photosystem i protein complex


Summary: A large multisubunit protein complex that is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to drive electron transfer reactions that result in either the reduction of NADP to NADPH or the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.

Top Publications

  1. Mozzo M, Mantelli M, Passarini F, Caffarri S, Croce R, Bassi R. Functional analysis of Photosystem I light-harvesting complexes (Lhca) gene products of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1797:212-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the different properties of the individual Lhca complexes can be functional to adapt the architecture of the PSI-LHCI supercomplex to different environmental conditions. ..
  2. Santabarbara S, Redding K, Rappaport F. Temperature dependence of the reduction of P(700)(+) by tightly bound plastocyanin in vivo. Biochemistry. 2009;48:10457-66 pubmed publisher
    ..54-0.63 eV, which is on the lower range of the distribution for intraprotein electron transfer reactions. This low activation barrier is discussed in terms of the optimization of primary donor reduction. ..
  3. Yadavalli V, Malleda C, Subramanyam R. Protein-protein interactions by molecular modeling and biochemical characterization of PSI-LHCI supercomplexes from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Mol Biosyst. 2011;7:3143-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our 3D model may give valid structural information of the PSI-LHCI arrangement and its physiological role in C. reinhardtii. ..
  4. Busch A, Nield J, Hippler M. The composition and structure of photosystem I-associated antenna from Cyanidioschyzon merolae. Plant J. 2010;62:886-97 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the PSI antennae system of red algae represents an evolutionary intermediate between the prokaryotic cyanobacteria and other eukaryotes, such as green algae and vascular plants...
  5. Zhang Z, Jia Y, Gao H, Zhang L, Li H, Meng Q. Characterization of PSI recovery after chilling-induced photoinhibition in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) leaves. Planta. 2011;234:883-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Under a given photon flux density, faster recovery of PSII compared to PSI was detrimental to the recovery of PSI or even to the whole photosystem...
  6. Swingley W, Iwai M, Chen Y, Ozawa S, Takizawa K, Takahashi Y, et al. Characterization of photosystem I antenna proteins in the prasinophyte Ostreococcus tauri. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1797:1458-64 pubmed publisher
    ..tauri PSI may reflect primitive light-harvesting systems in green plants and their adaptation to marine ecosystems. Possible implications for the evolution of the LHC-superfamily in photosynthetic eukaryotes are discussed. ..
  7. Tolleter D, Ghysels B, Alric J, Petroutsos D, Tolstygina I, Krawietz D, et al. Control of hydrogen photoproduction by the proton gradient generated by cyclic electron flow in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Plant Cell. 2011;23:2619-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Regulation of the trans-thylakoidal proton gradient by monitoring pgrl1 expression opens new perspectives toward reprogramming the cellular metabolism of microalgae for enhanced H? production. ..
  8. Mihailova G, Petkova S, Büchel C, Georgieva K. Desiccation of the resurrection plant Haberlea rhodopensis at high temperature. Photosynth Res. 2011;108:5-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased thermal energy dissipation together with higher proline and carotenoid content in the course of desiccation at 38°C compared to desiccation at 23°C probably helped in overcoming the stress. ..
  9. Wientjes E, van Amerongen H, Croce R. LHCII is an antenna of both photosystems after long-term acclimation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1827:420-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, time-resolved fluorescence measurements on the photosynthetic thylakoid membranes show that LHCII is even a more efficient light harvester when associated with Photosystem I than with Photosystem II. ..

More Information


  1. Giera W, Ramesh V, Webber A, van Stokkum I, van Grondelle R, Gibasiewicz K. Effect of the P700 pre-oxidation and point mutations near A(0) on the reversibility of the primary charge separation in Photosystem I from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1797:106-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations of the A(0) axial ligand shift the equilibrium in the same direction as pre-oxidation of P700 due to the up-shift of the free energy level of the state A+A(0)(-). ..
  2. Iwuchukwu I, Vaughn M, Myers N, O NEILL H, Frymier P, Bruce B. Self-organized photosynthetic nanoparticle for cell-free hydrogen production. Nat Nanotechnol. 2010;5:73-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Future work will further improve this yield by increasing the kinetics of electron transfer, extending the spectral response and replacing the platinum catalyst with a renewable hydrogenase. ..
