phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase


Summary: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 3-phosphoglycerate to 3-phosphohydroxypyruvate. It takes part in the L-SERINE biosynthesis pathway.

Top Publications

  1. Tobey K, Grant G. The nucleotide sequence of the serA gene of Escherichia coli and the amino acid sequence of the encoded protein, D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase. J Biol Chem. 1986;261:12179-83 pubmed
    The nucleotide sequence of serA, the structural gene of Escherichia coli which codes for D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, has been determined...
  2. Schuller D, Grant G, Banaszak L. The allosteric ligand site in the Vmax-type cooperative enzyme phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase. Nat Struct Biol. 1995;2:69-76 pubmed
    The crystal structure of the phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli is unique among dehydrogenases. It consists of three clearly separate domains connected by flexible hinges...
  3. de Koning T. Treatment with amino acids in serine deficiency disorders. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2006;29:347-51 pubmed
    ..At present two disorders have been reported: 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency and 3-phosphoserine phosphatase deficiency...
  4. Cho H, Jun D, Bae M, Ahn J, Kim Y. Nucleotide sequence and differential expression of the human 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase gene. Gene. 2000;245:193-201 pubmed
    The nucleotide sequence of Hs 3-PGDH gene, encoding human 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase that catalyzes the initiating step in the phosphorylated pathway of serine biosynthesis, has been determined...
  5. Bell J, Pease P, Bell J, Grant G, Banaszak L. De-regulation of D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase by domain removal. Eur J Biochem. 2002;269:4176-84 pubmed
    Escherichia coli 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH) catalyzes the first step in serine biosynthesis, and is allosterically inhibited by serine...
  6. Grant G. Methods for analyzing cooperativity in phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase. Methods Enzymol. 2004;380:106-31 pubmed
  7. Mitoma J, Furuya S, Shimizu M, Shinoda Y, Yoshida K, Azuma N, et al. Mouse 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase gene: genomic organization, chromosomal localization, and promoter analysis. Gene. 2004;334:15-22 pubmed
    d-3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (Phgdh; EC is the first committed enzyme of l-serine biosynthesis in the phosphorylated pathway...
  8. Dey S, Hu Z, Xu X, Sacchettini J, Grant G. D-3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a link between the Escherichia coli and mammalian enzymes. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:14884-91 pubmed
    D-3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been isolated to homogeneity and displays an unusual relationship to the Escherichia coli and mammalian enzymes. In almost all aspects investigated, the M...
  9. Furuya S, Yoshida K, Kawakami Y, Yang J, Sayano T, Azuma N, et al. Inactivation of the 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase gene in mice: changes in gene expression and associated regulatory networks resulting from serine deficiency. Funct Integr Genomics. 2008;8:235-49 pubmed publisher
    D-3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (Phgdh) is a necessary enzyme for de novo L-serine biosynthesis...

More Information


  1. de Koning T, Jaeken J, Pineda M, Van Maldergem L, Poll The B, van der Knaap M. Hypomyelination and reversible white matter attenuation in 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency. Neuropediatrics. 2000;31:287-92 pubmed 5-methyltetrahydrofolate were found in plasma and CSF and were due to a deficiency of the enzyme 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (3-PGDH)...
  2. Klomp L, de Koning T, Malingre H, van Beurden E, Brink M, Opdam F, et al. Molecular characterization of 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency--a neurometabolic disorder associated with reduced L-serine biosynthesis. Am J Hum Genet. 2000;67:1389-99 pubmed
    3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) deficiency is a disorder of L-serine biosynthesis that is characterized by congenital microcephaly, psychomotor retardation, and seizures...
  3. Ho C, Noji M, Saito M, Saito K. Regulation of serine biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. Crucial role of plastidic 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase in non-photosynthetic tissues. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:397-402 pubmed
    In plants, Ser is synthesized through a couple of pathways. 3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH), the first enzyme that is involved in the phosphorylated pathway of Ser biosynthesis, is responsible for the oxidation of 3-..
  4. DU H, Vitiello D, Sarno J, Taylor H. 3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase expression is regulated by HOXA10 in murine endometrium and human endometrial cells. Reproduction. 2010;139:237-45 pubmed publisher
    3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH, 3-PGDH) is an enzyme necessary for de novo l-serine biosynthesis. HOXA10 expression is required for endometrial receptivity; however, few target genes of HOXA10 regulation are known...
