nitrate reductases


Summary: Oxidoreductases that are specific for the reduction of NITRATES.

Top Publications

  1. Rockel P, Strube F, Rockel A, Wildt J, Kaiser W. Regulation of nitric oxide (NO) production by plant nitrate reductase in vivo and in vitro. J Exp Bot. 2002;53:103-10 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that in non-elicited leaves NO is produced in variable quantities by NR depending on the total NR activity, the NR activation state and the cytosolic nitrite and nitrate concentration. ..
  2. Martinez Espinosa R, Dridge E, Bonete M, Butt J, Butler C, Sargent F, et al. Look on the positive side! The orientation, identification and bioenergetics of 'Archaeal' membrane-bound nitrate reductases. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007;276:129-39 pubmed publisher
    ..These 'Archaeal' type of nitrate reductases are part of a group of molybdoenzymes with an 'RR' motif that are predicted to have an aspartate ligand to ..
  3. Lamberg K, Kiley P. FNR-dependent activation of the class II dmsA and narG promoters of Escherichia coli requires FNR-activating regions 1 and 3. Mol Microbiol. 2000;38:817-27 pubmed
  4. Richardson D, Berks B, Russell D, Spiro S, Taylor C. Functional, biochemical and genetic diversity of prokaryotic nitrate reductases. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2001;58:165-78 pubmed
    ..can serve a number of physiological roles and can be catalysed by a number of biochemically distinct nitrate reductases. Three distinct nitrate reductase classes can be indentified in prokaryotes, NAS, NAR and NAP...
  5. Siverio J. Assimilation of nitrate by yeasts. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2002;26:277-84 pubmed
    ..In this article the current state of the studies of nitrate assimilation in yeasts as well as possible venues for future research are reviewed. ..
  6. Muro Pastor M, Strauss J, Ramon A, Scazzocchio C. A paradoxical mutant GATA factor. Eukaryot Cell. 2004;3:393-405 pubmed
    ..The in vivo methylation pattern of the promoter is drastically altered, suggesting the recruitment of one or more unknown transcription factors and/or a local distortion on the DNA double helix. ..
  7. Stitt M, Müller C, Matt P, Gibon Y, Carillo P, Morcuende R, et al. Steps towards an integrated view of nitrogen metabolism. J Exp Bot. 2002;53:959-70 pubmed
    ..Consequently, wild-type plants growing in unfavourable light regimes and antisense RBCS transformants are simultaneously carbon- and nitrogen-limited. ..
  8. Biaso F, Burlat B, Guigliarelli B. DFT investigation of the molybdenum cofactor in periplasmic nitrate reductases: structure of the Mo(V) EPR-active species. Inorg Chem. 2012;51:3409-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Beyond the periplasmic nitrate reductase case, this work provides useful magneto-structural correlations to characterize EPR-detected species in mononuclear molybdoenzymes. ..
  9. Stöhr C, Stremlau S. Formation and possible roles of nitric oxide in plant roots. J Exp Bot. 2006;57:463-70 pubmed

More Information


  1. Jepson B, Marietou A, Mohan S, Cole J, Butler C, Richardson D. Evolution of the soluble nitrate reductase: defining the monomeric periplasmic nitrate reductase subgroup. Biochem Soc Trans. 2006;34:122-6 pubmed
    Bacterial nitrate reductases can be classified into at least three groups according to their localization and function, namely membrane-bound (NAR) or periplasmic (NAP) respiratory and cytoplasmic assimilatory (NAS) enzymes...
  2. Meakin G, Bueno E, Jepson B, Bedmar E, Richardson D, Delgado M. The contribution of bacteroidal nitrate and nitrite reduction to the formation of nitrosylleghaemoglobin complexes in soybean root nodules. Microbiology. 2007;153:411-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to Nap, NirK is not essential for LbNO formation under any condition tested...
  3. Campbell W. Structure and function of eukaryotic NAD(P)H:nitrate reductase. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2001;58:194-204 pubmed
    Pyridine nucleotide-dependent nitrate reductases (NRs; EC are molybdenum-containing enzymes found in eukaryotic organisms which assimilate nitrate...
  4. Allen A, Booth M, Frischer M, Verity P, Zehr J, Zani S. Diversity and detection of nitrate assimilation genes in marine bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2001;67:5343-8 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that several groups of heterotrophic bacterial nasA genes are common and widely distributed in oceanic environments. ..
  5. Gates A, Hughes R, Sharp S, Millington P, Nilavongse A, Cole J, et al. Properties of the periplasmic nitrate reductases from Paracoccus pantotrophus and Escherichia coli after growth in tungsten-supplemented media. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2003;220:261-9 pubmed
    ..coli NapA. The combined data show that tungsten can function at the active site of some, but not all, molybdoenzymes from mesophilic bacteria...