  3. Pesaresi P, Pribil M, Wunder T, Leister D. Dynamics of reversible protein phosphorylation in thylakoids of flowering plants: the roles of STN7, STN8 and TAP38. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1807:887-96 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Regulation of Electron Transport in Chloroplasts...
  4. Galka P, Santabarbara S, Khuong T, Degand H, Morsomme P, Jennings R, et al. Functional analyses of the plant photosystem I-light-harvesting complex II supercomplex reveal that light-harvesting complex II loosely bound to photosystem II is a very efficient antenna for photosystem I in state II. Plant Cell. 2012;24:2963-78 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast with the common opinion, we suggest that the mobile pool of LHCII may be considered an intimate part of the PSI antenna system that is displaced to PSII in State I...
  5. Ceppi M, Oukarroum A, Ciçek N, Strasser R, Schansker G. The IP amplitude of the fluorescence rise OJIP is sensitive to changes in the photosystem I content of leaves: a study on plants exposed to magnesium and sulfate deficiencies, drought stress and salt stress. Physiol Plant. 2012;144:277-88 pubmed publisher
    ..The good correlations between ?I(max) /I(tot) and ?F(IP) and ?V(IP) , respectively, suggest that changes in the IP amplitude can be used as semi-quantitative indicators for (relative) changes in the PSI content of the leaf. ..
  6. Johnson X, Alric J. Interaction between starch breakdown, acetate assimilation, and photosynthetic cyclic electron flow in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:26445-52 pubmed publisher
  7. Minagawa J. State transitions--the molecular remodeling of photosynthetic supercomplexes that controls energy flow in the chloroplast. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1807:897-905 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Regulation of Electron Transport in Chloroplasts. ..
  8. Peng L, Shikanai T. Supercomplex formation with photosystem I is required for the stabilization of the chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase-like complex in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2011;155:1629-39 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that NDH-PSI supercomplex formation stabilizes NDH and that the process is especially required under stress conditions. ..
  9. Peng L, Fukao Y, Fujiwara M, Takami T, Shikanai T. Efficient operation of NAD(P)H dehydrogenase requires supercomplex formation with photosystem I via minor LHCI in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2009;21:3623-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that chloroplast NDH became equipped with the novel subcomplexes and became associated with PSI during the evolution of land plants, and this process may have facilitated the efficient operation of NDH. ..
  10. Moal G, Lagoutte B. Photo-induced electron transfer from photosystem I to NADP(+): characterization and tentative simulation of the in vivo environment. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1817:1635-45 pubmed publisher
    ..This organization seems well adapted for an efficient in vivo production of the stable and fast diffusing NADPH. ..
  11. Tsukatani Y, Romberger S, Golbeck J, Bryant D. Isolation and characterization of homodimeric type-I reaction center complex from Candidatus Chloracidobacterium thermophilum, an aerobic chlorophototroph. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:5720-32 pubmed publisher
    ..4 chlorophyll a(PD), and 1.6 Zn-bacteriochlorophyll a(P)' molecules per P840 (12.8:8.0:2.0). The possible functions of the Zn-bacteriochlorophyll a(P)' molecules and the carotenoid-binding protein are discussed. ..
  12. Wientjes E, Roest G, Croce R. From red to blue to far-red in Lhca4: how does the protein modulate the spectral properties of the pigments?. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1817:711-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are discussed in the light of previously proposed non-photochemical quenching models. ..
  13. El Mohsnawy E, Kopczak M, Schlodder E, Nowaczyk M, Meyer H, Warscheid B, et al. Structure and function of intact photosystem 1 monomers from the cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus. Biochemistry. 2010;49:4740-51 pubmed publisher
  14. Wientjes E, van Stokkum I, van Amerongen H, Croce R. Excitation-energy transfer dynamics of higher plant photosystem I light-harvesting complexes. Biophys J. 2011;100:1372-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The very similar properties of the low-energy states of both dimers indicate that the organization of the involved chlorophylls should also be similar, in disagreement with the available structural data. ..
  15. Iwai M, Yokono M, Inada N, Minagawa J. Live-cell imaging of photosystem II antenna dissociation during state transitions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:2337-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Possible implications of the unbound phospho-LHCII on energy dissipation are discussed. ..
  16. Müller M, Slavov C, Luthra R, Redding K, Holzwarth A. Independent initiation of primary electron transfer in the two branches of the photosystem I reaction center. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:4123-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A unique kinetic modeling approach allows estimation of the individual ET rates within the two cofactor branches. ..