  5. Possemato R, Marks K, Shaul Y, Pacold M, Kim D, Birsoy K, et al. Functional genomics reveal that the serine synthesis pathway is essential in breast cancer. Nature. 2011;476:346-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the genes identified, phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) is in a genomic region of recurrent copy number gain in breast cancer and PHGDH protein levels ..
  6. Locasale J, Grassian A, Melman T, Lyssiotis C, Mattaini K, Bass A, et al. Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase diverts glycolytic flux and contributes to oncogenesis. Nat Genet. 2011;43:869-74 pubmed publisher
    ..a relatively large amount of glycolytic carbon is diverted into serine and glycine metabolism through phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH)...
  7. Mishra V, Kumar A, Ali V, Nozaki T, Zhang K, Bhakuni V. Glu-108 is essential for subunit assembly and dimer stability of D-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase from Entamoeba histolytica. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2012;181:117-24 pubmed publisher
    D-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase catalyses the first step of phosphorylated serine biosynthesis pathway by oxidizing 3-phosphoglycerate, a glycolysis intermediate into phosphohydroxsy pyruvate...
  8. Ali V, Hashimoto T, Shigeta Y, Nozaki T. Molecular and biochemical characterization of D-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase from Entamoeba histolytica. A unique enteric protozoan parasite that possesses both phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated serine metabolic pathways. Eur J Biochem. 2004;271:2670-81 pubmed
    A putative phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH), which catalyzes the oxidation of d-phosphoglycerate to 3-phosphohydroxypyruvate in the so-called phosphorylated serine metabolic pathway, from the enteric protozoan parasite Entamoeba ..
  9. Jeon G, Choi D, Lee H, Kim D, Chung C, Cho S. Expression of L-serine biosynthetic enzyme 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (Phgdh) and neutral amino acid transporter ASCT1 following an excitotoxic lesion in the mouse hippocampus. Neurochem Res. 2009;34:827-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The L-serine biosynthetic enzyme 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (Phgdh) and the small neutral amino acid transporter ASCT1 are preferentially expressed in specific ..
  10. Dey S, Burton R, Grant G, Sacchettini J. Structural analysis of substrate and effector binding in Mycobacterium tuberculosis D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase. Biochemistry. 2008;47:8271-82 pubmed publisher
    The crystal structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase has been solved with bound effector, l-serine, and substrate, hydroxypyruvic acid phosphate, at resolutions of 2.7 and 2.4 A, respectively...
  11. Burton R, Hanes J, Grant G. A stopped flow transient kinetic analysis of substrate binding and catalysis in Escherichia coli D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:29706-14 pubmed publisher
    Pre-steady state, stopped flow analysis of Escherichia coli D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase was performed by following the fluorescence of protein tryptophan and the fluorescence resonance energy transfer from protein tryptophan to ..
  12. Tabatabaie L, de Koning T, Geboers A, van den Berg I, Berger R, Klomp L. Novel mutations in 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) are distributed throughout the protein and result in altered enzyme kinetics. Hum Mutat. 2009;30:749-56 pubmed publisher
    Three-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (3-PGDH) deficiency is a rare recessive inborn error in the biosynthesis of the amino acid L-serine characterized clinically by congenital microcephaly, psychomotor retardation, and intractable ..
  13. Burton R, Chen S, Xu X, Grant G. Transient kinetic analysis of the interaction of L-serine with Escherichia coli D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase reveals the mechanism of V-type regulation and the order of effector binding. Biochemistry. 2009;48:12242-51 pubmed publisher
    Pre-steady state stopped-flow analysis of Escherichia coli d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH) reveals that the physiological inhibitor, l-serine, exerts its effect on at least two steps in the kinetic mechanism, but to very ..
  14. Yoshida K, Furuya S, Osuka S, Mitoma J, Shinoda Y, Watanabe M, et al. Targeted disruption of the mouse 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase gene causes severe neurodevelopmental defects and results in embryonic lethality. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:3573-7 pubmed
    D-3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (Phgdh; EC is the first committed enzyme of L-serine biosynthesis in the phosphorylated pathway...
  15. Peters Wendisch P, Netzer R, Eggeling L, Sahm H. 3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase from Corynebacterium glutamicum: the C-terminal domain is not essential for activity but is required for inhibition by L-serine. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2002;60:437-41 pubmed
    The serA gene of Corynebacterium glutamicum coding for 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH) was isolated and functionally characterized...