  6. Horchani F, Pr vot M, Boscari A, Evangelisti E, Meilhoc E, Bruand C, et al. Both plant and bacterial nitrate reductases contribute to nitric oxide production in Medicago truncatula nitrogen-fixing nodules. Plant Physiol. 2011;155:1023-36 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose the existence of a nitrate-NO respiration process in nodules that could play a role in the maintenance of the energy status required for nitrogen fixation under oxygen-limiting conditions...
  7. Hartsock A, Shapleigh J. Physiological roles for two periplasmic nitrate reductases in Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.3 (ATCC 17025). J Bacteriol. 2011;193:6483-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that one of the nitrate reductases is specific for respiration and denitrification while the other likely plays a role in redox homeostasis ..
  8. Chen Y, Wang F, Xu J, Mehmood M, Xiao X. Physiological and evolutionary studies of NAP systems in Shewanella piezotolerans WP3. ISME J. 2011;5:843-55 pubmed publisher
    Most of the Shewanella species contain two periplasmic nitrate reductases (NAP-? and NAP-?), which is a unique feature of this genus...
  9. Sabaty M, Avazeri C, Pignol D, Vermeglio A. Characterization of the reduction of selenate and tellurite by nitrate reductases. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2001;67:5122-6 pubmed
    ..showed that the periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap) of Rhodobacter sphaeroides and the membrane-bound nitrate reductases of Escherichia coli are able to reduce selenate and tellurite in vitro with benzyl viologen as an electron ..
  10. Sparacino Watkins C, Stolz J, Basu P. Nitrate and periplasmic nitrate reductases. Chem Soc Rev. 2014;43:676-706 pubmed publisher
    ..Many bacteria readily reduce nitrate to nitrite via nitrate reductases. Classified into three distinct types--periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap), respiratory nitrate reductase (..
  11. Maier T, Myers C. Isolation and characterization of a Shewanella putrefaciens MR-1 electron transport regulator etrA mutant: reassessment of the role of EtrA. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:4918-26 pubmed
    ..Molecular analysis of METR-1 indicated that its etrA gene is not interrupted; its reported phenotype was likely due to the use of inappropriate anaerobic growth conditions...
  12. Stewart V, Bledsoe P, Williams S. Dual overlapping promoters control napF (periplasmic nitrate reductase) operon expression in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:5862-70 pubmed
    ..5 with respect to the transcription initiation site, working in conjunction with the phospho-NarP protein bound to a site centered at -44.5. ..
  13. Muro Pastor M, Gonzalez R, Strauss J, Narendja F, Scazzocchio C. The GATA factor AreA is essential for chromatin remodelling in a eukaryotic bidirectional promoter. EMBO J. 1999;18:1584-97 pubmed
    ..The results presented cast doubts on the role of NirA as the unique transducer of the nitrate induction signal. We demonstrate, for the first time in vivo, that a GATA factor is involved directly in chromatin remodelling. ..
  14. Bonnefoy V, DeMoss J. Nitrate reductases in Escherichia coli. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 1994;66:47-56 pubmed
    Escherichia coli expresses two different membrane-bound respiratory nitrate reductases, nitrate reductase A (NRA) and nitrate reductase Z (NRZ)...
  15. Blasco F, Iobbi C, Ratouchniak J, Bonnefoy V, Chippaux M. Nitrate reductases of Escherichia coli: sequence of the second nitrate reductase and comparison with that encoded by the narGHJI operon. Mol Gen Genet. 1990;222:104-11 pubmed
    ..This might explain why the narZYWV and the narGHJI operons are regulated differently. Our results tend to support the hypothesis that a DNA fragment larger than that encompassing the narGHJI genes has been duplicated. ..
  16. Hawker K, Montague P, Kinghorn J. Nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase transcript levels in various mutants of Aspergillus nidulans: confirmation of autogenous regulation. Mol Gen Genet. 1992;231:485-8 pubmed
  17. Blasco F, Nunzi F, Pommier J, Brasseur R, Chippaux M, Giordano G. Formation of active heterologous nitrate reductases between nitrate reductases A and Z of Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1992;6:209-19 pubmed
    Two nitrate reductases, NRA and NRZ, are present in Escherichia coli. These isoenzymes have the same alpha beta gamma, subunits composition and have similar size and genetic organization...