  17. Drop B, Webber Birungi M, Fusetti F, Kouril R, Redding K, Boekema E, et al. Photosystem I of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii contains nine light-harvesting complexes (Lhca) located on one side of the core. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:44878-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The analysis of several subcomplexes with reduced antenna size allows determination of the position of Lhca2 and Lhca9 and leads to a proposal for a model of the organization of the Lhcas within the PSI-LHCI supercomplex. ..
  18. Alric J. Cyclic electron flow around photosystem I in unicellular green algae. Photosynth Res. 2010;106:47-56 pubmed publisher
    ..These ultrastructural changes have been proposed to further enhance cyclic electron flow by increasing PSI antenna size, and forming PSI-cyt b(6)f supercomplexes. These hypotheses are discussed in light of recently published data. ..
  19. Wientjes E, Croce R. The light-harvesting complexes of higher-plant Photosystem I: Lhca1/4 and Lhca2/3 form two red-emitting heterodimers. Biochem J. 2011;433:477-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the comparison of the properties of the native dimers with those of the reconstituted complexes demonstrates that all of the major properties of the Lhcas are reproduced in the in vitro systems. ..
  20. Tikkanen M, Grieco M, Aro E. Novel insights into plant light-harvesting complex II phosphorylation and 'state transitions'. Trends Plant Sci. 2011;16:126-31 pubmed publisher
  21. Nelson N. Plant photosystem I--the most efficient nano-photochemical machine. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2009;9:1709-13 pubmed
    ..The structure should provide a template for designing artificial systems amenable for utilizable energy production. ..
  22. Di Donato M, Stahl A, van Stokkum I, van Grondelle R, Groot M. Cofactors involved in light-driven charge separation in photosystem I identified by subpicosecond infrared spectroscopy. Biochemistry. 2011;50:480-90 pubmed publisher
    ..radical pair. ..
  23. Millaleo R, Reyes Díaz M, Alberdi M, Ivanov A, Krol M, Huner N. Excess manganese differentially inhibits photosystem I versus II in Arabidopsis thaliana. J Exp Bot. 2013;64:343-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The possible involvement mechanisms of Mn toxicity targeting specifically PSI are discussed...
  24. Busch A, Hippler M. The structure and function of eukaryotic photosystem I. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1807:864-77 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Regulation of Electron Transport in Chloroplasts. ..
  25. Skizim N, Ananyev G, Krishnan A, Dismukes G. Metabolic pathways for photobiological hydrogen production by nitrogenase- and hydrogenase-containing unicellular cyanobacteria Cyanothece. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:2777-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparison of photobiological hydrogen rates, yields, and energy conversion efficiencies reveals opportunities for improvement...
  26. Brecht M, Radics V, Nieder J, Bittl R. Protein dynamics-induced variation of excitation energy transfer pathways. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:11857-61 pubmed publisher
    ..PCC 6803) with strongly different spectral properties underlining the general character of the findings. The variability of energy transfer pathways might play a key role in the extreme robustness of light-harvesting systems in general. ..
  27. Thangaraj B, Jolley C, Sarrou I, Bultema J, Greyslak J, Whitelegge J, et al. Efficient light harvesting in a dark, hot, acidic environment: the structure and function of PSI-LHCI from Galdieria sulphuraria. Biophys J. 2011;100:135-43 pubmed publisher
    ..This tight coupling helps Galdieria perform efficient light harvesting under the low-light conditions present in its natural endolithic habitat. ..
  28. Grouneva I, Rokka A, Aro E. The thylakoid membrane proteome of two marine diatoms outlines both diatom-specific and species-specific features of the photosynthetic machinery. J Proteome Res. 2011;10:5338-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The proteomics approach of this study further served as a tool to confirm and improve genome-derived protein models. ..
  29. Ozawa S, Nield J, Terao A, Stauber E, Hippler M, Koike H, et al. Biochemical and structural studies of the large Ycf4-photosystem I assembly complex of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Plant Cell. 2009;21:2424-42 pubmed publisher
    ..A decrease in COP2 to 10% of wild-type levels by RNA interference increased the salt sensitivity of the Ycf4 complex stability but did not affect the accumulation of PSI, suggesting that COP2 is not essential for PSI assembly. ..
