x linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein

Summary

Summary: An inhibitor of apoptosis protein that is translated by a rare cap-independent mechanism. It blocks caspase-mediated cellular destruction by inhibiting CASPASE 3; CASPASE 7; and CASPASE 9.

Top Publications

  1. Schimmer A, Estey E, Borthakur G, Carter B, Schiller G, Tallman M, et al. Phase I/II trial of AEG35156 X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein antisense oligonucleotide combined with idarubicin and cytarabine in patients with relapsed or primary refractory acute myeloid leukemia. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:4741-6 pubmed publisher
    ..At the highest dose tested, AEG35156 knocks down its target and appears very effective when combined with chemotherapy in patients with AML refractory to a single induction regimen. ..
  2. Dean E, Jodrell D, Connolly K, Danson S, Jolivet J, Durkin J, et al. Phase I trial of AEG35156 administered as a 7-day and 3-day continuous intravenous infusion in patients with advanced refractory cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:1660-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Phase I/II trials of AEG35156 chemotherapy combinations are ongoing in patients with pancreatic, breast, non-small-cell lung cancer, acute myeloid leukemia, lymphoma, and solid tumors for which docetaxel is indicated. ..
  3. Seneci P, Bianchi A, Battaglia C, Belvisi L, Bolognesi M, Caprini A, et al. Rational design, synthesis and characterization of potent, non-peptidic Smac mimics/XIAP inhibitors as proapoptotic agents for cancer therapy. Bioorg Med Chem. 2009;17:5834-56 pubmed publisher
    ..In vitro characterization (XIAP BIR3 and linker-BIR2-BIR3 binding, cytotox assays, early ADMET profiling) of the compounds has been performed, identifying one lead for further in vitro and in vivo evaluation. ..
  4. Cossu F, Milani M, Mastrangelo E, Vachette P, Servida F, Lecis D, et al. Structural basis for bivalent Smac-mimetics recognition in the IAP protein family. J Mol Biol. 2009;392:630-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the results reported here provide a rationale for further development of compound 3 as a lead in the design of dimeric Smac mimetics for cancer treatment. ..
  5. Gu L, Zhu N, Zhang H, Durden D, Feng Y, Zhou M. Regulation of XIAP translation and induction by MDM2 following irradiation. Cancer Cell. 2009;15:363-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Upregulation of XIAP in MDM2-overexpressing cancer cells in response to irradiation resulted in resistance of these cells to radiation-induced apoptosis. ..
  6. Van Themsche C, Leblanc V, Parent S, Asselin E. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) regulates PTEN ubiquitination, content, and compartmentalization. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:20462-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we found that XIAP can directly ubiquitinate PTEN in vitro. We thus propose that XIAP acts as an E3 ubiquitin ligase for PTEN and promotes Akt activity by regulating PTEN content and compartmentalization. ..
  7. Ndubaku C, Varfolomeev E, Wang L, Zobel K, Lau K, Elliott L, et al. Antagonism of c-IAP and XIAP proteins is required for efficient induction of cell death by small-molecule IAP antagonists. ACS Chem Biol. 2009;4:557-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, although compounds that specifically target c-IAP1 and c-IAP2 are capable of inducing apoptosis, antagonism of the c-IAP proteins and XIAP is required for efficient induction of cancer cell death by IAP antagonists. ..
  8. Seeger J, Brinkmann K, Yazdanpanah B, Haubert D, Pongratz C, Coutelle O, et al. Elevated XIAP expression alone does not confer chemoresistance. Br J Cancer. 2010;102:1717-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that in order to predict the impact of XIAP on chemosusceptibility for a given tumour entity, the expression levels and functional states of all XIAP modulators need to be taken into account. ..
