succinate cytochrome c oxidoreductase


Summary: An electron transport chain complex that catalyzes the transfer of electrons from SUCCINATE to CYTOCHROME C. It includes ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX II and ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III.

Top Publications

  1. Chen J, Chen C, Alevriadou B, Zweier J, Chen Y. Excess no predisposes mitochondrial succinate-cytochrome c reductase to produce hydroxyl radical. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1807:491-502 pubmed publisher
    ..With shear exposure that led to overproduction of NO by the endothelium, SCR-mediated oxygen-free radical production was also detected in cultured vascular endothelial cells...
  2. Roy Chowdhury S, Sangle G, Xie X, Stelmack G, Halayko A, Shen G. Effects of extensively oxidized low-density lipoprotein on mitochondrial function and reactive oxygen species in porcine aortic endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010;298:E89-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these effects could contribute to vascular injury and atherogenesis under conditions of hypercholesterolemia and oxidative stress. ..
  3. Chen M, Zhai L, Christensen S, Theander T, Kharazmi A. Inhibition of fumarate reductase in Leishmania major and L. donovani by chalcones. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001;45:2023-9 pubmed
    ..Since FRD exists in the Leishmania parasite and does not exist in mammalian cells, it could be an excellent target for antiprotozoal drugs. ..
  4. Obasi S. Effects of scopoletin and aflatoxin B1 on bovine hepatic mitochondrial respiratory complexes, 2: a-ketoglutarate cytochrome c and succinate cytochrome c reductases. Z Naturforsch C. 2001;56:278-82 pubmed
    ..These observations are discussed in terms of the relative locations of the enzymes in the mitochondria, and the previously reported inhibitory and uncoupling effects of the toxins on cow liver mitochondrial respiration. ..
  5. Fannin S, Lesnefsky E, Slabe T, Hassan M, Hoppel C. Aging selectively decreases oxidative capacity in rat heart interfibrillar mitochondria. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1999;372:399-407 pubmed
    ..The selective alteration of IFM during aging raises the possibility that the consequences of aging-induced mitochondrial dysfunction will be enhanced in specific subcellular regions of the senescent myocyte. ..
  6. Dadak V, Dudák J, Zboril P. Electron transfer in Paracoccus denitrificans with the modified fbc operon. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2009;54:475-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In view of the interaction of the redox components in native membranes the functional analyses of separated Complexes II and III should be regarded with caution. ..
  7. Mueller S, Gehrig S, Petersen J, Frese S, Mihaylova V, Ligon Auer M, et al. Effects of endurance training on skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in Huntington disease patients. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2017;12:184 pubmed publisher NCT01879267 . Registered May 24, 2012. ..
  8. Brasseur G, Tron G, Dujardin G, Slonimski P, Brivet Chevillotte P. The nuclear ABC1 gene is essential for the correct conformation and functioning of the cytochrome bc1 complex and the neighbouring complexes II and IV in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Eur J Biochem. 1997;246:103-11 pubmed
  9. Monteiro J, Oliveira P, Moreno A, Jurado A. Disruption of hepatic mitochondrial bioenergetics is not a primary mechanism for the toxicity of methoprene - relevance for toxicological assessment. Chemosphere. 2008;72:1347-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, it seems that mitochondrial activity does not represent the primary target for methoprene toxic action. ..

More Information


  1. Lin A, Hsu T, Yang C, Chang L. Effects of aging on mitochondrial enzyme activity of rat urinary bladder. Urol Int. 2000;65:144-7 pubmed
    ..8% of the activity of young bladders. Aging reduces the mitochondrial enzyme activity of the rat bladder resulting in a lower energy-production capability, which might explain some of the voiding dysfunctions found in the elderly. ..
  2. Yen D, Chan J, Huang C, Lee C, Chan S, Chang A. Coenzyme q10 confers cardiovascular protection against acute mevinphos intoxication by ameliorating bioenergetic failure and hypoxia in the rostral ventrolateral medulla of the rat. Shock. 2005;23:353-9 pubmed
  3. Hautakangas M, Hinttala R, Rantala H, Nieminen P, Uusimaa J, Hassinen I. Evaluating clinical mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes from biopsy specimens presenting skewed probability distribution of activity data. Mitochondrion. 2016;29:53-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Impact of the log-normal distribution of the respiratory chain enzyme activities on clinical diagnostics is discussed. ..
  4. Komissarova I, Nartsissov Y, Burbenskaya N. Effects of phenobarbital on activity of mitochondrial enzymes in peripheral blood lymphocytes and oxidative phosphorylation in liver mitochondria. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2001;131:330-2 pubmed
    ..The respiratory control and ADP/O ratio for these substrates did not differ from the control. ..
