pyruvate dehydrogenase complex


Summary: A multienzyme complex responsible for the formation of ACETYL COENZYME A from pyruvate. The enzyme components are PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE); dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase; and LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to three types of control: inhibited by acetyl-CoA and NADH; influenced by the energy state of the cell; and inhibited when a specific serine residue in the pyruvate decarboxylase is phosphorylated by ATP. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE)-PHOSPHATASE catalyzes reactivation of the complex. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)

Top Publications

  1. Imbard A, Boutron A, Vequaud C, Zater M, de Lonlay P, de Baulny H, et al. Molecular characterization of 82 patients with pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency. Structural implications of novel amino acid substitutions in E1 protein. Mol Genet Metab. 2011;104:507-16 pubmed publisher
    b>Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) deficiencies are an important cause of primary lactic acidosis...
  2. Atherton H, Schroeder M, Dodd M, Heather L, Carter E, Cochlin L, et al. Validation of the in vivo assessment of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity using hyperpolarised 13C MRS. NMR Biomed. 2011;24:201-208 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, during the 60-s data acquisition period, metabolism was minimally affected by pyruvate infusion. ..
  3. Yu X, Hiromasa Y, Tsen H, Stoops J, Roche T, Zhou Z. Structures of the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex cores: a highly conserved catalytic center with flexible N-terminal domains. Structure. 2008;16:104-14 pubmed publisher
    Dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase (E2) is the central component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC), which converts pyruvate to acetyl-CoA...
  4. Nemeria N, Chakraborty S, Baykal A, Korotchkina L, Patel M, Jordan F. The 1',4'-iminopyrimidine tautomer of thiamin diphosphate is poised for catalysis in asymmetric active centers on enzymes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:78-82 pubmed
    ..on four thiamin diphosphate enzymes, all of which decarboxylate pyruvate: the E1 component of human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, the E1 subunit of Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, yeast pyruvate decarboxylase, and ..
  5. Kiang J, Bowman P, Lu X, Li Y, Ding X, Zhao B, et al. Geldanamycin prevents hemorrhage-induced ATP loss by overexpressing inducible HSP70 and activating pyruvate dehydrogenase. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2006;291:G117-27 pubmed
    ..We conclude that agents able to increase the expression of HSP70 and PDH may be of value in reducing pathology resulting from hemorrhage-associated ATP loss. ..
  6. Schummer C, Werner U, Tennagels N, Schmoll D, Haschke G, Juretschke H, et al. Dysregulated pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in Zucker diabetic fatty rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008;294:E88-96 pubmed
    The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is inactivated in many tissues during starvation and diabetes...
  7. Bajotto G, Murakami T, Nagasaki M, Tamura T, Tamura N, Harris R, et al. Downregulation of the skeletal muscle pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rat both before and after the onset of diabetes mellitus. Life Sci. 2004;75:2117-30 pubmed
    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) catalyzes the irreversible oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate in mitochondria...
  8. Buchholz J, Schwentner A, Brunnenkan B, Gabris C, Grimm S, Gerstmeir R, et al. Platform engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum with reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity for improved production of L-lysine, L-valine, and 2-ketoisovalerate. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013;79:5566-75 pubmed publisher
    ..of the native Corynebacterium glutamicum promoter of the aceE gene, encoding the E1p subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC), with mutated dapA promoter variants led to a series of C...
  9. Chandrasekhar K, Arjunan P, Sax M, Nemeria N, Jordan F, Furey W. Active-site changes in the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex E1 apoenzyme component from Escherichia coli observed at 2.32 A resolution. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2006;62:1382-6 pubmed
    ..Differences in the extent of hydrogen-bonding networks found in the apo-E1 enzyme, the holo-E1 enzyme and in an inhibitor complex with bound thiamine 2-thiazolone diphosphate (ThTDP), PDHc E1-ThTDP-Mg(2+), are described. ..

More Information


  1. Murarka A, Clomburg J, Moran S, Shanks J, Gonzalez R. Metabolic analysis of wild-type Escherichia coli and a pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC)-deficient derivative reveals the role of PDHC in the fermentative metabolism of glucose. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:31548-58 pubmed publisher
    ..In Escherichia coli, the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) and pyruvate formate-lyase are considered the primary routes of pyruvate conversion to acetyl-..
