Summary: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)

Top Publications

  1. Zito E, Hansen H, Yeo G, Fujii J, Ron D. Endoplasmic reticulum thiol oxidase deficiency leads to ascorbic acid depletion and noncanonical scurvy in mice. Mol Cell. 2012;48:39-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Compromised ER disulfide relay thus exposes protein thiols to competing oxidation to sulfenic acid, resulting in depletion of ascorbic acid, impaired procollagen proline 4-hydroxylation, and a noncanonical form of scurvy. ..
  2. Araki K, Iemura S, Kamiya Y, Ron D, Kato K, Natsume T, et al. Ero1-α and PDIs constitute a hierarchical electron transfer network of endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductases. J Cell Biol. 2013;202:861-74 pubmed publisher
    Ero1-α and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) oxidoreductases of the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family promote the efficient introduction of disulfide bonds into nascent polypeptides in the ER...
  3. Hofbauer S, Gruber C, Pirker K, Sündermann A, Schaffner I, Jakopitsch C, et al. Transiently produced hypochlorite is responsible for the irreversible inhibition of chlorite dismutase. Biochemistry. 2014;53:3145-57 pubmed publisher
    Chlorite dismutases (Clds) are heme b-containing prokaryotic oxidoreductases that catalyze the reduction of chlorite to chloride with the concomitant release of molecular oxygen. Over time, they are irreversibly inactivated...
  4. Hofbauer S, Gysel K, Bellei M, Hagmüller A, Schaffner I, Mlynek G, et al. Manipulating conserved heme cavity residues of chlorite dismutase: effect on structure, redox chemistry, and reactivity. Biochemistry. 2014;53:77-89 pubmed publisher
    Chlorite dismutases (Clds) are heme b containing oxidoreductases that convert chlorite to chloride and molecular oxygen...
  5. Kang C, Li Ji L. Role of PGC-1? signaling in skeletal muscle health and disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2012;1271:110-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, PGC-1? appears to play a protective role against atrophy-linked skeletal muscle deterioration. ..
  6. Hansen H, Schmidt J, Søltoft C, Ramming T, Geertz Hansen H, Christensen B, et al. Hyperactivity of the Ero1? oxidase elicits endoplasmic reticulum stress but no broad antioxidant response. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:39513-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, a broad antioxidant response was not induced. Our findings suggest that the hyperoxidation generated by Ero1?-C104A/C131A is addressed in the ER lumen and is unlikely to exert oxidative injury throughout the cell. ..
  7. Hofbauer S, Bellei M, Sündermann A, Pirker K, Hagmüller A, Mlynek G, et al. Redox thermodynamics of high-spin and low-spin forms of chlorite dismutases with diverse subunit and oligomeric structures. Biochemistry. 2012;51:9501-12 pubmed publisher
    Chlorite dismutases (Clds) are heme b-containing oxidoreductases that convert chlorite to chloride and dioxygen...
  8. Blanc B, Rodgers K, Lukat Rodgers G, Dubois J. Understanding the roles of strictly conserved tryptophan residues in O2 producing chlorite dismutases. Dalton Trans. 2013;42:3156-69 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations and the lack of redox protection for the heme in any of the Trp mutants suggests a tendency for protein radical formation in DaCld that is independent of any of these conserved active site residues...
  9. Winkler C, Clay D, Davies S, O Neill P, McDaid P, Debarge S, et al. Chemoenzymatic asymmetric synthesis of pregabalin precursors via asymmetric bioreduction of ?-cyanoacrylate esters using ene-reductases. J Org Chem. 2013;78:1525-33 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, stereoselectivities and conversions could be improved by mutant variants of OPR1, and the utility of the system was demonstrated by preparative-scale applications. ..

More Information


  1. Salah Z, Bar mag T, Kohn Y, Pichiorri F, Palumbo T, Melino G, et al. Tumor suppressor WWOX binds to ?Np63? and sensitizes cancer cells to chemotherapy. Cell Death Dis. 2013;4:e480 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest a functional crosstalk between WWOX and ?Np63? in tumorigenesis. ..