  5. Han F, Da T, Riobo N, Becker L. Early mitochondrial dysfunction in electron transfer activity and reactive oxygen species generation after cardiac arrest. Crit Care Med. 2008;36:S447-53 pubmed
    ..Changes in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation and electron transfer from complex I occur along with tyrosine nitrosylation and loss of cytochrome c; these may represent important new targets for future human therapies. ..
  6. Cortés Rojo C, Calderón Cortés E, Clemente Guerrero M, Manzo Avalos S, Uribe S, Boldogh I, et al. Electron transport chain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria is inhibited by H2O2 at succinate-cytochrome c oxidoreductase level without lipid peroxidation involvement. Free Radic Res. 2007;41:1212-23 pubmed
    ..However, H2O2 addition to rat brain and liver mitochondria induced an increase in lipid peroxidation. These results are discussed in terms of the known physiological differences between mammalian and yeast mitochondria. ..
  7. Brown J, Gerson A, Staples J. Mitochondrial metabolism during daily torpor in the dwarf Siberian hamster: role of active regulated changes and passive thermal effects. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;293:R1833-45 pubmed
    ..Overall, we have shown that both active and passive changes to oxidative phosphorylation occur during daily torpor in this species, contributing to reduced metabolic rate. ..
  8. Harvey B, Toth C, Wagner H, Steele G, Thomas P. Sialyltransferase activity and hepatic tumor growth in a nude mouse model of colorectal cancer metastases. Cancer Res. 1992;52:1775-9 pubmed
  9. Schild L, Jaroscakova I, Lendeckel U, Wolf G, Keilhoff G. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase controls enzyme activity pattern of mitochondria and lipid metabolism. FASEB J. 2006;20:145-7 pubmed
    ..Our results show that the activities of NADH:cytochrome c oxidoreductase and succinate cytochrome c oxidoreductase differ between WT and nNOS-KO mice...
  10. Balbaa M, Khalifa M, el Sabawaya M, Kandeel K. Inhibition of succinate-cytochrome C reductase by a ferromacrocyclic complex. J Enzyme Inhib. 2001;16:381-90 pubmed
    ..These findings suggested that the structure of the equatorial benzoquinoid macrocyclic ligand of the Fe(II) complex is involved in the enzyme inhibition. ..
  11. Gupta D, Arora R, Garg A, Bala M, Goel H. Modification of radiation damage to mitochondrial system in vivo by Podophyllum hexandrum: mechanistic aspects. Mol Cell Biochem. 2004;266:65-77 pubmed
    ..However, RP-1 treatment before irradiation modulates radiation induced perturbations such as the increase in electron transport chain enzyme activity, formation of O2-, TBARS and PC to offer radioprotection...
  12. Nadanaciva S, Bernal A, Aggeler R, Capaldi R, Will Y. Target identification of drug induced mitochondrial toxicity using immunocapture based OXPHOS activity assays. Toxicol In Vitro. 2007;21:902-11 pubmed
    ..A major advantage of the immunocapture approach is that it can be used throughout drug screening from early compound evaluation to clinical trials. ..
  13. Nakai M, Harabayashi M, Hase T, Matsubara H. Protein sorting between the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes: submitochondrial localization of cytochrome c1 whose presequence is replaced by the amino-terminal region of a 70 kDa outer membrane protein. J Biochem. 1989;106:181-7 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that a mitochondrial targeting signal alone is sufficient to direct cytochrome c1 of mature size to the inner membrane. ..
  14. Peixoto F, Martins F, Amaral C, Gomes Laranjo J, Almeida J, Palmeira C. Evaluation of olive oil mill wastewater toxicity on the mitochondrial bioenergetics after treatment with Candida oleophila. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2008;70:266-75 pubmed publisher
    ..However, supplementary treatment should be applied before OMW could be considered non-toxic. ..
  15. Li Y, Cai M, Xu Y, Swartz H, He G. Late phase ischemic preconditioning preserves mitochondrial oxygen metabolism and attenuates post-ischemic myocardial tissue hyperoxygenation. Life Sci. 2011;88:57-64 pubmed publisher
    ..5 ± 0.4% vs. 33.3 ± 0.6%, p<0.05). Thus, LPC preserved mitochondrial oxygen metabolism, attenuated post-ischemic myocardial tissue hyperoxygenation, and reduced I/R injury. ..