  9. Dean E, Ward T, Pinilla C, Houghten R, Welsh K, Makin G, et al. A small molecule inhibitor of XIAP induces apoptosis and synergises with vinorelbine and cisplatin in NSCLC. Br J Cancer. 2010;102:97-103 pubmed publisher
    ..These preclinical data suggest that XIAP inhibition in combination with vinorelbine holds potential as a therapeutic strategy in NSCLC. ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Song D, Gao Y, Wang R, Liu D, Zhao L, Jing Y. Downregulation of c-FLIP, XIAP and Mcl-1 protein as well as depletion of reduced glutathione contribute to the apoptosis induction of glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives in leukemia cells. Cancer Biol Ther. 2010;9:96-108 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that both agents induce apoptosis requiring to bind to functional proteins with thiol groups and that GSH may play a protective role by forming inactive adducts with them. ..
  2. Loeder S, Drensek A, Jeremias I, Debatin K, Fulda S. Small molecule XIAP inhibitors sensitize childhood acute leukemia cells for CD95-induced apoptosis. Int J Cancer. 2010;126:2216-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, small molecule XIAP inhibitors present a promising novel approach to enhance CD95-induced apoptosis in childhood acute leukemia. ..
  3. Bourguignon L, Spevak C, Wong G, Xia W, Gilad E. Hyaluronan-CD44 interaction with protein kinase C(epsilon) promotes oncogenic signaling by the stem cell marker Nanog and the Production of microRNA-21, leading to down-regulation of the tumor suppressor protein PDCD4, anti-apoptosis, and chemotherap. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:26533-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this newly discovered HA-CD44 signaling pathway should provide important drug targets for sensitizing tumor cell apoptosis and overcoming chemotherapy resistance in breast cancer cells. ..
  4. Mitsuishi T, Iwabu Y, Tokunaga K, Sata T, Kaneko T, Ohara K, et al. Combined analysis of cell growth and apoptosis-regulating proteins in HPVs associated anogenital tumors. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:118 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we evaluated molecules that are relevant to cellular proliferation and regulation of apoptosis in HPV associated anogenital tumors...
  5. Momeny M, Zakidizaji M, Ghasemi R, Dehpour A, Rahimi Balaei M, Abdolazimi Y, et al. Arsenic trioxide induces apoptosis in NB-4, an acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line, through up-regulation of p73 via suppression of nuclear factor kappa B-mediated inhibition of p73 transcription and prevention of NF-kappaB-mediated induction of X. Med Oncol. 2010;27:833-42 pubmed publisher
  6. Dai Y, Liu M, Tang W, Li Y, Lian J, Lawrence T, et al. A Smac-mimetic sensitizes prostate cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis via modulating both IAPs and NF-kappaB. BMC Cancer. 2009;9:392 pubmed publisher
    ..Modulating IAPs may represent a promising approach to overcoming TRAIL-resistance in human prostate cancer with constitutively active NF-kappaB signaling. ..
  7. Chiu C, Lin K, Chien C, Chang L, Lin S. Effects of cardiotoxin III on NF-kappaB function, proliferation, and apoptosis in human breast MCF-7 cancer cells. Oncol Res. 2009;17:311-21 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest the molecular basis for CTX III-induced apoptotic death of MCF-7 cells. ..
  8. Li J, Li Y, Qin D, von Harsdorf R, Li P. Mitochondrial fission leads to Smac/DIABLO release quenched by ARC. Apoptosis. 2010;15:1187-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data reveal that Smac/DIABLO is a target of ARC in counteracting apoptosis. ..
  9. Kim D, Kim K, Shin M, Ha J, Seo S, Yang J, et al. siRNA-based targeting of antiapoptotic genes can reverse chemoresistance in P-glycoprotein expressing chondrosarcoma cells. Mol Cancer. 2009;8:28 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the results, a new siRNA-based therapeutic strategy targeting antiapoptotic genes can be designed to overcome the chemoresistance of chondrosarcomas which is often conferred by P-glycoprotein. ..
