 is a potential new prognostic marker which may prove of use in the staging of breast tumours and the stratification of breast cancer patients. ..
  13. Kopriva S, Suter M, von Ballmoos P, Hesse H, Krähenbühl U, Rennenberg H, et al. Interaction of sulfate assimilation with carbon and nitrogen metabolism in Lemna minor. Plant Physiol. 2002;130:1406-13 pubmed
    ..These results corroborate the tight interconnection of sulfate, nitrate, and carbon assimilation. ..
  14. Nowak K, Luniak N, Witt C, Wüstefeld Y, Wachter A, Mendel R, et al. Peroxisomal localization of sulfite oxidase separates it from chloroplast-based sulfur assimilation. Plant Cell Physiol. 2004;45:1889-94 pubmed
    ..This conclusion is supported by expression studies in Pichia pastoris mutants with defined defects either in PTS1- or PTS2-mediated peroxisomal import. ..
  15. Farrell S, Thorpe C. Augmenter of liver regeneration: a flavin-dependent sulfhydryl oxidase with cytochrome c reductase activity. Biochemistry. 2005;44:1532-41 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that this poorly understood flavoenzyme may not function as a sulfhydryl oxidase within the mitochondrial intermembrane space but may communicate with the respiratory chain via the mediation of cytochrome c...
  16. Song H, Zhang B, Watson M, Humphrey P, Lim H, Milbrandt J. Loss of Nkx3.1 leads to the activation of discrete downstream target genes during prostate tumorigenesis. Oncogene. 2009;28:3307-19 pubmed publisher
    ..1 loss depend on the epithelial proliferative stage at which its expression is lost, and that alterations in the PTEN-AKT-NKX3.1 axis are important for prostate cancer initiation. ..
  17. Abskharon R, Ramboarina S, El Hassan H, Gad W, Apostol M, Giachin G, et al. A novel expression system for production of soluble prion proteins in E. coli. Microb Cell Fact. 2012;11:6 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the soluble recombinant PrP produced with this method can be used for functional and structural studies. ..
  18. Honsel A, Kojima M, Haas R, Frank W, Sakakibara H, Herschbach C, et al. Sulphur limitation and early sulphur deficiency responses in poplar: significance of gene expression, metabolites, and plant hormones. J Exp Bot. 2012;63:1873-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite these consequences, the impact of S depletion on growth of poplar plants appears to be less severe than in Brassicaceae such as Arabidopsis thaliana or Brassica sp...
  19. Bae S, Woo H, Sung S, Lee H, Lee S, Kil I, et al. Induction of sulfiredoxin via an Nrf2-dependent pathway and hyperoxidation of peroxiredoxin III in the lungs of mice exposed to hyperoxia. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2009;11:937-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Hyperoxia induced the degradation of Prx III in Nrf2-deficient mice but not in wild-type animals, suggesting that, in the absence of a sufficient amount of Srx, sulfinic Prx III is converted to a form that is susceptible to proteolysis. ..
  20. Stojanovski D, Milenkovic D, Müller J, Gabriel K, Schulze Specking A, Baker M, et al. Mitochondrial protein import: precursor oxidation in a ternary complex with disulfide carrier and sulfhydryl oxidase. J Cell Biol. 2008;183:195-202 pubmed publisher
  21. Roussel X, Béchade G, Kriznik A, Van Dorsselaer A, Sanglier Cianferani S, Branlant G, et al. Evidence for the formation of a covalent thiosulfinate intermediate with peroxiredoxin in the catalytic mechanism of sulfiredoxin. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:22371-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken altogether, our results strongly argue in favor of the formation of a covalent thiosulfinate peroxiredoxin-sulfiredoxin species as an intermediate on the catalytic pathway. ..