  2. Simeonov D, Wang X, Wang C, Sergeev Y, Dolinska M, Bower M, et al. DNA variations in oculocutaneous albinism: an updated mutation list and current outstanding issues in molecular diagnostics. Hum Mutat. 2013;34:827-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we review the TYR p.R402Q temperature-sensitive variant and confirm its association with cases of albinism with only one identifiable TYR mutation. ..
  3. Vavassori S, Cortini M, Masui S, Sannino S, Anelli T, Caserta I, et al. A pH-regulated quality control cycle for surveillance of secretory protein assembly. Mol Cell. 2013;50:783-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The ERp44 assembly control cycle couples secretion fidelity and efficiency downstream of the calnexin/calreticulin and BiP-dependent quality control cycles. ..
  4. Mayfield J, Hammer N, Kurker R, Chen T, Ojha S, Skaar E, et al. The chlorite dismutase (HemQ) from Staphylococcus aureus has a redox-sensitive heme and is associated with the small colony variant phenotype. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:23488-504 pubmed publisher
    ..HemQ heme could serve as the means by which S. aureus reversibly adopts an SCV phenotype in response to redox stress. ..
  5. Kim J, Senn S, Harel A, Jelen B, Falkowski P. Discovering the electronic circuit diagram of life: structural relationships among transition metal binding sites in oxidoreductases. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2013;368:20120257 pubmed publisher
    b>Oxidoreductases play a central role in catalysing enzymatic electron-transfer reactions across the tree of life...
  6. Beckett R, Zavarzina A, Liers C. Oxidoreductases and cellulases in lichens: possible roles in lichen biology and soil organic matter turnover. Fungal Biol. 2013;117:431-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present review we synthesize recently published data on lichen phenol oxidases, peroxidases, and cellulases and discuss their possible roles in lichen physiology and soil organic matter transformations. ..
  7. Mayfield J, Blanc B, Rodgers K, Lukat Rodgers G, Dubois J. Peroxidase-type reactions suggest a heterolytic/nucleophilic O-O joining mechanism in the heme-dependent chlorite dismutase. Biochemistry. 2013;52:6982-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest by analogy that two-electron Cl-O bond cleavage to yield a ferryl-porphyrin cation radical is the most likely initial step in O-O bond formation from chlorite. ..
  8. Sun S, Li Z, Chen S. A dominant homolytic O-Cl bond cleavage with low-spin triplet-state Fe(IV)=O formed is revealed in the mechanism of heme-dependent chlorite dismutase. Dalton Trans. 2014;43:973-81 pubmed publisher
  9. Felgate H, Giannopoulos G, Sullivan M, Gates A, Clarke T, Baggs E, et al. The impact of copper, nitrate and carbon status on the emission of nitrous oxide by two species of bacteria with biochemically distinct denitrification pathways. Environ Microbiol. 2012;14:1788-800 pubmed publisher
    ..The results have potential implications for understanding denitrification flux in a range of agricultural environments...
  10. Cho S, Collet J. Many roles of the bacterial envelope reducing pathways. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2013;18:1690-8 pubmed publisher
    ..as an electron hub that dispatches electrons received from the cytoplasmic thioredoxin system to periplasmic oxidoreductases. Recent data have revealed that DsbD provides reducing equivalents to a large array of periplasmic redox ..
  11. Sun A, Nie S, Xing D. Nitric oxide-mediated maintenance of redox homeostasis contributes to NPR1-dependent plant innate immunity triggered by lipopolysaccharides. Plant Physiol. 2012;160:1081-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, NPR1 plays an important role in LPS-triggered plant innate immunity. ..
  12. Płuciennik E, Nowakowska M, Wujcicka W, Sitkiewicz A, Kazanowska B, Zielinska E, et al. Genetic alterations of WWOX in Wilms' tumor are involved in its carcinogenesis. Oncol Rep. 2012;28:1417-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our analysis indicates that in this type of tumor the expression of the WWOX gene can be regulated by an epigenetic mechanism--its promoter methylation. ..