  10. Hiscutt E, Hill D, Martin S, Kerr R, Harbottle A, Birch Machin M, et al. Targeting X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein to increase the efficacy of endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis for melanoma therapy. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130:2250-8 pubmed publisher
  11. Huerta S, Gao X, Livingston E, Kapur P, Sun H, Anthony T. In vitro and in vivo radiosensitization of colorectal cancer HT-29 cells by the smac mimetic JP-1201. Surgery. 2010;148:346-53 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was undertaken to assess the radiosensitizing properties of the smac mimetic JP-1201 in radioresistant HT-29 colorectal cancer cells in vitro and established xenografts in SCID mice...
  12. W├╝rstle M, Laussmann M, Rehm M. The caspase-8 dimerization/dissociation balance is a highly potent regulator of caspase-8, -3, -6 signaling. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:33209-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study therefore highlights a central and so far underappreciated role of caspase-8 dimerization/dissociation in avoiding unwanted cell death by lethal amplification of caspase responses via the caspase-8, -3, -6 loop. ..
  13. Groskreutz D, Monick M, Babor E, Nyunoya T, Varga S, Look D, et al. Cigarette smoke alters respiratory syncytial virus-induced apoptosis and replication. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2009;41:189-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Cigarette smoke causes necrosis rather than apoptosis in viral infection, resulting in increased inflammation and enhanced viral replication. ..
  14. Glinskii A, Glinsky G, Lin H, Tang H, Sun M, Davis F, et al. Modification of survival pathway gene expression in human breast cancer cells by tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac). Cell Cycle. 2009;8:3562-70 pubmed
    ..Nanoparticulate tetrac has coherent anti-cancer actions on expression of differentially-regulated genes important to survival of MDA-MB-231 cells. ..
  15. Shawgo M, Shelton S, Robertson J. Caspase-9 activation by the apoptosome is not required for fas-mediated apoptosis in type II Jurkat cells. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:33447-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Combined, our findings strongly suggest that Fas-mediated activation of executioner caspases and induction of apoptosis do not depend on apoptosome-mediated caspase-9 activation in prototypical type II cells. ..
  16. Zhang X, Zou T, Rao J, Liu L, Xiao L, Wang P, et al. Stabilization of XIAP mRNA through the RNA binding protein HuR regulated by cellular polyamines. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:7623-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate that HuR regulates XIAP expression by stabilizing its mRNA and implicates HuR-mediated XIAP in the control of intestinal epithelial apoptosis. ..
  17. Neil J, Tian M, Schiemann W. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein and its E3 ligase activity promote transforming growth factor-{beta}-mediated nuclear factor-{kappa}B activation during breast cancer progression. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:21209-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively our findings have defined a novel role for xIAP in mediating oncogenic signaling by TGF-beta in breast cancer cells. ..
  18. Kim J, Kim D, Park M, Cho H, Zervos A, Bonventre J, et al. Omi/HtrA2 protease is associated with tubular cell apoptosis and fibrosis induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2010;298:F1332-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, Omi/HtrA2 is associated with apoptotic signaling pathways in tubular epithelial cells activated by unilateral ureteral obstruction, thereby resulting in kidney fibrosis. ..
  19. Kim S, Singh S. p53-Independent apoptosis by benzyl isothiocyanate in human breast cancer cells is mediated by suppression of XIAP expression. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2010;3:718-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the present study provides novel insight into the molecular circuitry of BITC-induced apoptosis to indicate suppression of XIAP expression as a critical mediator of this process. ..
  20. Abhari B, Davoodi J. BIR2 domain of XIAP plays a marginal role in inhibition of executioner caspases. Int J Biol Macromol. 2010;46:337-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the essential moiety of the XIAP involved in inhibition is the linker joining BIR1 to BIR2 and that the BIR2 plays a marginal role in inhibition. ..