  22. Vauclare P, Kopriva S, Fell D, Suter M, Sticher L, von Ballmoos P, et al. Flux control of sulphate assimilation in Arabidopsis thaliana: adenosine 5'-phosphosulphate reductase is more susceptible than ATP sulphurylase to negative control by thiols. Plant J. 2002;31:729-40 pubmed
  23. Scheerer U, Haensch R, Mendel R, Kopriva S, Rennenberg H, Herschbach C. Sulphur flux through the sulphate assimilation pathway is differently controlled by adenosine 5'-phosphosulphate reductase under stress and in transgenic poplar plants overexpressing gamma-ECS, SO, or APR. J Exp Bot. 2010;61:609-22 pubmed publisher
    ..A possible loss of control under certain conditions, that is Cd treatment, Acetochlor treatment, and in APR overexpressing poplar, is discussed. ..
  24. Lionaki E, Aivaliotis M, Pozidis C, Tokatlidis K. The N-terminal shuttle domain of Erv1 determines the affinity for Mia40 and mediates electron transfer to the catalytic Erv1 core in yeast mitochondria. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2010;13:1327-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we reconstituted the system by adding in trans the N- and C- terminal domains of Erv1 together with its substrate Mia40. ..
  25. Wang L, Zhu L, Wang C. The endoplasmic reticulum sulfhydryl oxidase Ero1? drives efficient oxidative protein folding with loose regulation. Biochem J. 2011;434:113-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with Ero1?, however, Ero1? is loosely regulated, consistent with its role as a more active oxidase when massive oxidative power is required. ..
  26. Alejandro S, Rodriguez P, Bellés J, Yenush L, García Sanchez M, Fernandez J, et al. An Arabidopsis quiescin-sulfhydryl oxidase regulates cation homeostasis at the root symplast-xylem interface. EMBO J. 2007;26:3203-15 pubmed
    ..These results uncover QSOs as novel regulators of ion homeostasis. ..
  27. Araki K, Nagata K. Functional in vitro analysis of the ERO1 protein and protein-disulfide isomerase pathway. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:32705-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the results provide experimental evidence for the intramolecular electron transfer from the a domain to the a' domain within PDI during its oxidation by ERO1?. ..
  28. Tsai B, Rapoport T. Unfolded cholera toxin is transferred to the ER membrane and released from protein disulfide isomerase upon oxidation by Ero1. J Cell Biol. 2002;159:207-16 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results identify Ero1 as the enzyme mediating the release of unfolded CT from PDI and characterize an additional step in retrotranslocation of the toxin. ..
  29. Vitu E, Kim S, Sevier C, Lutzky O, Heldman N, Bentzur M, et al. Oxidative activity of yeast Ero1p on protein disulfide isomerase and related oxidoreductases of the endoplasmic reticulum. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:18155-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the amino-terminal domain of yeast Pdi1p is on a preferred pathway for oxidizing the ER thiol pool. Overall, our results provide a rank order for the tendency of yeast ER oxidoreductases to acquire disulfides from Ero1p. ..
  30. Kodali V, Thorpe C. Oxidative protein folding and the Quiescin-sulfhydryl oxidase family of flavoproteins. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2010;13:1217-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, limitations of our current understanding of disulfide generation in metazoans are identified and questions posed for the future. ..
  31. Hesse H, Nikiforova V, Gakiere B, Hoefgen R. Molecular analysis and control of cysteine biosynthesis: integration of nitrogen and sulphur metabolism. J Exp Bot. 2004;55:1283-92 pubmed
    ..Progress in this field has led to the cloning of genes that play pivotal roles in nutrient-induced changes in cysteine formation. ..
  32. Codding J, Israel B, Thorpe C. Protein substrate discrimination in the quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase (QSOX) family. Biochemistry. 2012;51:4226-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These aspects of protein substrate discrimination by QSOX family members are rationalized in terms of the stringent steric requirements for disulfide exchange reactions. ..
  33. Sauvé V, Bruno S, Berks B, Hemmings A. The SoxYZ complex carries sulfur cycle intermediates on a peptide swinging arm. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:23194-204 pubmed
    ..Adjacent to the swinging arm there is a conserved, deep, apolar pocket into which the beta-mercaptoethanol adduct extends. This pocket would be well suited to a role in protecting labile pathway intermediates from adventitious reactions...