  16. de Koning T, Duran M, Van Maldergem L, Pineda M, Dorland L, Gooskens R, et al. Congenital microcephaly and seizures due to 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency: outcome of treatment with amino acids. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2002;25:119-25 pubmed
    Congenital microcephaly, intractable seizures and severe psychomotor retardation characterize 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (3-PGDH) deficiency, a disorder of L-serine biosynthesis...
  17. Jaeken J, Detheux M, Van Maldergem L, Foulon M, Carchon H, Van Schaftingen E. 3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency: an inborn error of serine biosynthesis. Arch Dis Child. 1996;74:542-5 pubmed
    ..In fibroblasts of both patients, a decreased activity was demonstrated of 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, the first step of serine biosynthesis (22% and 13% of the mean control value)...
  18. Al Rabiee R, Zhang Y, Grant G. The mechanism of velocity modulated allosteric regulation in D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase. Site-directed mutagenesis of effector binding site residues. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:23235-8 pubmed
    D-3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (EC from Escherichia coli catalyzes the first committed step in serine biosynthesis and is allosterically regulated by L-serine, the end product of the pathway...
  19. Grant G, Kim S, Xu X, Hu Z. The contribution of adjacent subunits to the active sites of D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:5357-61 pubmed
    D-3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH) from Escherichia coli is allosterically inhibited by L-serine, the end product of its metabolic pathway...
  20. Pind S, Slominski E, Mauthe J, Pearlman K, Swoboda K, Wilkins J, et al. V490M, a common mutation in 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency, causes enzyme deficiency by decreasing the yield of mature enzyme. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:7136-43 pubmed
    A deficiency of 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) is a disorder of serine biosynthesis identified in children with congenital microcephaly, seizures, and severe psychomotor retardation...
  21. Grant G, Hu Z, Xu X. Hybrid tetramers reveal elements of cooperativity in Escherichia coli D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:18170-6 pubmed
    d-3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli is a tetramer of identical subunits that is inhibited when l-serine binds at allosteric sites between subunits...
  22. Yamasaki M, Yamada K, Furuya S, Mitoma J, Hirabayashi Y, Watanabe M. 3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, a key enzyme for l-serine biosynthesis, is preferentially expressed in the radial glia/astrocyte lineage and olfactory ensheathing glia in the mouse brain. J Neurosci. 2001;21:7691-704 pubmed
    ..brain, we examined by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry the cellular expression of 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (3PGDH), the initial step enzyme for de novo l-serine biosynthesis in animal cells...
  23. Häusler M, Jaeken J, Mönch E, Ramaekers V. Phenotypic heterogeneity and adverse effects of serine treatment in 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency: report on two siblings. Neuropediatrics. 2001;32:191-5 pubmed
    Clinical experience with the treatment of 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency, a rare inherited disorder of serine synthesis, is scarce...
  24. Pineda M, Vilaseca M, Artuch R, Santos S, García González M, Aracil A, et al. 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency in a patient with West syndrome. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2000;42:629-33 pubmed
    3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency is a severe but treatable disorder of serine synthesis, first described in 1996 (Jaeken et al. 1996a)...
  25. Zhao G, Winkler M. A novel alpha-ketoglutarate reductase activity of the serA-encoded 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli K-12 and its possible implications for human 2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:232-9 pubmed
  26. Grant G, Schuller D, Banaszak L. A model for the regulation of D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, a Vmax-type allosteric enzyme. Protein Sci. 1996;5:34-41 pubmed
    Escherichia coli D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (ePGDH) is a tetramer of identical subunits that is allosterically inhibited by L-serine, the end product of its metabolic pathway...
  27. Achouri Y, Rider M, Schaftingen E, Robbi M. Cloning, sequencing and expression of rat liver 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase. Biochem J. 1997;323 ( Pt 2):365-70 pubmed
    Rat liver d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase was purified to homogeneity and digested with trypsin, and the sequences of two peptides were determined. This sequence information was used to screen a rat hepatoma cDNA library...
  28. Grant G, Hu Z, Xu X. Specific interactions at the regulatory domain-substrate binding domain interface influence the cooperativity of inhibition and effector binding in Escherichia coli D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:1078-83 pubmed
    The crystal structure of d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase reveals a limited number of contacts between the regulatory and substrate binding domains of each subunit in the tetrameric enzyme...