  2. Leeper F, Hawksley D, Mann S, Perez Melero C, Wood M. Studies on thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzymes. Biochem Soc Trans. 2005;33:772-5 pubmed
    ..Attachment of such 2-substituents is expected to be a way to introduce selectivity in the inhibition of various TPP-dependent enzymes. ..
  3. Krause Buchholz U, Gey U, Wünschmann J, Becker S, Rödel G. YIL042c and YOR090c encode the kinase and phosphatase of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:2553-60 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate by means of blue native gel electrophoresis and tandem affinity purification that both enzymes are associated with the PDH complex. ..
  4. Yu H, Du X, Zhang F, Zhang F, Hu Y, Liu S, et al. A mutation in the E2 subunit of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in Arabidopsis reduces plant organ size and enhances the accumulation of amino acids and intermediate products of the TCA cycle. Planta. 2012;236:387-99 pubmed publisher
    The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (mtPDC) plays a pivotal role in controlling the entry of carbon into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle for energy production...
  5. Matic J, Wilton J, Towers R, Scarman A, Minion F, Walker M, et al. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae contains a novel lipoyl domain arrangement. Gene. 2003;319:99-106 pubmed
    ..However, like other bacterial species, pdhC gene sequences from Mycoplasma capricolum, Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma pneumoniae contain a putative lipoyl domain...
  6. Ciszak E, Makal A, Hong Y, Vettaikkorumakankauv A, Korotchkina L, Patel M. How dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase-binding protein binds dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase in the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:648-55 pubmed
    ..and the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2) component enzyme form the structural core of the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by providing the binding sites for two other component proteins, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) ..
  7. Berendzen K, Theriaque D, Shuster J, Stacpoole P. Therapeutic potential of dichloroacetate for pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency. Mitochondrion. 2006;6:126-35 pubmed
    ..DCA) in the treatment of children with congenital lactic acidosis caused by mutations in the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC)...
  8. Tsintzas K, Chokkalingam K, Jewell K, Norton L, Macdonald I, Constantin Teodosiu D. Elevated free fatty acids attenuate the insulin-induced suppression of PDK4 gene expression in human skeletal muscle: potential role of intramuscular long-chain acyl-coenzyme A. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:3967-72 pubmed
    ..Accumulation of im lipids plays a more important role than impaired activation of Akt-mediated pathways in the regulation of muscle PDK4 gene expression in lipid-induced acute insulin-resistant states. ..
  9. Sauret Güeto S, Urós E, Ibáñez E, Boronat A, Rodríguez Concepción M. A mutant pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 subunit allows survival of Escherichia coli strains defective in 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:736-40 pubmed
    ..A mutation in the gene encoding the E1 subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was shown to be sufficient to rescue the lack of DXS but not DXR in vivo, suggesting that the mutant ..
  10. Uhrig R, O Leary B, Spang H, MacDonald J, She Y, Plaxton W. Coimmunopurification of phosphorylated bacterial- and plant-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylases with the plastidial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from developing castor oil seeds. Plant Physiol. 2008;146:1346-57 pubmed publisher
    ..A 110-kD PTPC coimmunopurified with p118 and p107 when depodded COS was used. The plastidial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC(pl)) was identified as a novel PEPC interactor...
  11. Barnerias C, Saudubray J, Touati G, de Lonlay P, Dulac O, Ponsot G, et al. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency: four neurological phenotypes with differing pathogenesis. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2010;52:e1-9 pubmed publisher
    To describe the phenotype and genotype of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) deficiency.
  12. Nemeria N, Korotchkina L, McLeish M, Kenyon G, Patel M, Jordan F. Elucidation of the chemistry of enzyme-bound thiamin diphosphate prior to substrate binding: defining internal equilibria among tautomeric and ionization states. Biochemistry. 2007;46:10739-44 pubmed
    ..The dramatic influence of the protein on the internal equilibria also points to conditions under which the long-elusive ylide intermediate could be stabilized. ..
  13. Arjunan P, Sax M, Brunskill A, Chandrasekhar K, Nemeria N, Zhang S, et al. A thiamin-bound, pre-decarboxylation reaction intermediate analogue in the pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 subunit induces large scale disorder-to-order transformations in the enzyme and reveals novel structural features in the covalently bound adduct. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:15296-303 pubmed
    ..This feature is almost certainly present in all ThDP-dependent decarboxylases; thus its inclusion in our understanding of general thiamin catalysis is important. ..