  21. Garcia Fernandez M, Kissel H, Brown S, Gorenc T, Schile A, Rafii S, et al. Sept4/ARTS is required for stem cell apoptosis and tumor suppression. Genes Dev. 2010;24:2282-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These phenotypes are partially suppressed by inactivation of XIAP. Our results suggest that apoptosis plays an important role as a frontline defense against cancer by restricting the number of normal stem cells. ..
  22. Yoshida T, Zhang Y, Rivera Rosado L, Chen J, Khan T, Moon S, et al. Blockade of Rac1 activity induces G1 cell cycle arrest or apoptosis in breast cancer cells through downregulation of cyclin D1, survivin, and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein. Mol Cancer Ther. 2010;9:1657-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our results indicate that Rac1 plays a central role in breast cancer cell survival through regulation of NF-kappaB-dependent gene products. ..
  23. Van Themsche C, Chaudhry P, Leblanc V, Parent S, Asselin E. XIAP gene expression and function is regulated by autocrine and paracrine TGF-beta signaling. Mol Cancer. 2010;9:216 pubmed publisher
    ..XIAP gene expression and function is positively regulated by exposure to the three TGF-beta isoforms in a Smad-dependent manner, similar to constitutive XIAP gene expression which depends on autocrine TGF-beta/Smad signalling. ..
  24. Wu M, Sun K, Gil J, Gan L, Burstein D. Immunohistochemical detection of p63 and XIAP in thymic hyperplasia and thymomas. Am J Clin Pathol. 2009;131:689-93 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the level of expression does not correlate with capsular invasion or atypia. ..
  25. Li J, Liu P, Mao H, Wanga A, Zhang X. Emodin sensitizes paclitaxel-resistant human ovarian cancer cells to paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in vitro. Oncol Rep. 2009;21:1605-10 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest the possibility of an innovative chemotherapeutic strategy that uses emodin in combination with paclitaxel to increase the sensitivity of tumor cells. ..
  26. Norde W, Overes I, Maas F, Fredrix H, Vos J, Kester M, et al. Myeloid leukemic progenitor cells can be specifically targeted by minor histocompatibility antigen LRH-1-reactive cytotoxic T cells. Blood. 2009;113:2312-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide a rationale for use of LRH-1 as immunotherapeutic target antigen to treat residual or persisting myeloid malignancies after allogeneic SCT. ..
  27. Krepela E, Dankova P, Moravcikova E, Krepelova A, Prochazka J, Cermak J, et al. Increased expression of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, survivin and XIAP, in non-small cell lung carcinoma. Int J Oncol. 2009;35:1449-62 pubmed
  28. Bramlett H, Furones Alonso O, Lotocki G, Rodriguez Paez A, Sanchez Molano J, Keane R. Sex differences in XIAP cleavage after traumatic brain injury in the rat. Neurosci Lett. 2009;461:49-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these data, it appears that the processing of XIAP after injury is different between males and females and may be influenced by exogenous estrogen treatment. ..
  29. Kairisalo M, Korhonen L, Sepp M, Pruunsild P, Kukkonen J, Kivinen J, et al. NF-kappaB-dependent regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in hippocampal neurons by X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein. Eur J Neurosci. 2009;30:958-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The data show that XIAP has trophic effects on hippocampal neurons by increasing BDNF and TrkB activity. The results reveal a cytokine network in the brain involving BDNF, IL-6 and XIAP interconnected via the NF-kappaB system. ..
  30. Sung K, Choi J, Hwang Y, Lee S, Kim H, Kim J, et al. Overexpression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is an independent unfavorable prognostic factor in childhood de novo acute myeloid leukemia. J Korean Med Sci. 2009;24:605-13 pubmed publisher
    ..16; 95% confidence interval, 1.48-25.74; P=0.013). Collectively, XIAP overexpression may be used as an unfavorable prognostic marker in childhood AML. ..