  29. Grant G, Hu Z, Xu X. Identification of amino acid residues contributing to the mechanism of cooperativity in Escherichia coli D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase. Biochemistry. 2005;44:16844-52 pubmed
    L-Serine inhibits the catalytic activity of Escherichia coli D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH) by binding to its regulatory domain...
  30. Thompson J, Bell J, Bratt J, Grant G, Banaszak L. Vmax regulation through domain and subunit changes. The active form of phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase. Biochemistry. 2005;44:5763-73 pubmed
    An active conformation of phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH) from Escherichia coli has been obtained using X-ray crystallography...
  31. Grant G, Xu X, Hu Z. Quantitative relationships of site to site interaction in Escherichia coli D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase revealed by asymmetric hybrid tetramers. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:13452-60 pubmed
    A set of asymmetric hybrid tetramers of Escherichia coli d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH) have been made by gene co-expression and KSCN-induced dimer exchange...
  32. Méneret A, Wiame E, Marelli C, Lenglet T, van Schaftingen E, Sedel F. A serine synthesis defect presenting with a Charcot-Marie-Tooth-like polyneuropathy. Arch Neurol. 2012;69:908-11 pubmed
    ..To describe a case of serine synthesis defect due to 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency in an adult with prominent chronic polyneuropathy. Case report. Neurologic referral center...
  33. Li Y, Chen G, Tong X, Zhang H, Liu X, Liu Y, et al. Construction of Escherichia coli strains producing L-serine from glucose. Biotechnol Lett. 2012;34:1525-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We have genetically engineered Escherichia coli to produce L-serine from glucose intracellularly. D-3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH, EC in E...
  34. Helgadóttir S, Rosas Sandoval G, Soll D, Graham D. Biosynthesis of phosphoserine in the Methanococcales. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:575-82 pubmed
    ..maripaludis were shown to have phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase and phosphoserine aminotransferase activities...
  35. Lai S, Zhang Y, Liu S, Liang Y, Shang X, Chai X, et al. Metabolic engineering and flux analysis of Corynebacterium glutamicum for L-serine production. Sci China Life Sci. 2012;55:283-90 pubmed publisher
    ..the conversion of L-serine to pyruvate and glycine, releasing the feedback inhibition by L-serine to 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH), in combination with the co-expression of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) and feedback-..
  36. Schmitt S, Paro R. Gene regulation: a reason for reading nonsense. Nature. 2004;429:510-1 pubmed
  37. Mullen A, DeBerardinis R. Genetically-defined metabolic reprogramming in cancer. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2012;23:552-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review several enzymes mutated in cancer - phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2, succinate dehydrogenase, and fumarate hydratase - and discuss ..
  38. Angelo L, Maxwell D, Wu J, Sun D, Hawke D, McCutcheon I, et al. Binding partners for curcumin in human schwannoma cells: biologic implications. Bioorg Med Chem. 2013;21:932-9 pubmed publisher
    ..this reaction were sequenced and it was determined that biotinylated curcumin bound hsp70, hsp90, 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, and a ?-actin variant...
  39. Yang L, Lin R, Newman E. Structure of the Lrp-regulated serA promoter of Escherichia coli K-12. Mol Microbiol. 2002;43:323-33 pubmed
    ..A second regulator, cAMP/CRP, activates P2, an effect that is largely inhibited by Lrp, such that catabolite repressor protein (Crp) and Lrp are rival activators of serA transcription. ..
  40. Liou G, Tanny J, Kruger R, Walz T, Moazed D. Assembly of the SIR complex and its regulation by O-acetyl-ADP-ribose, a product of NAD-dependent histone deacetylation. Cell. 2005;121:515-527 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Sir2 activity modulates the assembly of the SIR complex through both histone deacetylation and AAR synthesis. ..
  41. Yang J, Wada A, Yoshida K, Miyoshi Y, Sayano T, Esaki K, et al. Brain-specific Phgdh deletion reveals a pivotal role for L-serine biosynthesis in controlling the level of D-serine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor co-agonist, in adult brain. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:41380-90 pubmed publisher
    ..pathway is essential for D-serine synthesis by generating mice with a conditional deletion of D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (Phgdh; EC
  42. Kakegawa W, Miyoshi Y, Hamase K, Matsuda S, Matsuda K, Kohda K, et al. D-serine regulates cerebellar LTD and motor coordination through the ?2 glutamate receptor. Nat Neurosci. 2011;14:603-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that glial D-Ser regulates synaptic plasticity and cerebellar functions by interacting with GluD2. ..