  34. Tokatlidis K. A disulfide relay system in mitochondria. Cell. 2005;121:965-7 pubmed
    ..The new work clarifies the molecular function of Mia40 and reveals Mia40 to be the first physiological substrate for the FAD-linked Erv1. ..
  35. Gross E, Sevier C, Heldman N, Vitu E, Bentzur M, Kaiser C, et al. Generating disulfides enzymatically: reaction products and electron acceptors of the endoplasmic reticulum thiol oxidase Ero1p. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:299-304 pubmed
    ..These findings provide insight into mechanisms for regenerating oxidized Ero1p and maintaining disulfide bond formation under anaerobic conditions in the endoplasmic reticulum. ..
  36. Loy A, Küsel K, Lehner A, Drake H, Wagner M. Microarray and functional gene analyses of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes in low-sulfate, acidic fens reveal cooccurrence of recognized genera and novel lineages. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:6998-7009 pubmed
    ..These dsrAB sequences had no features indicative of pseudogenes and likely represent novel, deeply branching, sulfate- or sulfite-reducing prokaryotes that are specialized colonists of low-sulfate habitats. ..
  37. Limor Waisberg K, Alon A, Mehlman T, Fass D. Phylogenetics and enzymology of plant quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase. FEBS Lett. 2012;586:4119-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on this finding, further exploration into the respective roles of the redox-active sites in plant QSOX and the reason for their concatenation is warranted. ..
  38. Sevier C, Kaiser C. Disulfide transfer between two conserved cysteine pairs imparts selectivity to protein oxidation by Ero1. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:2256-66 pubmed
    ..The altered activity of these Ero1p mutants toward selected substrates leads us to propose the catalytic mechanism involving transfer between cysteine pairs evolved to impart substrate specificity to Ero1p. ..
  39. Otsu M, Bertoli G, Fagioli C, Guerini Rocco E, Nerini Molteni S, Ruffato E, et al. Dynamic retention of Ero1alpha and Ero1beta in the endoplasmic reticulum by interactions with PDI and ERp44. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2006;8:274-82 pubmed
    ..PDI also prevents Ero1 aggregation and dimerization, thus chaperoning its own oxidase. This dynamic retention mechanism of Ero1 may be important for fine-tuning the regulation of ER redox homeostasis and quality control. ..
  40. Hofhaus G, Lee J, Tews I, Rosenberg B, Lisowsky T. The N-terminal cysteine pair of yeast sulfhydryl oxidase Erv1p is essential for in vivo activity and interacts with the primary redox centre. Eur J Biochem. 2003;270:1528-35 pubmed
    ..Variations in dimer formation and unique colour changes of mutant proteins argue in favour of an interaction between the N-terminal cysteine pair with the redox centre of the partner monomer. ..
  41. Jönsson T, Murray M, Johnson L, Poole L, Lowther W. Structural basis for the retroreduction of inactivated peroxiredoxins by human sulfiredoxin. Biochemistry. 2005;44:8634-42 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the concave shape of the hSrx active site surface appears to be ideally suited to interacting with the convex surface of the toroidal Prx decamer. ..
  42. Urich T, Bandeiras T, Leal S, Rachel R, Albrecht T, Zimmermann P, et al. The sulphur oxygenase reductase from Acidianus ambivalens is a multimeric protein containing a low-potential mononuclear non-haem iron centre. Biochem J. 2004;381:137-46 pubmed
  43. Reddehase S, Grumbt B, Neupert W, Hell K. The disulfide relay system of mitochondria is required for the biogenesis of mitochondrial Ccs1 and Sod1. J Mol Biol. 2009;385:331-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the disulfide relay system is crucial for the import of Ccs1, thereby affecting the transport of Sod1, and it can control the distribution of Ccs1 and Sod1 between the IMS of mitochondria and the cytosol. ..