  30. Wientjes E, van Stokkum I, van Amerongen H, Croce R. The role of the individual Lhcas in photosystem I excitation energy trapping. Biophys J. 2011;101:745-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Combining all the data allows the construction of a comprehensive picture of the excitation-energy transfer routes and rates in Photosystem I. ..
  31. Wang Q, Hall C, Al Adami M, He Q. IsiA is required for the formation of photosystem I supercomplexes and for efficient state transition in synechocystis PCC 6803. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10432 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrated that IsiA is required for the formation of PSI trimers and other higher complexes, and that IsiA is critical for efficient state transition. ..
  32. Ge B, Yang F, Yu D, Liu S, Xu H. Designer amphiphilic short peptides enhance thermal stability of isolated photosystem-I. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10233 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results showed that longer hydrophobic group was more effective in stabilizing PS-I. These simple short peptides therefore exhibit significant potential for applications in membrane protein studies. ..
  33. Adolphs J, Müh F, Madjet M, am Busch M, Renger T. Structure-based calculations of optical spectra of photosystem I suggest an asymmetric light-harvesting process. J Am Chem Soc. 2010;132:3331-43 pubmed publisher
    ..This asymmetry in light-harvesting may provide the key for understanding the asymmetric use of the two branches in primary electron transfer reactions. Experiments are suggested to check for this possibility. ..
  34. Iwai M, Takizawa K, Tokutsu R, Okamuro A, Takahashi Y, Minagawa J. Isolation of the elusive supercomplex that drives cyclic electron flow in photosynthesis. Nature. 2010;464:1210-3 pubmed publisher
    ..1). Thus, formation and dissociation of the PSI-LHCI-LHCII-FNR-Cyt bf-PGRL1 supercomplex not only controlled the energy balance of the two photosystems, but also switched the mode of photosynthetic electron flow. ..
  35. Subramanyam R, Jolley C, Thangaraj B, Nellaepalli S, Webber A, Fromme P. Structural and functional changes of PSI-LHCI supercomplexes of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells grown under high salt conditions. Planta. 2010;231:913-22 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that the PSI-LHCI supercomplex is damaged by reactive oxygen species at high salt concentration, with particular impact on the ferredoxin-docking site and the PSILHCI interface. ..
  36. Amunts A, Nelson N. Plant photosystem I design in the light of evolution. Structure. 2009;17:637-50 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, some aspects of PSI structure determination are discussed. ..
  37. Chauhan D, Folea I, Jolley C, Kouril R, Lubner C, Lin S, et al. A novel photosynthetic strategy for adaptation to low-iron aquatic environments. Biochemistry. 2011;50:686-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Excitation trapping and electron transfer are highly efficient, allowing cyanobacteria to avoid oxidative stress. This mechanism may be a major factor used by cyanobacteria to successfully adapt to modern low-Fe environments. ..
  38. Hasegawa M, Shiina T, Terazima M, Kumazaki S. Selective excitation of photosystems in chloroplasts inside plant leaves observed by near-infrared laser-based fluorescence spectral microscopy. Plant Cell Physiol. 2010;51:225-38 pubmed publisher
    ..A new methodology using an NIR laser to detect the PSI/PSII ratio in single chloroplasts in leaves at room temperature is described. ..
  39. de Bianchi S, Betterle N, Kouril R, Cazzaniga S, Boekema E, Bassi R, et al. Arabidopsis mutants deleted in the light-harvesting protein Lhcb4 have a disrupted photosystem II macrostructure and are defective in photoprotection. Plant Cell. 2011;23:2659-79 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that Lhcb4 is unique among photosystem II antenna proteins and determinant for photosystem II macro-organization and photoprotection...
  40. Amunts A, Toporik H, Borovikova A, Nelson N. Structure determination and improved model of plant photosystem I. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:3478-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Using the new crystal structure, we examine the network of contacts among the protein subunits from the structural perspective, which provide the basis for elucidating the functional organization of the complex...
  41. Sharon I, Alperovitch A, Rohwer F, Haynes M, Glaser F, Atamna Ismaeel N, et al. Photosystem I gene cassettes are present in marine virus genomes. Nature. 2009;461:258-262 pubmed publisher
  42. Krüger T, Wientjes E, Croce R, van Grondelle R. Conformational switching explains the intrinsic multifunctionality of plant light-harvesting complexes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:13516-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that this functionality is modulated and controlled by the protein environment. ..
