pyruvate carboxylase

Summary

Summary: A biotin-dependent enzyme belonging to the ligase family that catalyzes the addition of CARBON DIOXIDE to pyruvate. It is occurs in both plants and animals. Deficiency of this enzyme causes severe psychomotor retardation and ACIDOSIS, LACTIC in infants. EC 6.4.1.1.

Top Publications

  1. Wang D, Yang H, De Braganca K, Lu J, Yu Shih L, Briones P, et al. The molecular basis of pyruvate carboxylase deficiency: mosaicism correlates with prolonged survival. Mol Genet Metab. 2008;95:31-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) deficiency (OMIM, 266150) is a rare autosomal recessive disease. The revised PC gene structure described in this report consists of 20 coding exons and four non-coding exons at the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR)...
  2. Schiff M, Levrat V, Acquaviva C, Vianey Saban C, Rolland M, Guffon N. A case of pyruvate carboxylase deficiency with atypical clinical and neuroradiological presentation. Mol Genet Metab. 2006;87:175-7 pubmed
    b>Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is a key enzyme for gluconeogenesis and anaplerotic pathways in brain. PC deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder with three described characteristic presentations...
  3. Wexler I, Du Y, Lisgaris M, Mandal S, Freytag S, Yang B, et al. Primary amino acid sequence and structure of human pyruvate carboxylase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994;1227:46-52 pubmed
    b>Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) (pyruvate:carbon dioxide ligase (ADP-forming), EC 6.4.1.1.), a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial enzyme, catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to oxaloacetate...
  4. Chavalit T, Rojvirat P, Muangsawat S, Jitrapakdee S. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4? regulates the expression of the murine pyruvate carboxylase gene through the HNF4-specific binding motif in its proximal promoter. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1829:987-99 pubmed publisher
    b>Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is the first regulatory enzyme of gluconeogenesis. Here we report that the proximal promoter of the murine PC gene contains three binding sites for hepatocyte nuclear factor 4? (HNF4?)...
  5. Cheng T, Sudderth J, Yang C, Mullen A, Jin E, Matés J, et al. Pyruvate carboxylase is required for glutamine-independent growth of tumor cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:8674-9 pubmed publisher
    ..fluxes in GLS-suppressed cells revealed induction of a compensatory anaplerotic mechanism catalyzed by pyruvate carboxylase (PC), allowing the cells to use glucose-derived pyruvate rather than glutamine for anaplerosis...
  6. Pedersen K, Buckley R, Scioneaux R. Glucose induces expression of rat pyruvate carboxylase through a carbohydrate response element in the distal gene promoter. Biochem J. 2010;426:159-70 pubmed publisher
    b>Pyruvate carboxylase is an enzyme of the so-called pyruvate cycling pathways, which have been proposed to contribute to glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells...
  7. Abe S, Chamnan C, Miyamoto K, Minamino Y, Nouda M. Isolation and identification of 3-methylcrotonyl coenzyme A carboxylase cDNAs and pyruvate carboxylase, and their expression in red seabream (Pagrus major) organs. Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2004;6:527-40 pubmed
    ..MCCC1) and non-biotin-containing (MCCC2) subunits of 3-methylcrotonyl coenzyme A carboxylase (MCCase) and pyruvate carboxylase (PCase) using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction of RNA extracted from seabream skeletal ..
  8. Vessal M, Mishra S, Moulik S, Murphy L. Prohibitin attenuates insulin-stimulated glucose and fatty acid oxidation in adipose tissue by inhibition of pyruvate carboxylase. FEBS J. 2006;273:568-76 pubmed
    ..Here we report that PHB-1 has a hitherto undescribed role as an inhibitor of pyruvate carboxylase (PC). As a consequence, it can modulate insulin-stimulated glucose and fatty acid oxidation...
