nitrogenase

Summary

Summary: An enzyme system that catalyzes the fixing of nitrogen in soil bacteria and blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA). EC 1.18.6.1.

Top Publications

  1. Tremblay P, Hallenbeck P. Ammonia-induced formation of an AmtB-GlnK complex is not sufficient for nitrogenase regulation in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:1588-94 pubmed
    ..were created and assessed for effects on ammonia transport, formation of AmtB-GlnK complexes, and regulation of nitrogenase activity and NifH ADP-ribosylation...
  2. Elliott G, Chen W, Chou J, Wang H, Sheu S, Perin L, et al. Burkholderia phymatum is a highly effective nitrogen-fixing symbiont of Mimosa spp. and fixes nitrogen ex planta. New Phytol. 2007;173:168-80 pubmed
    ..Both strains were equally effective symbionts of M. pudica, but nodules formed by STM815 had greater nitrogenase activity...
  3. Kastner J, Blöchl P. Ammonia production at the FeMo cofactor of nitrogenase: results from density functional theory. J Am Chem Soc. 2007;129:2998-3006 pubmed
    ..fixation has been investigated beginning with the monoprotonated dinitrogen bound to the FeMo cofactor of nitrogenase up to the formation of the two ammonia molecules...
  4. Severin I, Stal L. NifH expression by five groups of phototrophs compared with nitrogenase activity in coastal microbial mats. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2010;73:55-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Daily nifH expression patterns were compared with the actual nitrogenase activity (NA) of the entire mat community. Lyngbya sp...
  5. BETANCOURT D, Loveless T, Brown J, Bishop P. Characterization of diazotrophs containing Mo-independent nitrogenases, isolated from diverse natural environments. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:3471-80 pubmed publisher
    ..and Paenibacillus spp., respectively. PCR and/or Southern hybridization were used to detect the presence of nitrogenase genes in the isolates...
  6. Boison G, Steingen C, Stal L, Bothe H. The rice field cyanobacteria Anabaena azotica and Anabaena sp. CH1 express vanadium-dependent nitrogenase. Arch Microbiol. 2006;186:367-76 pubmed
    ..CH1, heterocystous cyanobacteria isolated from Chinese and Taiwanese rice fields, expressed vanadium-containing nitrogenase when under molybdenum deficiency...
  7. Yan Y, Ping S, Peng J, Han Y, Li L, Yang J, et al. Global transcriptional analysis of nitrogen fixation and ammonium repression in root-associated Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:11 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the regulatory cascades that control the transcription of the nif genes in proteobacteria have been well investigated, there are limited data on the kinetics of ammonium-dependent repression of nitrogen fixation...
  8. Skizim N, Ananyev G, Krishnan A, Dismukes G. Metabolic pathways for photobiological hydrogen production by nitrogenase- and hydrogenase-containing unicellular cyanobacteria Cyanothece. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:2777-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Photo-H(2) is shown to occur via nitrogenase and requires illumination of PSI, whereas production of O(2) by co-illumination of PSII is inhibitory to ..
  9. Fedorov D, Ivanova E, Doronina N, Trotsenko I. [A new system of degenerate-oligonucleotide primers for detection and amplification of nifHD genes]. Mikrobiologiia. 2008;77:286-8 pubmed

More Information

Publications62

  1. Sarma R, Barney B, Hamilton T, Jones A, Seefeldt L, Peters J. Crystal structure of the L protein of Rhodobacter sphaeroides light-independent protochlorophyllide reductase with MgADP bound: a homologue of the nitrogenase Fe protein. Biochemistry. 2008;47:13004-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The DPOR component proteins share significant overall similarities with the nitrogenase Fe protein (NifH) and the MoFe (NifDK) protein, the enzyme system responsible for reduction of dinitrogen to ..
  2. Oda Y, Samanta S, Rey F, Wu L, Liu X, Yan T, et al. Functional genomic analysis of three nitrogenase isozymes in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:7784-94 pubmed
    ..cofactor (V) and iron cofactor (Fe) nitrogenases in addition to nif genes for a molybdenum cofactor (Mo) nitrogenase. Transcriptome data indicated that the 32 genes in the nif gene cluster, but not the anf or vnf genes, were ..
  3. Zhang T, Yan Y, He S, Ping S, Alam K, Han Y, et al. Involvement of the ammonium transporter AmtB in nitrogenase regulation and ammonium excretion in Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501. Res Microbiol. 2012;163:332-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Nitrogenase activity was repressed in wild-type strain A1501 in response to the addition of ammonium, but nitrogenase ..