  18. Punt P, Strauss J, Smit R, Kinghorn J, van den Hondel C, Scazzocchio C. The intergenic region between the divergently transcribed niiA and niaD genes of Aspergillus nidulans contains multiple NirA binding sites which act bidirectionally. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:5688-99 pubmed
    ..The insertion of an unrelated upstream activating sequence into the intergenic region strongly affected the expression of both genes, irrespective of the orientation in which the element was inserted. ..
  19. Kirstein K, Bock E. Close genetic relationship between Nitrobacter hamburgensis nitrite oxidoreductase and Escherichia coli nitrate reductases. Arch Microbiol. 1993;160:447-53 pubmed
    ..NorB shares significant sequence similarity to the beta-subunits (NarH, NarY) of the two dissimilatory nitrate reductases (NRA, NRZ) of Escherichia coli...
  20. Richardson D, Watmough N. Inorganic nitrogen metabolism in bacteria. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 1999;3:207-19 pubmed
    ..In the case of the nitrate reductases and nitric oxide reductase, models for structure and catalysis can be designed, based on new structural ..
  21. Wilkinson J, Crawford N. Identification and characterization of a chlorate-resistant mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana with mutations in both nitrate reductase structural genes NIA1 and NIA2. Mol Gen Genet. 1993;239:289-97 pubmed
    ..These results show that the NIA1 gene encodes a functional NR protein that contributes to the assimilation of nitrate in Arabidopsis. ..
  22. Doel J, Hector M, Amirtham C, Al Anzan L, Benjamin N, Allaker R. Protective effect of salivary nitrate and microbial nitrate reductase activity against caries. Eur J Oral Sci. 2004;112:424-8 pubmed
    ..Production of nitrite from salivary nitrate by commensal nitrate-reducing bacteria may limit the growth of cariogenic bacteria as a result of the production of antimicrobial oxides of nitrogen, including nitric oxide. ..
  23. Brondijk T, Nilavongse A, Filenko N, Richardson D, Cole J. NapGH components of the periplasmic nitrate reductase of Escherichia coli K-12: location, topology and physiological roles in quinol oxidation and redox balancing. Biochem J. 2004;379:47-55 pubmed
    ..These new in vivo and in vitro results establish that NapG and NapH form a quinol dehydrogenase that couples electron transfer from the high midpoint redox potential ubiquinone-ubiquinol couple via NapC and NapB to NapA. ..
  24. Komarova V, Genshpring E, Temkin E, Khramov V. [Oral fluid nitrate reductase complex activity in teenagers dependent on oral hygiene level and DMFT-index]. Stomatologiia (Mosk). 2005;84:21-2 pubmed
    ..It is possible to estimate objectively a condition of a oral cavity due to nitratereductase complex activity. ..
  25. Hao L, Xu X, Cao J. [Response of an Arabidopsis mutant to elevated CO2 concentration]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2003;14:2359-60 pubmed
    ..The results provided evidence of plant response to the changes of atmospheric CO2 concentration, and the clues to related studies on other plants. ..
  26. Camacho M, Burgos A, Chamber Pérez M. Nitrogen fixation in transposon mutants from Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110 impaired in nitrate reductase. J Plant Physiol. 2003;160:377-86 pubmed
    ..These observations may suggest that some of the energy supplied to bacteroids was wasted by its constitutive NRA. ..
  27. Youngblut M, Pauly D, Stein N, Walters D, Conrad J, Moran G, et al. Shewanella oneidensis cytochrome c nitrite reductase (ccNiR) does not disproportionate hydroxylamine to ammonia and nitrite, despite a strongly favorable driving force. Biochemistry. 2014;53:2136-44 pubmed publisher
  28. Sandu C, Brandsch R. Functional analysis of the Escherichia coli molybdopterin cofactor biosynthesis protein MoeA by site-directed mutagenesis. Biol Chem. 2002;383:319-23 pubmed
    ..The effects of the amino acid replacements on MoeA function may be explained in correlation with the MoeA crystal structure. ..
  29. Butler C, Fairhurst S, Ferguson S, Thomson A, Berks B, Richardson D, et al. Mo(V) co-ordination in the periplasmic nitrate reductase from Paracoccus pantotrophus probed by electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy. Biochem J. 2002;363:817-23 pubmed
    ..The anisotropy of this feature, determined from ENDOR spectra collected at a range of field positions, indicated a Mo-proton distance of approx. 3.2 A, consistent with this being one of the beta-methylene protons of a Mo-Cys ligand. ..