  9. Rojvirat P, Chavalit T, Muangsawat S, Thonpho A, Jitrapakdee S. Functional characterization of the proximal promoter of the murine pyruvate carboxylase gene in hepatocytes: role of multiple gc boxes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1809:541-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) catalyzes the first committed step in gluconeogenesis in the liver...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Adina Zada A, Zeczycki T, Attwood P. Regulation of the structure and activity of pyruvate carboxylase by acetyl CoA. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2012;519:118-30 pubmed publisher
    ..the effects of the allosteric activator, acetyl CoA on both the structure and catalytic activities of pyruvate carboxylase. We describe how the binding of acetyl CoA produces gross changes to the quaternary and tertiary structures ..
  2. Xu J, Han J, Long Y, Epstein P, Liu Y. The role of pyruvate carboxylase in insulin secretion and proliferation in rat pancreatic beta cells. Diabetologia. 2008;51:2022-30 pubmed publisher
    b>Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) or pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is required to transfer carbons from pyruvate into the Krebs cycle...
  3. Liu Y, Jetton T, Leahy J. beta-Cell adaptation to insulin resistance. Increased pyruvate carboxylase and malate-pyruvate shuttle activity in islets of nondiabetic Zucker fatty rats. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:39163-8 pubmed
    ..The reason was increased flux through pyruvate carboxylase (PC) and the malate-pyruvate and citrate-pyruvate shuttles based on the following observations (% ZL islets)..
  4. Sch r J, Stoll R, Schauer K, Loeffler D, Eylert E, Joseph B, et al. Pyruvate carboxylase plays a crucial role in carbon metabolism of extra- and intracellularly replicating Listeria monocytogenes. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:1774-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that a pycA insertion mutant defective in pyruvate carboxylase (PYC) still grows, albeit at a reduced rate, in brain heart infusion (BHI) medium but is unable to multiply ..
  5. Jensen M, Joseph J, Ilkayeva O, Burgess S, Lu D, Ronnebaum S, et al. Compensatory responses to pyruvate carboxylase suppression in islet beta-cells. Preservation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:22342-51 pubmed
    We have previously reported that glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) is tightly correlated with pyruvate carboxylase (PC)-catalyzed anaplerotic flux into the tricarboxylic acid cycle and stimulation of pyruvate cycling activity...
  6. Kondo S, Nakajima Y, Sugio S, Yong Biao J, Sueda S, Kondo H. Structure of the biotin carboxylase subunit of pyruvate carboxylase from Aquifex aeolicus at 2.2 A resolution. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2004;60:486-92 pubmed publisher
    b>Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is distributed in many eukaryotes as well as in some prokaryotes. PC catalyzes the ATP-dependent carboxylation of pyruvate to form oxalacetate...
  7. Walker M, Val D, Rohde M, Devenish R, Wallace J. Yeast pyruvate carboxylase: identification of two genes encoding isoenzymes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991;176:1210-7 pubmed
    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, pyruvate carboxylase [EC 6.4.1.1] has an important anaplerotic role in the production of oxaloacetate from pyruvate...
  8. Zeczycki T, St Maurice M, Jitrapakdee S, Wallace J, Attwood P, Cleland W. Insight into the carboxyl transferase domain mechanism of pyruvate carboxylase from Rhizobium etli. Biochemistry. 2009;48:4305-13 pubmed publisher
    The effects of mutations in the active site of the carboxyl transferase domain of Rhizobium etli pyruvate carboxylase have been determined for the forward reaction to form oxaloacetate, the reverse reaction to form MgATP, the oxamate-..
  9. Báez Saldaña A, Zendejas Ruiz I, Revilla Monsalve C, Islas Andrade S, Cárdenas A, Rojas Ochoa A, et al. Effects of biotin on pyruvate carboxylase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, propionyl-CoA carboxylase, and markers for glucose and lipid homeostasis in type 2 diabetic patients and nondiabetic subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79:238-43 pubmed
    ..We studied the activity of PCC, pyruvate carboxylase (PC; EC 6.4.1.1), and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC; EC 6.4.1.2) in type 2 diabetic and nondiabetic subjects...