  13. Chaiyen P, Fraaije M, Mattevi A. The enigmatic reaction of flavins with oxygen. Trends Biochem Sci. 2012;37:373-80 pubmed publisher
    ..A challenge for the future will be to use these emerging concepts to rationally engineer flavoenzymes, paving the way to new research avenues with far-reaching implications for oxidative biocatalysis and metabolic engineering. ..
  14. Grunewald T, Bach H, Cossarizza A, Matsumoto I. The STEAP protein family: versatile oxidoreductases and targets for cancer immunotherapy with overlapping and distinct cellular functions. Biol Cell. 2012;104:641-57 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarises our present knowledge of the individual members of the human STEAP family and highlights the functional differences between them. ..
  15. Alon A, Grossman I, Gat Y, Kodali V, DiMaio F, Mehlman T, et al. The dynamic disulphide relay of quiescin sulphydryl oxidase. Nature. 2012;488:414-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we quantified the contribution of concatenation to QSOX activity, providing general lessons for the understanding of multi-domain enzymes and the design of new catalytic relays...
  16. Hu B, Tan J, Zhu G, Wang D, Zhou X, Sun Z. WWOX induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation of human hepatoma cell line SMMC-7721. World J Gastroenterol. 2012;18:3020-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of WWOX induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation of the human hepatic carcinoma cell line SMMC-7721. ..
  17. Tasnádi G, Winkler C, Clay D, Sultana N, Fabian W, Hall M, et al. A substrate-driven approach to determine reactivities of ?,?-unsaturated carboxylic esters towards asymmetric bioreduction. Chemistry. 2012;18:10362-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The alcohol moiety of the ester functionality was found to have a strong influence on the reaction rate. Overall, activities were determined by both steric and electronic effects. ..
  18. Batt S, Jabeen T, Bhowruth V, Quill L, Lund P, Eggeling L, et al. Structural basis of inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DprE1 by benzothiazinone inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:11354-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results mark a significant step forward in the characterization of a key TB drug target. ..
  19. Jensen S, Twitty C, Maston L, Antony P, Lim M, Hu H, et al. Increased frequency of suppressive regulatory T cells and T cell-mediated antigen loss results in murine melanoma recurrence. J Immunol. 2012;189:767-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, recurrent tumors exhibited decreased Ag expression, which was accompanied by conversion of the therapeutic tumor-specific CD4(+) T cell population to a Foxp3(+)CD4(+) regulatory T cell population. ..
  20. Baker B, Lesniewski R, Dick G. Genome-enabled transcriptomics reveals archaeal populations that drive nitrification in a deep-sea hydrothermal plume. ISME J. 2012;6:2269-79 pubmed publisher
    ..These unique data sets reveal populations of deep-sea AOA thriving in the ammonium-rich GB that are related to surface types, but with key genomic and physiological differences. ..
  21. Gandhi S, Abramov A. Mechanism of oxidative stress in neurodegeneration. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2012;2012:428010 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we examine the issues surrounding the failure to translate this hypothesis into an effective clinical treatment. ..
  22. Hofbauer S, Gysel K, Mlynek G, Kostan J, Hagmüller A, Daims H, et al. Impact of subunit and oligomeric structure on the thermal and conformational stability of chlorite dismutases. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1824:1031-8 pubmed publisher
    Chlorite dismutases (Cld) are unique heme b containing oxidoreductases that convert chlorite to chloride and dioxygen...
  23. Zhang L, Zhao Y, Gao L, Zhao G, Zhou R, Zhang B, et al. TaCKX6-D1, the ortholog of rice OsCKX2, is associated with grain weight in hexaploid wheat. New Phytol. 2012;195:574-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study also sheds light on the mechanisms of grain development and domestication of wheat, as well as the functional divergence of orthologs in comparative genomics. ..