  14. Bradley N, Heigenhauser G, Roy B, Staples E, Inglis J, Leblanc P, et al. The acute effects of differential dietary fatty acids on human skeletal muscle pyruvate dehydrogenase activity. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2008;104:1-9 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that attenuated PDHa activity contributes to the preferential oxidation of n-6 PUFA during moderate-intensity exercise. ..
  15. Holness M, Sugden M. Regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity by reversible phosphorylation. Biochem Soc Trans. 2003;31:1143-51 pubmed
    PDC (pyruvate dehydrogenase complex) catalyses the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate, linking glycolysis to the tricarboxylic acid cycle...
  16. Spriet L, Tunstall R, Watt M, Mehan K, Hargreaves M, Cameron Smith D. Pyruvate dehydrogenase activation and kinase expression in human skeletal muscle during fasting. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2004;96:2082-7 pubmed
    ..The changes in PDK-4 expression and PDH activity did not coincide with increases in the transcriptional activators PPAR-alpha and FKHR. ..
  17. Schwab M, Kölker S, van den Heuvel L, Sauer S, Wolf N, Rating D, et al. Optimized spectrophotometric assay for the completely activated pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in fibroblasts. Clin Chem. 2005;51:151-60 pubmed
    Analysis of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) activity in human skin fibroblasts is hampered by low enzyme activity in the cells...
  18. Gong J, Hoyos B, Acin Perez R, Vinogradov V, Shabrova E, Zhao F, et al. Two protein kinase C isoforms, ? and ?, regulate energy homeostasis in mitochondria by transmitting opposing signals to the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. FASEB J. 2012;26:3537-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, a disturbed balance between PKC? and PKC? might underlie the injury inflicted on the ischemic myocardium during reperfusion. dehydrogenase complex. ..
  19. Seifert F, Golbik R, Brauer J, Lilie H, Schröder Tittmann K, Hinze E, et al. Direct kinetic evidence for half-of-the-sites reactivity in the E1 component of the human pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex through alternating sites cofactor activation. Biochemistry. 2006;45:12775-85 pubmed
    ..structural studies on various thiamin-dependent enzymes, including the bacterial E1 component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc), suggested an active center communication between the cofactors in these multimeric enzymes...
  20. Bubber P, Tang J, Haroutunian V, Xu H, Davis K, Blass J, et al. Mitochondrial enzymes in schizophrenia. J Mol Neurosci. 2004;24:315-21 pubmed
    ..The activities of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC), aconitase, isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), and the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (..
  21. Patel K, O Brien T, Subramony S, Shuster J, Stacpoole P. The spectrum of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency: clinical, biochemical and genetic features in 371 patients. Mol Genet Metab. 2012;105:34-43 pubmed publisher
    b>Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) deficiency is a genetic mitochondrial disorder commonly associated with lactic acidosis, progressive neurological and neuromuscular degeneration and, usually, death during childhood...
  22. Chen A, Hurd R, Schroeder M, Lau A, Gu Y, Lam W, et al. Simultaneous investigation of cardiac pyruvate dehydrogenase flux, Krebs cycle metabolism and pH, using hyperpolarized [1,2-(13)C2]pyruvate in vivo. NMR Biomed. 2012;25:305-11 pubmed publisher
  23. Kiilerich K, Birk J, Damsgaard R, Wojtaszewski J, Pilegaard H. Regulation of PDH in human arm and leg muscles at rest and during intense exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008;294:E36-42 pubmed
  24. Kato M, Wynn R, Chuang J, Tso S, Machius M, Li J, et al. Structural basis for inactivation of the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by phosphorylation: role of disordered phosphorylation loops. Structure. 2008;16:1849-59 pubmed publisher the crystal structures of the phosporylated pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1p) component of the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC)...
  25. Blouin J, Penot G, Collinet M, Nacfer M, Forest C, Laurent Puig P, et al. Butyrate elicits a metabolic switch in human colon cancer cells by targeting the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Int J Cancer. 2011;128:2591-601 pubmed publisher
    ..The butyrate-stimulated glutamine utilization is linked to pyruvate dehydrogenase complex since dichloroacetate reverses this effect...