  4. Howard J, Kechris K, Rees D, Glazer A. Multiple amino acid sequence alignment nitrogenase component 1: insights into phylogenetics and structure-function relationships. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e72751 pubmed publisher
    ..Invariant and single variant residues were identified and were defined as "core" for nitrogenase function...
  5. Ungerer J, Pratte B, Thiel T. RNA processing of nitrogenase transcripts in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:3311-20 pubmed publisher
    Little is known about the regulation of nitrogenase genes in cyanobacteria...
  6. Ariosa Y, Carrasco D, Quesada A, Fernández Valiente E. Incorporation of different N sources and light response curves of nitrogenase and photosynthesis by cyanobacterial blooms from rice fields. Microb Ecol. 2006;51:394-403 pubmed
    ..in the rice fields of Valencia (Spain) during the crop cycles of 1999 and 2000, and evaluate the response of nitrogenase and C assimilation activities to changing irradiances...
  7. Sherman L, Min H, Toepel J, Pakrasi H. Better living through cyanothece - unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria with highly versatile metabolic systems. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010;675:275-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Cyanothece strains produce copious amounts of H(2) under different types of physiological conditions. Nitrogenase produces far more H(2) than the hydrogenase, in part because the nitrogenase levels are extremely high under N(..
  8. Alquéres S, Oliveira J, Nogueira E, Guedes H, Oliveira P, Câmara F, et al. Antioxidant pathways are up-regulated during biological nitrogen fixation to prevent ROS-induced nitrogenase inhibition in Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus. Arch Microbiol. 2010;192:835-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This process is catalyzed by nitrogenase and requires copious amounts of ATP...
  9. Lee H, Igarashi R, Laryukhin M, Doan P, Dos Santos P, Dean D, et al. An organometallic intermediate during alkyne reduction by nitrogenase. J Am Chem Soc. 2004;126:9563-9 pubmed
    b>Nitrogenase is the metalloenzyme that catalyzes the nucleotide-dependent reduction of N(2), as well as reduction of a variety of other triply bonded substrates, including the alkyne, acetylene...
  10. Fay A, Hu Y, Schmid B, Ribbe M. Molecular insights into nitrogenase FeMoco insertion--the role of His 274 and His 451 of MoFe protein alpha subunit. J Inorg Biochem. 2007;101:1630-41 pubmed
    ..assembly involves the insertion of FeMoco into its binding site in the molybdenum-iron (MoFe) protein of nitrogenase. Here we examine the role of His alpha274 and His alpha451 of Azotobacter vinelandii MoFe protein in this ..
  11. Curatti L, Hernandez J, Igarashi R, Soboh B, Zhao D, Rubio L. In vitro synthesis of the iron-molybdenum cofactor of nitrogenase from iron, sulfur, molybdenum, and homocitrate using purified proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:17626-31 pubmed
    ..Most of the biological nitrogen fixation is catalyzed by the molybdenum nitrogenase, which contains at its active site one of the most complex metal cofactors known to date, the iron-molybdenum ..
  12. Fisher K, Lowe D, Tavares P, Pereira A, Huynh B, Edmondson D, et al. Conformations generated during turnover of the Azotobacter vinelandii nitrogenase MoFe protein and their relationship to physiological function. J Inorg Biochem. 2007;101:1649-56 pubmed
    Various S=3/2 EPR signals elicited from wild-type and variant Azotobacter vinelandii nitrogenase MoFe proteins appear to reflect different conformations assumed by the FeMo-cofactor with different protonation states...
  13. Hu Y, Lee C, Ribbe M. Vanadium nitrogenase: a two-hit wonder?. Dalton Trans. 2012;41:1118-27 pubmed publisher
    b>Nitrogenase catalyzes the biological conversion of atmospheric dinitrogen to bioavailable ammonia. The molybdenum (Mo)- and vanadium (V)-dependent nitrogenases are two homologous members of this metalloenzyme family...
  14. Turk K, Rees A, Zehr J, Pereira N, Swift P, Shelley R, et al. Nitrogen fixation and nitrogenase (nifH) expression in tropical waters of the eastern North Atlantic. ISME J. 2011;5:1201-12 pubmed publisher
  15. Bandyopadhyay A, Stöckel J, Min H, Sherman L, Pakrasi H. High rates of photobiological H2 production by a cyanobacterium under aerobic conditions. Nat Commun. 2010;1:139 pubmed publisher
    ..Hydrogen can be produced by certain groups of microorganisms that possess functional nitrogenase and/or bidirectional hydrogenases...