  43. Shimizu M, Furuya S, Shinoda Y, Mitoma J, Okamura T, Miyoshi I, et al. Functional analysis of mouse 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (Phgdh) gene promoter in developing brain. J Neurosci Res. 2004;76:623-32 pubmed
    D-3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (Phgdh; EC is a necessary enzyme for de novo L-serine biosynthesis via the phosphorylated pathway...
  44. Pruneski J, Hainer S, Petrov K, Martens J. The Paf1 complex represses SER3 transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by facilitating intergenic transcription-dependent nucleosome occupancy of the SER3 promoter. Eukaryot Cell. 2011;10:1283-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that Paf1 and Ctr9 repress SER3 by maintaining SRG1 transcription-dependent nucleosome occupancy. ..
  45. Chen C, Newman E. Comparison of the sensitivities of two Escherichia coli genes to in vivo variation of Lrp concentration. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:655-9 pubmed
    ..The affinity of serA for Lrp was four to five times greater than the affinity of gltD. Overproduction of Lrp was lethal to the cell. ..
  46. Gupta R, Gao B. Phylogenomic analyses of clostridia and identification of novel protein signatures that are specific to the genus Clostridium sensu stricto (cluster I). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2009;59:285-94 pubmed publisher
    ..We have also identified a 7-9 aa conserved insert in the enzyme phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase that is uniquely found in the Clostridium thermocellum, Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus, ..
  47. Schoenlein P, Roa B, Winkler M. Divergent transcription of pdxB and homology between the pdxB and serA gene products in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1989;171:6084-92 pubmed bases revealed a significant number of amino acid matches between the pdxB gene product and D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, which is encoded by serA and catalyzes the first step in the phosphorylated pathway of serine ..
  48. Nilsson L, Forshell T, Rimpi S, Kreutzer C, Pretsch W, Bornkamm G, et al. Mouse genetics suggests cell-context dependency for Myc-regulated metabolic enzymes during tumorigenesis. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002573 pubmed publisher
    ..p53 knockout mice with mouse models carrying inactivating alleles of Lactate dehydrogenase A (Ldha), 3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (Phgdh) and Serine hydroxymethyltransferase 1 (Shmt1), we obtained offspring that were monitored for ..
  49. Zhao E, Ding J, Xia Y, Liu M, Ye B, Choi J, et al. KDM4C and ATF4 Cooperate in Transcriptional Control of Amino Acid Metabolism. Cell Rep. 2016;14:506-519 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest a molecular mechanism linking KDM4C-mediated H3K9 demethylation and ATF4-mediated transactivation in reprogramming amino acid metabolism for cancer cell proliferation. ..
  50. Mishra V, Kumar A, Ali V, Nozaki T, Zhang K, Bhakuni V. Novel protein-protein interactions between Entamoeba histolyticad-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase and phosphoserine aminotransferase. Biochimie. 2012;94:1676-86 pubmed publisher
    Physical interactions between d-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (EhPGDH) and phosphoserine aminotransferase (EhPSAT) from an enteric human parasite Entamoeba histolytica was observed by pull-down assay, gel filtration chromatography, ..
  51. Nagao K, Bannai M, Seki S, Kawai N, Mori M, Takahashi M. Voluntary wheel running is beneficial to the amino acid profile of lysine-deficient rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010;298:E1170-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The intense nocturnal voluntary running that characterizes rodents might be an adaptation of lysine-deficient grain eaters that allows them to maximize opportunities for food acquisition. ..
  52. Tabatabaie L, Klomp L, Berger R, de Koning T. L-serine synthesis in the central nervous system: a review on serine deficiency disorders. Mol Genet Metab. 2010;99:256-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we will discuss the cellular functions of the L-serine pathway, structure and enzymatic properties of the enzymes involved and genetic defects associated with this pathway. ..
  53. Hirabayashi Y. [Functional coupling between neuron and glia in neuronal sphingolipid biosynthesis]. Tanpakushitsu Kakusan Koso. 2004;49:2391-6 pubmed