  44. Wittke I, Wiedemeyer R, Pillmann A, Savelyeva L, Westermann F, Schwab M. Neuroblastoma-derived sulfhydryl oxidase, a new member of the sulfhydryl oxidase/Quiescin6 family, regulates sensitization to interferon gamma-induced cell death in human neuroblastoma cells. Cancer Res. 2003;63:7742-52 pubmed
    ..In contrast, ectopic overexpression of sense-SOXN sensitizes the cells to induced cell death. These results identify SOXN as a major player in regulating the sensitization of neuroblastoma cells for IFN-gamma-induced apoptosis. ..
  45. Müller J, Milenkovic D, Guiard B, Pfanner N, Chacinska A. Precursor oxidation by Mia40 and Erv1 promotes vectorial transport of proteins into the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:226-36 pubmed
    ..Thus, oxidation driven by Mia40 and Erv1 determines vectorial transport of the precursors into the mitochondrial intermembrane space. ..
  46. Biteau B, Labarre J, Toledano M. ATP-dependent reduction of cysteine-sulphinic acid by S. cerevisiae sulphiredoxin. Nature. 2003;425:980-4 pubmed
    ..Sulphiredoxin is important for the antioxidant function of peroxiredoxins, and is likely to be involved in the repair of proteins containing cysteine-sulphinic acid modifications, and in signalling pathways involving protein oxidation. ..
  47. Bien M, Longen S, Wagener N, Chwalla I, Herrmann J, Riemer J. Mitochondrial disulfide bond formation is driven by intersubunit electron transfer in Erv1 and proofread by glutathione. Mol Cell. 2010;37:516-28 pubmed publisher
    ..The generation of these side products is efficiently counteracted by reduced glutathione. Thus, our findings suggest a role for a glutathione-dependent proofreading during oxidative protein folding by the mitochondrial disulfide relay. ..
  48. Ohkama N, Takei K, Sakakibara H, Hayashi H, Yoneyama T, Fujiwara T. Regulation of sulfur-responsive gene expression by exogenously applied cytokinins in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Physiol. 2002;43:1493-501 pubmed
  49. Chen Z, Liu Y, Wu J, She Q, Jiang C, Liu S. Novel bacterial sulfur oxygenase reductases from bioreactors treating gold-bearing concentrates. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007;74:688-98 pubmed
    ..strain SM-1. So far as we know, this is the first time to determine SOR activity originating from bacteria and to document SOR gene in bioleaching reactors and Acidithiobacillus species...
  50. Singh A, Ling G, Suhasini A, Zhang P, Yamamoto M, Navas Acien A, et al. Nrf2-dependent sulfiredoxin-1 expression protects against cigarette smoke-induced oxidative stress in lungs. Free Radic Biol Med. 2009;46:376-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Srx1, a key Nrf2-regulated gene, contributes to protection against oxidative injury in the lung. ..
  51. Antwi K, Hostetter G, Demeure M, Katchman B, Decker G, Ruiz Y, et al. Analysis of the plasma peptidome from pancreas cancer patients connects a peptide in plasma to overexpression of the parent protein in tumors. J Proteome Res. 2009;8:4722-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report of QSOX1 peptides in plasma from DAP patients and makes the rare connection between a peptide in plasma from cancer patients and overexpression of the parent protein in tumors. ..
  52. Mussmann M, Richter M, Lombardot T, Meyerdierks A, Kuever J, Kube M, et al. Clustered genes related to sulfate respiration in uncultured prokaryotes support the theory of their concomitant horizontal transfer. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:7126-37 pubmed
    ..The acquisition of an optimized gene set would enormously facilitate a successful implementation of a novel pathway. ..
  53. Koralewska A, Buchner P, Stuiver C, Posthumus F, Kopriva S, Hawkesford M, et al. Expression and activity of sulfate transporters and APS reductase in curly kale in response to sulfate deprivation and re-supply. J Plant Physiol. 2009;166:168-79 pubmed publisher