  10. Lee P, Leong W, Tan T, Lim M, Han W, Radda G. In vivo hyperpolarized carbon-13 magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals increased pyruvate carboxylase flux in an insulin-resistant mouse model. Hepatology. 2013;57:515-24 pubmed publisher
    ..1-(13)C]pyruvate and [1-(13)C]aspartate (k(pyr->asp)) exhibited apparent correlation with gluconeogenic pyruvate carboxylase (PC) activity in hepatocytes...
  11. Lin H, Vadali R, Bennett G, San K. Increasing the acetyl-CoA pool in the presence of overexpressed phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase or pyruvate carboxylase enhances succinate production in Escherichia coli. Biotechnol Prog. 2004;20:1599-604 pubmed
    ..in vivo strategy to apply the activation effect of acetyl-CoA on phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and pyruvate carboxylase (PYC) to increase succinate production in Escherichia coli was studied...
  12. Mukhopadhyay B, Patel V, Wolfe R. A stable archaeal pyruvate carboxylase from the hyperthermophile Methanococcus jannaschii. Arch Microbiol. 2000;174:406-14 pubmed
    The pyruvate carboxylase (PYC) of the hyperthermophilic, strictly hydrogenotrophic, autotrophic and marine methanarchaeon Methanococcus jannaschii was purified to homogeneity. Optimal activity was at pH 8...
  13. Marin Valencia I, Roe C, Pascual J. Pyruvate carboxylase deficiency: mechanisms, mimics and anaplerosis. Mol Genet Metab. 2010;101:9-17 pubmed publisher
    b>Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is a regulated mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to oxaloacetate, a critical transition that replenishes citric acid cycle intermediates and facilitates other biosynthetic reactions ..
  14. MacDonald M, Longacre M, Langberg E, Tibell A, Kendrick M, Fukao T, et al. Decreased levels of metabolic enzymes in pancreatic islets of patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2009;52:1087-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The activities of the mitochondrial enzymes, glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate carboxylase (PC) and succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid-CoA transferase (SCOT) were decreased by 73%, 65% and 92%, respectively, ..
  15. Zelle R, de Hulster E, van Winden W, de Waard P, Dijkema C, Winkler A, et al. Malic acid production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: engineering of pyruvate carboxylation, oxaloacetate reduction, and malate export. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:2766-77 pubmed publisher
    ..of individual and combined introduction of three genetic modifications: (i) overexpression of the native pyruvate carboxylase encoded by PYC2, (ii) high-level expression of an allele of the MDH3 gene, of which the encoded malate ..
  16. Kim K, Rodriguez A, Carrico P, Melendez J. Potential mechanisms for the inhibition of tumor cell growth by manganese superoxide dismutase. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2001;3:361-73 pubmed
    ..enzyme aconitase, decreases the intracellular GSH/GSSG ratio, and dose-dependently inhibits pyruvate carboxylase activity...
  17. Hasan N, Longacre M, Stoker S, Boonsaen T, Jitrapakdee S, Kendrick M, et al. Impaired anaplerosis and insulin secretion in insulinoma cells caused by small interfering RNA-mediated suppression of pyruvate carboxylase. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:28048-59 pubmed publisher
    ..To test the hypothesis that anaplerosis is important for insulin secretion, we lowered the activity of pyruvate carboxylase (PC), the major enzyme of anaplerosis in the beta cell...
  18. Velez J, Donkin S. Feed restriction induces pyruvate carboxylase but not phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2005;88:2938-48 pubmed
    ..b>Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) mRNA increased with feed restriction, but phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) was unchanged...
  19. Fransson U, Rosengren A, Schuit F, Renstrom E, Mulder H. Anaplerosis via pyruvate carboxylase is required for the fuel-induced rise in the ATP:ADP ratio in rat pancreatic islets. Diabetologia. 2006;49:1578-86 pubmed
    ..The anaplerotic enzyme pyruvate carboxylase is highly expressed in beta cells, and anaplerosis influences insulin secretion in beta cells...