  43. Dashdorj N, Xu W, Cohen R, Golbeck J, Savikhin S. Asymmetric electron transfer in cyanobacterial Photosystem I: charge separation and secondary electron transfer dynamics of mutations near the primary electron acceptor A0. Biophys J. 2005;88:1238-49 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that electron transfer in cyanobacterial Photosystem I is asymmetric and occurs primarily along the PsaA branch of cofactors. ..
  44. Vaitekonis S, Trinkunas G, Valkunas L. Red chlorophylls in the exciton model of photosystem I. Photosynth Res. 2005;86:185-201 pubmed
    ..Such mixing effect enables resolving the diversity in the molecular transition energies as determined by different theoretical approaches. ..
  45. Shikanai T. Cyclic electron transport around photosystem I: genetic approaches. Annu Rev Plant Biol. 2007;58:199-217 pubmed
    ..Based on several lines of evidence presented here, it is necessary to reconsider the fundamental mechanisms of chloroplast energetics. ..
  46. Barneche F, Winter V, Crèvecoeur M, Rochaix J. ATAB2 is a novel factor in the signalling pathway of light-controlled synthesis of photosystem proteins. EMBO J. 2006;25:5907-18 pubmed
    ..Considering its role in protein synthesis and its photoreceptor-mediated expression, ATAB2 represents a novel factor in the signalling pathway of light-controlled translation of photosystem proteins during early plant development. ..
  47. Lucinski R, Schmid V, Jansson S, Klimmek F. Lhca5 interaction with plant photosystem I. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:6485-8 pubmed
    ..This flexibility indicates a binding-competitive model for the LHCI assembly in plants regulated by molecular interactions of the Lhca proteins with the PSI core. ..
  48. Holzwarth A, Müller M, Niklas J, Lubitz W. Ultrafast transient absorption studies on photosystem I reaction centers from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. 2: mutations near the P700 reaction center chlorophylls provide new insight into the nature of the primary electron donor. Biophys J. 2006;90:552-65 pubmed
    ..and A. R. Holzwarth. 2000. J. Phys. Chem. B. 104:11563-11578). ..
  49. Ihnatowicz A, Pesaresi P, Leister D. The E subunit of photosystem I is not essential for linear electron flow and photoautotrophic growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. Planta. 2007;226:889-95 pubmed
    ..The psae1-3 psae2-1 double mutant totally lacked PSI-E but was still able to grow photoautotrophically, implying that PSI-E is not essential for PSI accumulation and thylakoid electron flow. ..
  50. Fujimori T, Higuchi M, Sato H, Aiba H, Muramatsu M, Hihara Y, et al. The mutant of sll1961, which encodes a putative transcriptional regulator, has a defect in regulation of photosystem stoichiometry in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Plant Physiol. 2005;139:408-16 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that a transcriptional regulator, Sll1961, and its possible target proteins, including Sll1773, may be responsible for the regulation of photosystem stoichiometry in response to high light. ..
  51. Kouril R, Arteni A, Lax J, Yeremenko N, D Haene S, Rögner M, et al. Structure and functional role of supercomplexes of IsiA and Photosystem I in cyanobacterial photosynthesis. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:3253-7 pubmed
    ..Work on mutants indicates that the PsaF/J and PsaL subunits facilitate the formation of closed rings around Photosystem I monomers but are not obligatory components in the formation of Photosystem I-IsiA supercomplexes. ..
  52. Morosinotto T, Ballottari M, Klimmek F, Jansson S, Bassi R. The association of the antenna system to photosystem I in higher plants. Cooperative interactions stabilize the supramolecular complex and enhance red-shifted spectral forms. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:31050-8 pubmed
    ..When compared with Photosystem II, the association of peripheral antenna complexes in PSI appears to be more stable, but far less flexible and functional implications are discussed. ..
  53. Rajagopal S, Joly D, Gauthier A, Beauregard M, Carpentier R. Protective effect of active oxygen scavengers on protein degradation and photochemical function in photosystem I submembrane fractions during light stress. FEBS J. 2005;272:892-902 pubmed
    ..The specific action of histidine and n-propyl gallate indicates that 1O2 was the main form of reactive oxygen species responsible for strong light-induced damage in PSI submembrane fractions. ..