  16. Byrne E, Trounce I, Dennett X, Gilligan B, Morley J, Marzuki S. Progression from MERRF to MELAS phenotype in a patient with combined respiratory complex I and IV deficiencies. J Neurol Sci. 1988;88:327-37 pubmed
  17. Balbaa M, Al Meer J, Al Khal A. Effect of some cardiac and respiratory drugs on succinate-cytochrome c reductase. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2004;19:343-7 pubmed
    ..5 x 10(-5) and 5.7 x 10(-5)M, respectively. Moreover, neostigmine competitively inhibited the enzyme towards both substrates with Ki values of 1.36 x 10(-5) and 1.50 x 10(-5)M, respectively...
  18. Gardner A, Pagani M, Beier H, Jacobsson H, Larsson S, Hällström T. 99mTc-HMPAO distribution at SPECT is associated with succinate-cytochrome c reductase (SCR) activity in subjects with psychiatric disorders. Nucl Med Biol. 2004;31:277-82 pubmed
    ..The negative relationship between (99m)Tc-HMPAO uptake and SCR activity may be due to redox state alterations influencing fixation of the radiopharmaceutical. ..
  19. Cardoso S, Proença M, Santos S, Santana I, Oliveira C. Cytochrome c oxidase is decreased in Alzheimer's disease platelets. Neurobiol Aging. 2004;25:105-10 pubmed
    ..We conclude that COX catalytic activity is indeed diminished in AD platelet mitochondria, does not result from altered membrane fluidity, and is associated with ROS overproduction and ATP under-production. ..
  20. Vu T, Tanji K, Holve S, Bonilla E, Sokol R, Snyder R, et al. Navajo neurohepatopathy: a mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome?. Hepatology. 2001;34:116-20 pubmed
    ..Using histochemical, biochemical, and molecular techniques, we found evidence of mtDNA depletion, and we propose that the primary defect in NNH is in the nuclear regulation of mtDNA copy number. ..
  21. Jewess P, Chamberlain K, Boogaard A, Devonshire A, Khambay B. Insecticidal 2-hydroxy-3-alkyl-1,4-naphthoquinones: correlation of inhibition of ubiquinol cytochrome c oxidoreductase (complex III) with insecticidal activity. Pest Manag Sci. 2002;58:243-7 pubmed
    ..Complex III isolated from whitefly was optimally inhibited by hydroxy analogues with lower Log Ko/w values (6.0-6.5) and was also more sensitive than the blowfly enzyme to all the compounds tested. ..
  22. Hargreaves I, Heales S, Briddon A, Land J, Lee P. Blood mononuclear cell coenzyme Q10 concentration and mitochondrial respiratory chain succinate cytochrome-c reductase activity in phenylketonuric patients. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2002;25:673-9 pubmed
  23. Ghneim H, Al Sheikh Y. The effect of aging and increasing ascorbate concentrations on respiratory chain activity in cultured human fibroblasts. Cell Biochem Funct. 2010;28:283-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Enzyme activities could be completely or partially restored in the presence of double or triple normal human plasma ascorbate concentrations. ..
  24. Campos Y, Arenas J, Cabello A, Gomez Reino J. Respiratory chain enzyme defects in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy. Ann Rheum Dis. 1995;54:491-3 pubmed
    ..Carnitine concentrations, measured in two of the four patients, revealed carnitine deficiency in one. Our results suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction may be present in patients with inflammatory myositis. ..
  25. Colby G, Ishii Y, Tzagoloff A. Suppression of sdh1 mutations by the SDH1b gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast. 1998;14:1001-6 pubmed
    ..This is also supported by the absence of any obvious phenotype in cells with a disrupted copy of SDH1b. ..
  26. Orth M, Tabrizi S, Schapira A, Cooper J. Alpha-synuclein expression in HEK293 cells enhances the mitochondrial sensitivity to rotenone. Neurosci Lett. 2003;351:29-32 pubmed
  27. Phillips M, Hederstedt L, Hasnain S, Rutberg L, Guest J. Nucleotide sequence encoding the flavoprotein and iron-sulfur protein subunits of the Bacillus subtilis PY79 succinate dehydrogenase complex. J Bacteriol. 1987;169:864-73 pubmed
    ..coli subunits. The regions of highest sequence conservation were identifiable as the catalytically significant flavin adenine dinucleotide-binding sites and cysteine clusters of the iron-sulfur centers. ..
  28. Peixoto F, Vicente J, Madeira V. The herbicide dicamba (2-methoxy-3,6-dichlorobenzoic acid) interacts with mitochondrial bioenergetic functions. Arch Toxicol. 2003;77:403-9 pubmed
  29. Nakai D, Shimizu T, Nojiri H, Uchiyama S, Koike H, Takahashi M, et al. coq7/clk-1 regulates mitochondrial respiration and the generation of reactive oxygen species via coenzyme Q. Aging Cell. 2004;3:273-81 pubmed
    ..This implied that the depressed activity of respiratory enzymes and the depressed production of ROS may play a physiological role in the control of lifespan in mammalian species and of C. elegans. ..