  26. Jung H, Perham R. Prediction of the binding site on E1 in the assembly of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex of Bacillus stearothermophilus. FEBS Lett. 2003;555:405-10 pubmed
    ..of the pyruvate decarboxylase (E1, alpha(2)beta(2)) component of the Bacillus stearothermophilus pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was comparatively modelled based on the crystal structures of the homologous 2-oxoisovalerate ..
  27. Raberg M, Bechmann J, Brandt U, Schlüter J, Uischner B, Voigt B, et al. Versatile metabolic adaptations of Ralstonia eutropha H16 to a loss of PdhL, the E3 component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:2254-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Insertion of Tn5 was localized in the pdhL gene encoding the DHLDH (E3 component) of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC). Taking advantage of the available genome sequence of R...
  28. Lei B, Lionetti V, Young M, Chandler M, d Agostino C, Kang E, et al. Paradoxical downregulation of the glucose oxidation pathway despite enhanced flux in severe heart failure. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2004;36:567-76 pubmed
  29. Dodd M, Ball D, Schroeder M, Le Page L, Atherton H, Heather L, et al. In vivo alterations in cardiac metabolism and function in the spontaneously hypertensive rat heart. Cardiovasc Res. 2012;95:69-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, (13)C label flux into lactate was unchanged, indicating no switch to an anaerobic glycolytic phenotype, but rather an increased reliance on glucose oxidation in the SHR heart. ..
  30. Constantin Teodosiu D, Peirce N, Fox J, Greenhaff P. Muscle pyruvate availability can limit the flux, but not activation, of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex during submaximal exercise in humans. J Physiol. 2004;561:647-55 pubmed
    ..formation during intense exercise, we investigated the importance of muscle pyruvate availability to pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) activation during intense exercise in human skeletal muscle...
  31. Vijayakrishnan S, Kelly S, Gilbert R, Callow P, Bhella D, Forsyth T, et al. Solution structure and characterisation of the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex core assembly. J Mol Biol. 2010;399:71-93 pubmed publisher
    Mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is a key multi-enzyme assembly that is responsible for glucose homeostasis maintenance and conversion of pyruvate into acetyl-CoA...
  32. Seifert F, Ciszak E, Korotchkina L, Golbik R, Spinka M, Dominiak P, et al. Phosphorylation of serine 264 impedes active site accessibility in the E1 component of the human pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex. Biochemistry. 2007;46:6277-87 pubmed
  33. Gey U, Czupalla C, Hoflack B, Rödel G, Krause Buchholz U. Yeast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is regulated by a concerted activity of two kinases and two phosphatases. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:9759-67 pubmed publisher
    The activity of yeast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is regulated by reversible phosphorylation...
  34. Klein D, Pilegaard H, Treebak J, Jensen T, Viollet B, Schjerling P, et al. Lack of AMPKalpha2 enhances pyruvate dehydrogenase activity during exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007;293:E1242-9 pubmed
    ..During exercise, alpha(2)KO muscles display deranged energy homeostasis despite enhanced glycolytic flux and PDH(a) activity. This may be linked to decreased mitochondrial oxidative capacity. ..
  35. Kale S, Ulas G, Song J, Brudvig G, Furey W, Jordan F. Efficient coupling of catalysis and dynamics in the E1 component of Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:1158-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results are consistent with, and reinforce the hypothesis of, coupling of catalysis and regulation with enzyme dynamics and suggest the mechanism by which it is achieved in a key branchpoint enzyme in sugar metabolism. ..
  36. Smolle M, Prior A, Brown A, Cooper A, Byron O, Lindsay J. A new level of architectural complexity in the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:19772-80 pubmed
  37. Sugden M, Holness M. Mechanisms underlying regulation of the expression and activities of the mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases. Arch Physiol Biochem. 2006;112:139-49 pubmed
    The mechanisms that control mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) activity include its phosphorylation (inactivation) by a family of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDKs 1 - 4)...
  38. Karpova T, Danchuk S, Kolobova E, Popov K. Characterization of the isozymes of pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase: implications for the regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003;1652:126-35 pubmed
    The activity of mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is regulated by a phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycle...
  39. Castro M, Molina R, Díaz W, Pradenas G, Vásquez C. Expression of Aeromonas caviae ST pyruvate dehydrogenase complex components mediate tellurite resistance in Escherichia coli. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;380:148-52 pubmed publisher
    ..from tellurite exposure, a metabolic disorder would be simultaneously established in which the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex would represent an intracellular tellurite target...