  16. Tremblay P, Drepper T, Masepohl B, Hallenbeck P. Membrane sequestration of PII proteins and nitrogenase regulation in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:5850-9 pubmed
    Both Rhodobacter capsulatus PII homologs GlnB and GlnK were found to be necessary for the proper regulation of nitrogenase activity and modification in response to an ammonium shock...
  17. Scott T, Berlinguette C, Holm R, Zhou H. Initial synthesis and structure of an all-ferrous analogue of the fully reduced [Fe4S4]0 cluster of the nitrogenase iron protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:9741-4 pubmed
    ..Recent work on the Fe protein of Azotobacter vinelandii nitrogenase has demonstrated the formation of the all-ferrous state upon reaction with a strong reductant...
  18. Holmes D, Nevin K, Lovley D. In situ expression of nifD in Geobacteraceae in subsurface sediments. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:7251-9 pubmed
  19. Igarashi R, Laryukhin M, Dos Santos P, Lee H, Dean D, Seefeldt L, et al. Trapping H- bound to the nitrogenase FeMo-cofactor active site during H2 evolution: characterization by ENDOR spectroscopy. J Am Chem Soc. 2005;127:6231-41 pubmed
    We here show that the iron-molybdenum (FeMo)-cofactor of the nitrogenase alpha-70(Ile) molybdenum-iron (MoFe) protein variant accumulates a novel S = (1)/(2) state that can be trapped during the reduction of protons to H(2)...
  20. Temme K, Zhao D, Voigt C. Refactoring the nitrogen fixation gene cluster from Klebsiella oxytoca. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:7085-90 pubmed publisher
    ..This work demonstrates the potential for synthetic biology tools to rewrite the genetics encoding complex biological functions to facilitate access, engineering, and transferability...
  21. Masukawa H, Inoue K, Sakurai H, Wolk C, Hausinger R. Site-directed mutagenesis of the Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 nitrogenase active site to increase photobiological hydrogen production. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:6741-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Photobiological H? arises primarily as an inevitable by-product of N? fixation by nitrogenase, an oxygen-labile enzyme typically containing an iron-molybdenum cofactor (FeMo-co) active site. In Anabaena sp...
  22. Fischinger S, Schulze J. The argon-induced decline in nitrogenase activity commences before the beginning of a decline in nodule oxygen uptake. J Plant Physiol. 2010;167:1112-5 pubmed publisher
    Replacement of N(2) by argon in the air around nodules directs nitrogenase electron flow in its total onto H(+) resulting in increased nodule H(2) evolution (total nitrogenase activity (TNA))...
  23. Glazer A, Kechris K. Conserved amino acid sequence features in the alpha subunits of MoFe, VFe, and FeFe nitrogenases. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6136 pubmed publisher
    ..the four groups discussed above that would give indications of an evolutionary pathway leading from one type of nitrogenase to another...
  24. Hernandez J, Curatti L, Aznar C, Perova Z, Britt R, Rubio L. Metal trafficking for nitrogen fixation: NifQ donates molybdenum to NifEN/NifH for the biosynthesis of the nitrogenase FeMo-cofactor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:11679-84 pubmed publisher
    The molybdenum nitrogenase, present in a diverse group of bacteria and archea, is the major contributor to biological nitrogen fixation...
  25. Severin I, Stal L. Light dependency of nitrogen fixation in a coastal cyanobacterial mat. ISME J. 2008;2:1077-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Light-response curves of nitrogenase activity yielded a variety of physiological parameters that changed during a day-night cycle...
  26. Dos Santos P, Fang Z, Mason S, Setubal J, Dixon R. Distribution of nitrogen fixation and nitrogenase-like sequences amongst microbial genomes. BMC Genomics. 2012;13:162 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analyses also identified protein sequences that are similar to nitrogenase in organisms that do not meet the minimum-gene-set criteria...
  27. Edgren T, Nordlund S. Two pathways of electron transport to nitrogenase in Rhodospirillum rubrum: the major pathway is dependent on the fix gene products. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2006;260:30-5 pubmed
    In the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum, as in many other diazotrophs, electron transport to nitrogenase has not been characterized in great detail. In this study, we show that there are two pathways operating in R. rubrum...
  28. Alberty R. Thermodynamics of the mechanism of the nitrogenase reaction. Biophys Chem. 2005;114:115-20 pubmed
    The fixation of molecular nitrogen by nitrogenase requires a lot of energy because 16 mol of ATP are hydrolyzed per mole of nitrogen converted to ammonia...
  29. He S, Chen M, Xie Z, Yan Y, Li H, Fan Y, et al. Involvement of GlnK, a PII protein, in control of nitrogen fixation and ammonia assimilation in Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501. Arch Microbiol. 2008;190:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Inactivation of glnK led to a mutant strain devoid of nitrogenase activity, auxotrophic for glutamine and unable to deadenylylate glutamine synthetase, while inactivation of ..