  30. Pavlakis S, Phillips P, DiMauro S, De Vivo D, Rowland L. Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and strokelike episodes: a distinctive clinical syndrome. Ann Neurol. 1984;16:481-8 pubmed
    ..The ragged red fibers suggest an abnormality of the electron transport system, but the precise biochemical disorders in these three clinical syndromes remain to be elucidated. ..
  31. Fry M, Hudson A, Randall A, Williams R. Potent and selective hydroxynaphthoquinone inhibitors of mitochondrial electron transport in Eimeria tenella (Apicomplexa: Coccidia). Biochem Pharmacol. 1984;33:2115-22 pubmed
    ..E. tenella lines made resistant to the anticoccidial agents decoquinate or clopidol showed no cross-resistance to the hydroxynaphthoquinones, either at the level of electron transport or in vivo. ..
  32. Smith P, Cooper J, Govan G, Harding A, Schapira A. Platelet mitochondrial function in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. J Neurol Sci. 1994;122:80-3 pubmed
    ..002) in those with this mutation who smoked. This reflects an increase in mitochondrial mass with the 11,778 mutation. This effect was not observed with the 3460 mutation even though the complex deficiency was much more severe. ..
  33. Lin N, Liu C, Chang C, Loong C, Hsia C, Tsai H. Changes in mitochondrial respiratory enzyme activity after ischemia-reperfusion injury in living-donor liver transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2010;42:721-4 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, changes in mitochondrial respiratory enzyme activity failed to predict the severity of I-R injury in LDLT. The organ preservation solution may play a protective role on mitochondrial respiratory enzymes during I-R injury. ..
  34. Zhao Y, Xu J. The operation of the alternative electron-leak pathways mediated by cytochrome c in mitochondria. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;317:980-7 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the reductive state of cytochrome c caused by electron-flow is necessary and sufficient for the operation of cytochrome c-mediated electron-leakage pathway. ..
  35. Seyfried J, Soldner F, Schulz J, Klockgether T, Kovar K, Wullner U. Differential effects of L-buthionine sulfoximine and ethacrynic acid on glutathione levels and mitochondrial function in PC12 cells. Neurosci Lett. 1999;264:1-4 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that mitochondrial GSH is critical for the maintenance of mitochondrial function and cellular viability. ..
  36. Derakhshan M, Willcocks M, Salako M, Kass G, Carter M. Human herpesvirus 1 protein US3 induces an inhibition of mitochondrial electron transport. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:2155-9 pubmed
    ..The integrity of the electron-transport chain in HHV-1-infected cells was analysed further and the site of the block in electron transport was located between complexes II and III, a site previously shown to be affected by Poliovirus. ..
  37. Johnson W, Demars L. Increased heme oxygenase-1 expression during copper deficiency in rats results from increased mitochondrial generation of hydrogen peroxide. J Nutr. 2004;134:1328-33 pubmed
    ..The levels of HO-1 protein and mRNA were also elevated (85 and 95%, respectively) in hearts from copper-deficient rats, indicating that the effects of copper deficiency on HO-1 gene expression are not limited to hepatic tissue. ..
  38. Rauchová H, Drahota Z, Rauch P, Fato R, Lenaz G. Coenzyme Q releases the inhibitory effect of free fatty acids on mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase. Acta Biochim Pol. 2003;50:405-13 pubmed
    ..The presented data suggest differences between mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase and succinate or NADH dehydrogenases in the transfer of reducing equivalents to the CoQ pool. ..
  39. Trumpower B. Function of the iron-sulfur protein of the cytochrome b-c1 segment in electron-transfer and energy-conserving reactions of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1981;639:129-55 pubmed
  40. Joshi A, Raju N, Rajini P. Microplate-based kinetic method for assay of mitochondrial NADH-- and succinate--cytochrome c reductase activities. Anal Biochem. 2011;415:209-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The microplate format described here can be employed for rapid and simultaneous measurements of mitochondrial NADH-- and succinate--cytochrome c reductase activities in a large number of samples. ..
  41. Fujiwara A, Yasumasu I. Does the respiratory rate in sea urchin embryos increase during early development without proliferation of mitochondria?. Dev Growth Differ. 1997;39:179-89 pubmed
    ..Acceptor control of respiration is experimentally reproduced in isolated mitochondria by making adenine nucleotide levels as those levels in the pre-hatching period...