  31. Varfolomeev E, Alicke B, Elliott J, Zobel K, West K, Wong H, et al. X chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis regulates cell death induction by proapoptotic receptor agonists. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:34553-60 pubmed publisher
  32. Chen R, Wierda W, Chubb S, Hawtin R, Fox J, Keating M, et al. Mechanism of action of SNS-032, a novel cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood. 2009;113:4637-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these data support the clinical development of SNS-032 in diseases that require short-lived oncoproteins for survival. ..
  33. Smith M, Huang Y, Deshmukh M. Skeletal muscle differentiation evokes endogenous XIAP to restrict the apoptotic pathway. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5097 pubmed publisher
    ..The increased restriction of apoptosis in myotubes is presumably important to ensure the long term survival of these postmitotic cells as they play a vital role in the physiology of organisms. ..
  34. Hu J, Du J, Zhang L, Price S, Klein J, WANG X. XIAP reduces muscle proteolysis induced by CKD. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;21:1174-83 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, these results demonstrate that XIAP inhibits multiple aspects of protein degradation in skeletal muscle during CKD. ..
  35. Romano S, D Angelillo A, Pacelli R, Staibano S, de Luna E, Bisogni R, et al. Role of FK506-binding protein 51 in the control of apoptosis of irradiated melanoma cells. Cell Death Differ. 2010;17:145-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we provide evidence that FKBP51 targeting radiosensitizes cancer stem/initiating cells. In conclusion, our study identifies a possible molecular target for radiosensitizing therapeutic strategies against malignant melanoma. ..
  36. Hunt L, Tudor E, White J. Leukemia inhibitory factor-dependent increase in myoblast cell number is associated with phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase-mediated inhibition of apoptosis and not mitosis. Exp Cell Res. 2010;316:1002-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we suggest that the role of LIF in skeletal muscle regeneration and myogenesis is that of a survival factor rather than a mitogen. ..
  37. Cheng Y, Jiang H, Hsu S, Lin L, Wu C, Ghanta V, et al. XIAP-mediated protection of H460 lung cancer cells against cisplatin. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;627:75-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate a therapeutic value of Embelin and/or XIAP siRNA in the control of cisplatin-resistant NSCLC cells (H460). ..
  38. Riley A, Jordan L, Holcik M. Distinct 5' UTRs regulate XIAP expression under normal growth conditions and during cellular stress. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:4665-74 pubmed publisher
  39. Lucas H, Bartold P, Dharmapatni A, Holding C, Haynes D. Inhibition of apoptosis in periodontitis. J Dent Res. 2010;89:29-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar changes were seen at the level of mRNA. The results indicate that apoptosis in periodontitis may be inhibited by elevated expression of TRAIL decoy receptors and cleaved caspase-3 inhibitors. ..
  40. Li Z, Jo J, Jia J, Lo S, Whitcomb D, Jiao S, et al. Caspase-3 activation via mitochondria is required for long-term depression and AMPA receptor internalization. Cell. 2010;141:859-71 pubmed publisher
    ..NMDA receptor stimulation that induces LTD transiently activates caspase-3 in dendrites, without causing cell death. These data indicate an unexpected causal link between the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis and LTD. ..
  41. Kernt M, Hirneiss C, Neubauer A, Lackerbauer C, Eibl K, Wolf A, et al. [Protective effect of blue light-absorbing IOLs on the human retinal pigment epithelium]. Ophthalmologe. 2010;107:150-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The blue light-absorbing IOL further reduced damage compared to the conventional IOL, which supports the hypothesis of possibly also preventing retinal damage in clinical use. ..
  42. Walters J, Pop C, Scott F, Drag M, Swartz P, Mattos C, et al. A constitutively active and uninhibitable caspase-3 zymogen efficiently induces apoptosis. Biochem J. 2009;424:335-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The direct activation of procaspase-3 through a conformational switch rather than by chain cleavage may lead to novel therapeutic strategies for inducing cell death. ..