  40. Rardin M, Wiley S, Naviaux R, Murphy A, Dixon J. Monitoring phosphorylation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Anal Biochem. 2009;389:157-64 pubmed publisher
  41. Stacpoole P. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex as a therapeutic target for age-related diseases. Aging Cell. 2012;11:371-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, relatively little attention has been accorded the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) relative to how we grow old and acquire age-related diseases...
  42. Halim N, McFate T, Mohyeldin A, Okagaki P, Korotchkina L, Patel M, et al. Phosphorylation status of pyruvate dehydrogenase distinguishes metabolic phenotypes of cultured rat brain astrocytes and neurons. Glia. 2010;58:1168-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of all components of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC), the rate-limiting step for pyruvate entry into the Krebs cycle, was determined in cultured ..
  43. Bubber P, Haroutunian V, Fisch G, Blass J, Gibson G. Mitochondrial abnormalities in Alzheimer brain: mechanistic implications. Ann Neurol. 2005;57:695-703 pubmed
    ..Significant (p < 0.01) decreases occurred in the activities of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (-41%), isocitrate dehydrogenase (-27%), and the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (-57%)...
  44. Sidhu S, Gangasani A, Korotchkina L, Suzuki G, Fallavollita J, Canty J, et al. Tissue-specific pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency causes cardiac hypertrophy and sudden death of weaned male mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008;295:H946-H952 pubmed publisher
    b>Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) plays an important role in energy homeostasis in the heart by catalyzing the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate derived primarily from glucose and lactate...
  45. Foth B, Stimmler L, Handman E, Crabb B, Hodder A, McFadden G. The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum has only one pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, which is located in the apicoplast. Mol Microbiol. 2005;55:39-53 pubmed
    ..In plant plastids, a pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH) converts pyruvate into acetyl-CoA, the major fatty acid precursor, whereas a second, distinct ..
  46. Frank R, Pratap J, Pei X, Perham R, Luisi B. The molecular origins of specificity in the assembly of a multienzyme complex. Structure. 2005;13:1119-30 pubmed
    ..Additionally, the E1-PSBD structure provides insight into the organization and active site coupling within the approximately 9 MDa PDH complex. ..
  47. Fleige T, Fischer K, Ferguson D, Gross U, Bohne W. Carbohydrate metabolism in the Toxoplasma gondii apicoplast: localization of three glycolytic isoenzymes, the single pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, and a plastid phosphate translocator. Eukaryot Cell. 2007;6:984-96 pubmed
    ..The T. gondii genome encodes a single pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, which was located in the apicoplast and absent in the mitochondrion, as shown by targeting of epitope-..
  48. Schroeder M, Cochlin L, Heather L, Clarke K, Radda G, Tyler D. In vivo assessment of pyruvate dehydrogenase flux in the heart using hyperpolarized carbon-13 magnetic resonance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:12051-6 pubmed publisher
  49. Kim Y, Ingram L, Shanmugam K. Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase mutation alters the NADH sensitivity of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:3851-8 pubmed publisher
    ..coli cultures and created the new ethanologenic fermentation pathway in this bacterium. Analogous mutations in the LPD of other bacteria may also significantly influence the growth and physiology of the organisms in a similar fashion. ..
  50. Scott J, Ludwig R. Azorhizobium caulinodans electron-transferring flavoprotein N electrochemically couples pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity to N2 fixation. Microbiology. 2004;150:117-26 pubmed
    ..If so, then, the A. caulinodans PDH complex activity sustains N2 fixation both as the driving force for oxidative phosphorylation and as the metabolic electron donor...
  51. Trinh C, Li J, Blanch H, Clark D. Redesigning Escherichia coli metabolism for anaerobic production of isobutanol. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:4894-904 pubmed publisher
    ..The glycolytic flux can be controlled to regulate the ratio of isobutanol to ethanol production...
  52. Brautigam C, Wynn R, Chuang J, Chuang D. Subunit and catalytic component stoichiometries of an in vitro reconstituted human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:13086-98 pubmed publisher
    The human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is a 9.5-megadalton catalytic machine that employs three catalytic components, i.e...
  53. Lengyel J, Stott K, Wu X, Brooks B, Balbo A, Schuck P, et al. Extended polypeptide linkers establish the spatial architecture of a pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex. Structure. 2008;16:93-103 pubmed publisher