  30. Zhao W, Ye Z, Zhao J. RbrA, a cyanobacterial rubrerythrin, functions as a FNR-dependent peroxidase in heterocysts in protection of nitrogenase from damage by hydrogen peroxide in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. Mol Microbiol. 2007;66:1219-30 pubmed
    ..PCC 7120 functions as a peroxidase in heterocysts and plays an important role in protection of nitrogenase. The electron donor for RbrA in H(2)O(2) reduction is NADPH and the electron transfer from NADPH to RbrA ..
  31. Dance I. The hydrogen chemistry of the FeMo-co active site of nitrogenase. J Am Chem Soc. 2005;127:10925-42 pubmed
    The chemical mechanism by which nitrogenase enzymes catalyze the hydrogenation of N(2) (and other multiply bonded substrates) at the N(c)Fe(7)MoS(9)(homocitrate) active site (FeMo-co) is unknown, despite the accumulation of much data on ..
  32. Barney B, McClead J, Lukoyanov D, Laryukhin M, Yang T, Dean D, et al. Diazene (HN=NH) is a substrate for nitrogenase: insights into the pathway of N2 reduction. Biochemistry. 2007;46:6784-94 pubmed
    b>Nitrogenase catalyzes the sequential addition of six electrons and six protons to a N2 that is bound to the active site metal cluster FeMo-cofactor, yielding two ammonia molecules...
  33. Rees D, Akif Tezcan F, Haynes C, Walton M, Andrade S, Einsle O, et al. Structural basis of biological nitrogen fixation. Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci. 2005;363:971-84; discussion 1035-40 pubmed
    Biological nitrogen fixation is mediated by the nitrogenase enzyme system that catalyses the ATP dependent reduction of atmospheric dinitrogen to ammonia...
  34. Lee C, Hu Y, Ribbe M. Vanadium nitrogenase reduces CO. Science. 2010;329:642 pubmed publisher
    Vanadium nitrogenase not only reduces dinitrogen to ammonia but also reduces carbon monoxide to ethylene, ethane, and propane...
  35. Lery L, Bitar M, Costa M, Rössle S, Bisch P. Unraveling the molecular mechanisms of nitrogenase conformational protection against oxygen in diazotrophic bacteria. BMC Genomics. 2010;11 Suppl 5:S7 pubmed publisher
    ..Although oxygen is essential for the survival of these organisms, it irreversibly inhibits nitrogenase, the complex responsible for nitrogen fixation...
  36. Zhang X, Sherman D, Sherman L. The uptake hydrogenase in the unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. strain PCC 7822 protects nitrogenase from oxygen toxicity. J Bacteriol. 2014;196:840-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The ?hupL mutant demonstrated virtually no nitrogenase activity or H2 production when grown under N2-fixing conditions...
  37. Dodsworth J, Leigh J. Regulation of nitrogenase by 2-oxoglutarate-reversible, direct binding of a PII-like nitrogen sensor protein to dinitrogenase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:9779-84 pubmed
    Posttranslational regulation of nitrogenase, or switch-off, in the methanogenic archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis requires both nifI(1) and nifI(2), which encode members of the PII family of nitrogen-regulatory proteins...
  38. Xie Z, Dou Y, Ping S, Chen M, Wang G, Elmerich C, et al. Interaction between NifL and NifA in the nitrogen-fixing Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501. Microbiology. 2006;152:3535-42 pubmed
    ..A nifL mutant strain that carried a mutation non-polar on nifA expression retained nitrogenase activity...
  39. Dance I. Elucidating the coordination chemistry and mechanism of biological nitrogen fixation. Chem Asian J. 2007;2:936-46 pubmed
    How does the enzyme nitrogenase reduce the inert molecule N2 to NH3 under ambient conditions that are so different from the energy-expensive conditions of the best industrial practices? This review focuses on recent theoretical ..
  40. Wang H, Franke C, Nordlund S, Norén A. Reversible membrane association of dinitrogenase reductase activating glycohydrolase in the regulation of nitrogenase activity in Rhodospirillum rubrum; dependence on GlnJ and AmtB1. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2005;253:273-9 pubmed
    In the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum nitrogenase activity is regulated by reversible ADP-ribosylation of dinitrogenase reductase in response to external so called "switch-off" effectors...
  41. Yoshino F, Ikeda H, Masukawa H, Sakurai H. High photobiological hydrogen production activity of a Nostoc sp. PCC 7422 uptake hydrogenase-deficient mutant with high nitrogenase activity. Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2007;9:101-12 pubmed
    ..Nostoc sp. PCC 7422 was chosen from 12 other heterocystous strains, because it has the highest nitrogenase activity...