  20. Han J, Liu Y. Reduction of islet pyruvate carboxylase activity might be related to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Agouti-K mice. J Endocrinol. 2010;204:143-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) activity is enhanced in the islets of obese rats, but it is reduced in the islets of type 2 diabetic rats, suggesting the importance of PC in beta-cell adaptation to insulin resistance as well as the possibility ..
  21. Zeczycki T, Menefee A, Adina Zada A, Jitrapakdee S, Surinya K, Wallace J, et al. Novel insights into the biotin carboxylase domain reactions of pyruvate carboxylase from Rhizobium etli. Biochemistry. 2011;50:9724-37 pubmed publisher
    The catalytic mechanism of the MgATP-dependent carboxylation of biotin in the biotin carboxylase domain of pyruvate carboxylase from R. etli (RePC) is common to the biotin-dependent carboxylases...
  22. Jitrapakdee S, St Maurice M, Rayment I, Cleland W, Wallace J, Attwood P. Structure, mechanism and regulation of pyruvate carboxylase. Biochem J. 2008;413:369-87 pubmed publisher
    PC (pyruvate carboxylase) is a biotin-containing enzyme that catalyses the HCO(3)(-)- and MgATP-dependent carboxylation of pyruvate to form oxaloacetate...
  23. MacDonald M, Longacre M, Stoker S, Kendrick M, Thonpho A, Brown L, et al. Differences between human and rodent pancreatic islets: low pyruvate carboxylase, atp citrate lyase, and pyruvate carboxylation and high glucose-stimulated acetoacetate in human pancreatic islets. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:18383-96 pubmed publisher
    ..We observed that the enzyme activity, protein level, and relative mRNA level of the key anaplerotic enzyme pyruvate carboxylase (PC) were 80-90% lower in human pancreatic islets compared with islets of rats and mice and the rat ..
  24. Robinson B, Mackay N, Chun K, Ling M. Disorders of pyruvate carboxylase and the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1996;19:452-62 pubmed
    ..b>Pyruvate carboxylase deficiency, on the other hand, is a true autosomal recessive disease, though it has high occurrences in ..
  25. Thonpho A, Rojvirat P, Jitrapakdee S, MacDonald M. Characterization of the distal promoter of the human pyruvate carboxylase gene in pancreatic beta cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e55139 pubmed publisher
    b>Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in many biosynthetic pathways in various tissues including glucose-stimulated insulin secretion...
  26. Zhang J, Xia W, Brew K, Ahmad F. Adipose pyruvate carboxylase: amino acid sequence and domain structure deduced from cDNA sequencing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:1766-70 pubmed
    The complete amino acid sequence of 3T3-L1 adipocyte pyruvate carboxylase (PC) [pyruvate:carbon-dioxide ligase (ADP-forming), EC 6.4.1...
  27. Blazquez M, Gamo F, Gancedo C. A mutation affecting carbon catabolite repression suppresses growth defects in pyruvate carboxylase mutants from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEBS Lett. 1995;377:197-200 pubmed
    Yeasts with disruptions in the genes PYC1 and PYC2 encoding the isoenzymes of pyruvate carboxylase cannot grow in a glucose-ammonium medium (Stucka et al. (1991) Mol. Gen. Genet. 229, 307-315)...
  28. Hazelton S, Spurlock D, Bidwell C, Donkin S. Cloning the genomic sequence and identification of promoter regions of bovine pyruvate carboxylase. J Dairy Sci. 2008;91:91-9 pubmed
    b>Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) catalyzes a pivotal reaction in gluconeogenesis and lipid metabolism in liver. In bovine the PC gene is expressed as six 5' untranslated region (UTR) mRNA variants...
  29. Kumashiro N, Beddow S, Vatner D, Majumdar S, Cantley J, Guebre Egziabher F, et al. Targeting pyruvate carboxylase reduces gluconeogenesis and adiposity and improves insulin resistance. Diabetes. 2013;62:2183-94 pubmed publisher
    ..expression of the key gluconeogenic enzymes in human liver biopsy specimens and found that only hepatic pyruvate carboxylase protein levels related strongly with glycemia...