  30. Amey R, Athey Pollard A, Mills P, Foster G, Bailey A. Investigations into the taxonomy of the mushroom pathogen Verticillium fungicola and its relatives based on sequence analysis of nitrate reductase and ITS regions. Mikrobiologiia. 2007;76:853-64 pubmed
  31. Wienkoop S, Schlichting R, Ullrich W, Stohr C. Different diurnal cycles of expression of two nitrate reductase transcripts in tobacco roots. Protoplasma. 2001;217:15-9 pubmed
    ..1 kb and 1.8 kb transcripts in roots was differently regulated during the day-night cycle with the maximum amount of the 3.1 kb transcript in the middle and of the 1.8 kb transcript at the end of the light period. ..
  32. Poonnachit U, Darnell R. Effect of ammonium and nitrate on ferric chelate reductase and nitrate reductase in Vaccinium species. Ann Bot. 2004;93:399-405 pubmed
    ..This broader soil adaptation in V. arboreum may be related to increased efficiency of iron or nitrate uptake compared with the cultivated Vaccinium species...
  33. Chow F, de Oliveira M, Pedersen M. In vitro assay and light regulation of nitrate reductase in red alga Gracilaria chilensis. J Plant Physiol. 2004;161:769-76 pubmed
    ..Light pulses lasting 10 or 60 min during the darkness increased the NR activity by 30% and 45%, respectively. The results indicate that NR and photosynthesis are regulated mainly by light and not by a biological clock. ..
  34. Angove H, Cole J, Richardson D, Butt J. Protein film voltammetry reveals distinctive fingerprints of nitrite and hydroxylamine reduction by a cytochrome C nitrite reductase. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:23374-81 pubmed
    ..These features are consistent with coordinated two-electron reduction of the active site and suggest that the mechanisms for reduction of both substrates are underpinned by common rate-defining processes...
  35. Saxena R, Pandey P, Bisen P. Physiological and biochemical alterations in Anabaena 7120 under iron stress. Indian J Exp Biol. 2002;40:594-9 pubmed
    ..Glutamine synthetase activity was less sensitivity as compared to nitrate reductase activity under Fe3+ stress. ATPase (Mg2+ and Ca2+ dependent) always showed higher level with increasing Fe3+ concentration. ..
  36. Doel J, Benjamin N, Hector M, Rogers M, Allaker R. Evaluation of bacterial nitrate reduction in the human oral cavity. Eur J Oral Sci. 2005;113:14-9 pubmed
    ..mucilaginosa > R. dentocariosa > V. dispar > V. atypica. In conclusion, Veillonella spp. were found to be the most prevalent taxa isolated and thus may make a major contribution to nitrate reduction in the oral cavity. ..
  37. Andreoni V, Bernasconi S, Colombo M, van Beilen J, Cavalca L. Detection of genes for alkane and naphthalene catabolism in Rhodococcus sp. strain 1BN. Environ Microbiol. 2000;2:572-7 pubmed
    ..The oxidation of indene to cis-(1S,2R)-1,2-dihydroxyindan by toluene-induced cells allows to hypothesize that strain 1BN also carries a toluene dioxygenase-like system. ..
  38. Buchanan G, Kuper J, Mendel R, Schwarz G, Palmer T. Characterisation of the mob locus of Rhodobacter sphaeroides WS8: mobA is the only gene required for molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide synthesis. Arch Microbiol. 2001;176:62-8 pubmed
    ..In the mobA mutant strain, the inactive DMSO reductase is found in the periplasm, suggesting that molybdenum cofactor insertion is not necessarily a pre-requisite for export. ..
  39. Perdomo G, Navarro F, Medina B, Machin F, Tejera P, Siverio J. Tobacco Nia2 cDNA functionally complements a Hansenula polymorpha yeast mutant lacking nitrate reductase. A new expression system for the study of plant proteins involved in nitrate assimilation. Plant Mol Biol. 2002;50:405-13 pubmed
    ..polymorpha by phosphorylation and binding of 14-3-3-like proteins. These results show that H. polymorpha is a useful yeast heterologous expression system for studying plant proteins involved in nitrate assimilation. ..
  40. Darnell R, Stutte G. Nitrate concentration effects on NO3-N uptake and reduction, growth, and fruit yield in strawberry. J Am Soc Hortic Sci. 2001;126:560-3 pubmed
  41. Rodrigues M, Scott K, Sansom M, Pereira I, Archer M. Quinol oxidation by c-type cytochromes: structural characterization of the menaquinol binding site of NrfHA. J Mol Biol. 2008;381:341-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The data presented here provide the first characterization of the quinol binding site of the cytochrome c quinol dehydrogenase family. ..
  42. Klimek M, Lejczak B, Kafarski P, Forlani G. Metabolism of the phosphonate herbicide glyphosate by a non-nitrate-utilizing strain of Penicillium chrysogenum. Pest Manag Sci. 2001;57:815-21 pubmed
    ..Herbicide metabolism was strongly reduced when other sources of organic nitrogen were made available. ..