  43. Wu Z, Wong E, Shi Y, Niu J, Chen Z, Miyamoto S, et al. ATM- and NEMO-dependent ELKS ubiquitination coordinates TAK1-mediated IKK activation in response to genotoxic stress. Mol Cell. 2010;40:75-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, ATM- and NEMO-dependent ubiquitination of ELKS leads to the ubiquitin-dependent assembly of TAK1/TAB2/3 and NEMO/IKK complexes, resulting in IKK and NF-?B activation following genotoxic stimuli...
  44. DiMagno M, Lee S, Owyang C, Zhou S. Inhibition of acinar apoptosis occurs during acute pancreatitis in the human homologue DeltaF508 cystic fibrosis mouse. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010;299:G400-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Impaired transduction of increased apoptosis signaling in DeltaF508-CF acini may be biologically relevant to the pathogenesis of AP associated with CFTR mutations. ..
  45. Huang J, Yao W, Zhu Q, Tu S, Yuan F, Wang H, et al. XAF1 as a prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer. Cancer Sci. 2010;101:559-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings document that XAF1 is a valuable prognostic marker in pancreatic cancer and could be a potential candidate for cancer gene therapy. ..
  46. Kotevski A, Cook W, Vaux D, Callus B. Identification of an Xiap-like pseudogene on mouse chromosome 7. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8078 pubmed publisher
    ..Because its nucleotide sequence is 92% identical to Xiap, but it has no introns corresponding to those of Xiap, we conclude that Xiap-ps1 is a pseudogene generated by retro-transposition of a spliced Xiap message to chromosome 7. ..
  47. Wang J, Liu Y, Ji R, Gu Q, Zhao X, Liu Y, et al. Prognostic value of the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein for invasive ductal breast cancer with triple-negative phenotype. Hum Pathol. 2010;41:1186-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein is significantly correlated with a more aggressive tumor phenotype and decreased overall and disease-free survival. ..
  48. Kang Y, Jang M, Park Y, Kang S, Bae K, Cho S, et al. Molecular interaction between HAX-1 and XIAP inhibits apoptosis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;393:794-9 pubmed publisher
  49. Gill C, Dowling C, O Neill A, Watson R. Effects of cIAP-1, cIAP-2 and XIAP triple knockdown on prostate cancer cell susceptibility to apoptosis, cell survival and proliferation. Mol Cancer. 2009;8:39 pubmed publisher
  50. Ma J, Chen B, Xin X. XIAP gene downregulation by small interfering RNA inhibits proliferation, induces apoptosis, and reverses the cisplatin resistance of ovarian carcinoma. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2009;146:222-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that XIAP is an ovarian cancer-related gene and that XIAP is a potential target for therapeutic anti-cancer drugs. ..
  51. Xiang G, Wen X, Wang H, Chen K, Liu H. Expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein in human colorectal cancer and its correlation with prognosis. J Surg Oncol. 2009;100:708-12 pubmed publisher
    ..0206; HR: 2.730; 95% CI: 1.226-5.445). The status of XIAP expression might become an independent prognostic marker for CRC. ..
  52. Chu S, Alexiadis M, Fuller P. Proteasome inhibition by bortezomib decreases proliferation and increases apoptosis in ovarian granulosa cell tumors. Reprod Sci. 2009;16:397-407 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that advanced granulosa cell tumors, as represented by the cell lines, may respond to bortezomib either alone or in combination with other agents. ..
  53. De Oliveira Lima F, De Oliveira Costa H, Barrezueta L, Fujiyama Oshima C, Silva J, Gomes T, et al. Immunoexpression of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins and their antagonist SMAC/DIABLO in colorectal carcinoma: correlation with apoptotic index, cellular proliferation and prognosis. Oncol Rep. 2009;22:295-303 pubmed
    ..The tendency for correlation between low cIAP-1 immunoexpression and survival might indicate a role for this protein as a prognostic marker in colorectal cancer. ..