  30. Kerr D, Grahame G, Nakouzi G. Assays of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and pyruvate carboxylase activity. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;837:93-119 pubmed publisher
    Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) and pyruvate carboxylase (PC) are mitochondrial enzymes that provide the initial steps of the two main alternatives for pyruvate metabolism: oxidative decarboxylation vs...
  31. Greenfield R, Cecava M, Donkin S. Changes in mRNA expression for gluconeogenic enzymes in liver of dairy cattle during the transition to lactation. J Dairy Sci. 2000;83:1228-36 pubmed
    The objective of this study was to profile phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and pyruvate carboxylase (PC) mRNA expression in the liver of dairy cattle during the peripartum transition and determine changes in abundance of these ..
  32. Jitrapakdee S, Slawik M, Medina Gomez G, Campbell M, Wallace J, Sethi J, et al. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma regulates murine pyruvate carboxylase gene expression in vivo and in vitro. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:27466-76 pubmed
    b>Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) plays a crucial role in various metabolic pathways, including gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, and glucose-induced insulin secretion...
  33. Jitrapakdee S, Gong Q, MacDonald M, Wallace J. Regulation of rat pyruvate carboxylase gene expression by alternate promoters during development, in genetically obese rats and in insulin-secreting cells. Multiple transcripts with 5'-end heterogeneity modulate translation. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:34422-8 pubmed
    A previous study on the gene structure of rat pyruvate carboxylase revealed that two tissue-specific promoters are responsible for the production of multiple transcripts with 5'-end heterogeneity (Jitrapakdee, S., Booker, G. W...
  34. Merle M, Bouzier Sore A, Canioni P. Time-dependence of the contribution of pyruvate carboxylase versus pyruvate dehydrogenase to rat brain glutamine labelling from [1-(13) C]glucose metabolism. J Neurochem. 2002;82:47-57 pubmed
    ..The relative contribution of pyruvate carboxylase versus pyruvate dehydrogenase (PC/PDH) to amino acid labelling was evaluated from the enrichment difference ..
  35. Brewster N, Val D, Walker M, Wallace J. Regulation of pyruvate carboxylase isozyme (PYC1, PYC2) gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentative and nonfermentative growth. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1994;311:62-71 pubmed
    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae there are two isoenzymes of pyruvate carboxylase (Pyc) encoded by separate genes, designated PYC1 and PYC2...
  36. Lietzan A, Menefee A, Zeczycki T, Kumar S, Attwood P, Wallace J, et al. Interaction between the biotin carboxyl carrier domain and the biotin carboxylase domain in pyruvate carboxylase from Rhizobium etli. Biochemistry. 2011;50:9708-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) catalyzes the ATP-dependent carboxylation of pyruvate to oxaloacetate, an important anaplerotic reaction in mammalian tissues...
  37. Jitrapakdee S, Petchamphai N, Sunyakumthorn P, Wallace J, Boonsaeng V. Structural and promoter regions of the murine pyruvate carboxylase gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;287:411-7 pubmed
    We have cloned and sequenced the gene encoding mouse pyruvate carboxylase (mPC) [EC 6.4.1.1]. The coding region contains 19 exons, one 5'-untranslated region exon, and 19 introns in 22 kb of genomic DNA...
  38. Stucka R, Dequin S, Salmon J, Gancedo C. DNA sequences in chromosomes II and VII code for pyruvate carboxylase isoenzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: analysis of pyruvate carboxylase-deficient strains. Mol Gen Genet. 1991;229:307-15 pubmed
    A gene encoding pyruvate carboxylase has previously been isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have isolated a second gene, PYC2, from the same organism also encoding a pyruvate carboxylase...
  39. Attwood P, Graneri B. Pyruvate carboxylase catalysis of phosphate transfer between carbamoyl phosphate and ADP. Biochem J. 1991;273(Pt 2):443-8 pubmed
    In a reaction that is analogous to the phosphorylation of ADP from carboxyphosphate, pyruvate carboxylase catalyses the formation of ATP from carbamoyl phosphate and ADP at a rate that is about 0...