  42. Barbieri E, Ceccaroli P, Saltarelli R, Guidi C, Potenza L, Basaglia M, et al. New evidence for nitrogen fixation within the Italian white truffle Tuber magnatum. Fungal Biol. 2010;114:936-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Degenerate PCR primers were applied to amplify the nitrogenase gene nifH from T. magnatum ascomata at different stages of maturation...
  43. Naya L, Ladrera R, Ramos J, Gonzalez E, Arrese Igor C, Minchin F, et al. The response of carbon metabolism and antioxidant defenses of alfalfa nodules to drought stress and to the subsequent recovery of plants. Plant Physiol. 2007;144:1104-14 pubmed
    ..were exposed to drought to examine the involvement of carbon metabolism and oxidative stress in the decline of nitrogenase (N(2)ase) activity. Exposure of plants to a moderate drought (leaf water potential of -1...
  44. Dos Santos P, Igarashi R, Lee H, Hoffman B, Seefeldt L, Dean D. Substrate interactions with the nitrogenase active site. Acc Chem Res. 2005;38:208-14 pubmed
    ..The relevance and limitations of this work with respect to N(2) binding and reduction also are discussed. ..
  45. Bröcker M, Virus S, Ganskow S, Heathcote P, Heinz D, Schubert W, et al. ATP-driven reduction by dark-operative protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase from Chlorobium tepidum mechanistically resembles nitrogenase catalysis. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:10559-67 pubmed publisher
    ..At the amino acid level, BchL is 33% identical to the nitrogenase subunit NifH allowing a first tentative structural model to be proposed...
  46. Yang Z, Dean D, Seefeldt L. Molybdenum nitrogenase catalyzes the reduction and coupling of CO to form hydrocarbons. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:19417-21 pubmed publisher
    The molybdenum-dependent nitrogenase catalyzes the multi-electron reduction of protons and N(2) to yield H(2) and 2NH(3). It also catalyzes the reduction of a number of non-physiological doubly and triply bonded small molecules (e.g...
  47. Hu Y, Corbett M, Fay A, Webber J, Hodgson K, Hedman B, et al. FeMo cofactor maturation on NifEN. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:17119-24 pubmed
    ..Our findings not only clarify the process of FeMoco maturation, but also provide useful insights into the other facets of nitrogenase chemistry.
  48. Nomata J, Mizoguchi T, Tamiaki H, Fujita Y. A second nitrogenase-like enzyme for bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis: reconstitution of chlorophyllide a reductase with purified X-protein (BchX) and YZ-protein (BchY-BchZ) from Rhodobacter capsulatus. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:15021-8 pubmed publisher
    ..ring structure of chlorophyll a is formed by the reduction of the porphyrin D-ring by the dark-operative nitrogenase-like enzyme, protochlorophyllide reductase (DPOR)...
  49. Barney B, Igarashi R, Dos Santos P, Dean D, Seefeldt L. Substrate interaction at an iron-sulfur face of the FeMo-cofactor during nitrogenase catalysis. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:53621-4 pubmed
    b>Nitrogenase catalyzes biological dinitrogen fixation, the reduction of N(2) to 2NH(3)...
  50. Kaiser J, Hu Y, Wiig J, Rees D, Ribbe M. Structure of precursor-bound NifEN: a nitrogenase FeMo cofactor maturase/insertase. Science. 2011;331:91-4 pubmed publisher
    NifEN plays an essential role in the biosynthesis of the nitrogenase iron-molybdenum (FeMo) cofactor (M cluster)...
  51. Zhang Y, Pohlmann E, Roberts G. Effect of perturbation of ATP level on the activity and regulation of nitrogenase in Rhodospirillum rubrum. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:5526-37 pubmed publisher
    b>Nitrogenase activity in Rhodospirillum rubrum and in some other photosynthetic bacteria is regulated in part by the availability of light...
  52. Yamamoto H, Nomata J, Fuita Y. Functional expression of nitrogenase-like protochlorophyllide reductase from Rhodobacter capsulatus in Escherichia coli. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2008;7:1238-42 pubmed publisher
    Dark-operative protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (DPOR) is a nitrogenase-like enzyme catalyzing D-ring reduction of protochlorophyllide in chlorophyll and bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis...
  53. Rey F, Heiniger E, Harwood C. Redirection of metabolism for biological hydrogen production. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:1665-71 pubmed
    ..context of nitrogen fixation is a rather inefficient process because about 75% of the reductant consumed by the nitrogenase is used to generate ammonia...