  43. Millar L, Heck I, Sloan J, Kana n G, Kinghorn J, Unkles S. Deletion of the cnxE gene encoding the gephyrin-like protein involved in the final stages of molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis in Aspergillus nidulans. Mol Genet Genomics. 2001;266:445-53 pubmed
    ..e. in the synthesis of molybdopterin from precursor Z), as has been suggested previously for E. coli MoeA. The 2.5-kb cnxE transcript is not abundant and appears to be expressed constitutively. ..
  44. Kang R, Shi D, Cong W, Cai Z, Ouyang F. Regulation of CO on heterocyst differentiation and nitrate uptake in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. J Appl Microbiol. 2005;98:693-8 pubmed
    ..This study provided an attractive possibility to form more heterocysts by rapid growth of Anabaena cells cultivated in the medium containing nitrate in order to increase nitrogen fixation and hydrogen production. ..
  45. Djennane S, Chauvin J, Quilleré I, Meyer C, Chupeau Y. Introduction and expression of a deregulated tobacco nitrate reductase gene in potato lead to highly reduced nitrate levels in transgenic tubers. Transgenic Res. 2002;11:175-84 pubmed
    ..Two methods of nitrate content determination in tubers were also compared and were found to give similar results. ..
  46. Pereira J, de Queiroz M, Lopes F, Rocha R, Daboussi M, de Araújo E. Characterization, regulation, and phylogenetic analyses of the Penicillium griseoroseum nitrate reductase gene and its use as selection marker for homologous transformation. Can J Microbiol. 2004;50:891-900 pubmed
    ..The establishment of this homologous transformation system is an essential step for the improvement of pectinase production in Penicillium griseoroseum. ..
  47. Persson J, Näsholm T. Regulation of amino acid uptake in conifers by exogenous and endogenous nitrogen. Planta. 2002;215:639-44 pubmed
    ..The up-regulation of uptake in response to N deficiency suggests that amino acid uptake may be a significant contributor to the N economy of P. sylvestris. ..
  48. Rodrigues M, Oliveira T, Matias P, Martins I, Valente F, Pereira I, et al. Crystallization and preliminary structure determination of the membrane-bound complex cytochrome c nitrite reductase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2006;62:565-8 pubmed
    ..5, b = 256.7, c = 578.2 A. Molecular-replacement and MAD methods were combined to solve the structure. The data presented reveal that D. vulgaris cNiR contains one NrfH subunit per NrfA dimer...
  49. Zhao Z, Rothery R, Weiner J. Transient kinetic studies of heme reduction in Escherichia coli nitrate reductase A (NarGHI) by menaquinol. Biochemistry. 2003;42:5403-13 pubmed
    ..HOQNO elicits a much stronger inhibitory effect than stigmatellin on the reoxidation of the hemes. On the basis of our results, we propose schemes for the mechanism of NarGHI reduction by menaquinol and reoxidation by nitrate. ..
  50. Morozkina E, Kurakov A, Nosikov A, Sapova E, L vov N. [Properties of nitrate reductase from Fusarium oxysporum 11dn1 fungi grown under aerobic and anaerobic conditions]. Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol. 2005;41:292-7 pubmed
    ..grown under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, showed that this enzyme belongs to molybdenum-containing nitrate reductases. The enzymes under study differed in the molecular weight, temperature optimum, and other properties...
  51. Tsementzi D, Wu J, Deutsch S, Nath S, Rodriguez R L, Burns A, et al. SAR11 bacteria linked to ocean anoxia and nitrogen loss. Nature. 2016;536:179-83 pubmed
    ..uncharacterized SAR11 lineages with adaptations for life without oxygen, including genes for respiratory nitrate reductases (Nar)...
  52. Patton C, Fischer A, Campbell W, Campbell E. Corn leaf nitrate reductase--a nontoxic alternative to cadmium for photometric nitrate determinations in water samples by air-segmented continuous-flow analysis. Environ Sci Technol. 2002;36:729-35 pubmed
    ..The difference between the means of nitrate + nitrite concentrations in 124 natural-water samples determined simultaneously bythe two methods was not significantly different from zero at the p = 0.05 level. ..
  53. Zhao C, Cai S, Wang Y, Chen Z. Loss of nitrate reductases NIA1 and NIA2 impairs stomatal closure by altering genes of core ABA signaling components in Arabidopsis. Plant Signal Behav. 2016;11:e1183088 pubmed publisher
    b>Nitrate reductases NIA1 and NIA2 determine NO production in plants and are critical to abscisic acid (ABA)-induced stomatal closure...