  42. Danhauser K, Herebian D, Haack T, Rodenburg R, Strom T, Meitinger T, et al. Fatal neonatal encephalopathy and lactic acidosis caused by a homozygous loss-of-function variant in COQ9. Eur J Hum Genet. 2016;24:450-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the rescue of cellular CoQ10 levels and respiratory chain complex activities by CoQ10 supplementation points to the importance of an early diagnosis and immediate treatment. ..
  43. Tsai M, Huang C, Tsai S, Tsai C, Chen H, Cheng H, et al. The difference in myocardial injuries and mitochondrial damages between asphyxial and ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrests. Am J Emerg Med. 2012;30:1540-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Both VF and asphyxial cardiac arrests caused myocardial injuries and mitochondrial damages. Asphyxial cardiac arrest presented more diffuse myocardial injuries and more severe mitochondrial damages than VF cardiac arrest. ..
  44. Wang Z, Li M, Zhao Y, Xu J. Cytochrome C is a hydrogen peroxide scavenger in mitochondria. Protein Pept Lett. 2003;10:247-53 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, ferrocytochrome c underwent re-oxidization when H(2)O(2) was added. Thus, these results indicate that cytochrome c reduced by succinate cytochrome c reductase has the ability to regulate H(2)O(max) in mitochondria. ..
  45. Blumenthal D, Shanske S, Schochet S, Santorelli F, DiMauro S, Jaynesm M, et al. Myoclonus epilepsy with ragged red fibers and multiple mtDNA deletions. Neurology. 1998;50:524-5 pubmed
    ..This case further illustrates the heterogeneity observed with mtDNA mutations. ..
  46. Montero R, Artuch R, Briones P, Nascimento A, Garcia Cazorla A, Vilaseca M, et al. Muscle coenzyme Q10 concentrations in patients with probable and definite diagnosis of respiratory chain disorders. Biofactors. 2005;25:109-15 pubmed
    ..555; p = 0.001; and r = 0.460; p = 0.005, respectively). In conclusion, measurement of MRC enzyme activities is a useful tool for the detection of CoQ deficiency, which should be confirmed by CoQ quantification. ..
  47. Roussel D, Boël M, Romestaing C. Fasting enhances mitochondrial efficiency in duckling skeletal muscle by acting on the substrate oxidation system. J Exp Biol. 2018;221: pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the main site of action would be located at the level of co-enzyme Q pool/complex III of the electron transport chain. ..
  48. Ben Meir A, Yahalomi S, Moshe B, Shufaro Y, Reubinoff B, Saada A. Coenzyme Q-dependent mitochondrial respiratory chain activity in granulosa cells is reduced with aging. Fertil Steril. 2015;104:724-7 pubmed publisher
  49. Wang F, Li H, Wang L, Yang W, Wu J, Yang G. Design, syntheses, and kinetic evaluation of 3-(phenylamino)oxazolidine-2,4-diones as potent cytochrome bc? complex inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem. 2011;19:4608-15 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first report that famoxadone and its analogs have effects on the interaction between the complex II and the bc? complex. ..
  50. Dhanakoti S, Brosnan M, Herzberg G, Brosnan J. Cellular and subcellular localization of enzymes of arginine metabolism in rat kidney. Biochem J. 1992;282 ( Pt 2):369-75 pubmed
    ..Subcellular fractionation of kidney cortex revealed that argininosuccinate synthase and lyase are cytosolic. We therefore conclude that arginine synthesis occurs in the cytoplasm of the cells of the proximal convoluted tubule. ..
  51. Vanhorebeek I, Baes M, Declercq P. Isoprenoid biosynthesis is not compromised in a Zellweger syndrome mouse model. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001;1532:28-36 pubmed
    ..Our results show that there is no deficiency of isoprenoids in newborn Pex5(-/-) mice, excluding the possibility that a lack of these compounds is a determinant factor in the development of the disease state before birth. ..
  52. Bizeau M, Willis W, Hazel J. Differential responses to endurance training in subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar mitochondria. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1998;85:1279-84 pubmed
    ..IDH activity increased 32% in the trained IMF but remained unchanged in SS mitochondria. We conclude that endurance training promotes substantial changes in protein stoichiometry and composition of both SS and IMF mitochondria...
  53. Goel H, Gupta D, Gupta S, Garg A, Bala M. Protection of mitochondrial system by Hippophae rhamnoides L. against radiation-induced oxidative damage in mice. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2005;57:135-43 pubmed
    ..05) at all the time periods studied here. This study suggests that pre-irradiation treatment of mice with RH-3 protects the functional integrity of mitochondria from radiation-induced oxidative stress. ..