  40. Carbone M, Applegarth D, Robinson B. Intron retention and frameshift mutations result in severe pyruvate carboxylase deficiency in two male siblings. Hum Mutat. 2002;20:48-56 pubmed
    ..paper describes the molecular characterization of two male siblings displaying the complex (Type B) form of pyruvate carboxylase (PC) deficiency in which severe neonatal lactic acidosis and redox abnormalities results in death within ..
  41. Xiang S, Tong L. Crystal structures of human and Staphylococcus aureus pyruvate carboxylase and molecular insights into the carboxyltransfer reaction. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2008;15:295-302 pubmed publisher
    b>Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) catalyzes the biotin-dependent production of oxaloacetate and has important roles in gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, insulin secretion and other cellular processes...
  42. Vemuri G, Minning T, Altman E, Eiteman M. Physiological response of central metabolism in Escherichia coli to deletion of pyruvate oxidase and introduction of heterologous pyruvate carboxylase. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2005;90:64-76 pubmed
    ..studied the physiological response of Escherichia coli central metabolism to the expression of heterologous pyruvate carboxylase (PYC) in the presence and absence of pyruvate oxidase (POX)...
  43. Otto C, Yovkova V, Aurich A, Mauersberger S, Barth G. Variation of the by-product spectrum during ?-ketoglutaric acid production from raw glycerol by overexpression of fumarase and pyruvate carboxylase genes in Yarrowia lipolytica. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;95:905-17 pubmed publisher
    ..SU) as minor by-products) can be influenced by a gene-dose-dependent overexpression of fumarase (FUM) or pyruvate carboxylase (PYC) genes under KGA production conditions. Recombinant Y...
  44. Peters Wendisch P, Kreutzer C, Kalinowski J, P tek M, Sahm H, Eikmanns B. Pyruvate carboxylase from Corynebacterium glutamicum: characterization, expression and inactivation of the pyc gene. Microbiology. 1998;144 ( Pt 4):915-27 pubmed publisher
    In addition to phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCx), pyruvate carboxylase (PCx) has recently been found as an anaplerotic enzyme in the amino-acid-producing bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum...
  45. Koffas M, Jung G, Aon J, Stephanopoulos G. Effect of pyruvate carboxylase overexpression on the physiology of Corynebacterium glutamicum. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2002;68:5422-8 pubmed
    b>Pyruvate carboxylase was recently sequenced in Corynebacterium glutamicum and shown to play an important role of anaplerosis in the central carbon metabolism and amino acid synthesis of these bacteria...
  46. Merritt M, Harrison C, Sherry A, Malloy C, Burgess S. Flux through hepatic pyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase detected by hyperpolarized 13C magnetic resonance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:19084-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The appearance of asymmetrically enriched malate and aspartate indicated high rates of anaplerotic pyruvate carboxylase activity and incomplete equilibration with fumarate...
  47. Peters Wendisch P, Schiel B, Wendisch V, Katsoulidis E, Möckel B, Sahm H, et al. Pyruvate carboxylase is a major bottleneck for glutamate and lysine production by Corynebacterium glutamicum. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2001;3:295-300 pubmed
    Corynebacterium glutamicum possesses both phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCx) and pyruvate carboxylase (PCx) as anaplerotic enzymes for growth on carbohydrates...
  48. Jitrapakdee S, Booker G, Cassady A, Wallace J. Cloning, sequencing and expression of rat liver pyruvate carboxylase. Biochem J. 1996;316 ( Pt 2):631-7 pubmed
    Overlapping clones encoding rat liver pyruvate carboxylase (PC) have been isolated by screening a liver cDNA library and by performing rapid amplification of cDNA ends polymerase chain reaction on total liver RNA...
  49. Geeves M, Branson J, Attwood P. Kinetics of nucleotide binding to pyruvate carboxylase. Biochemistry. 1995;34:11846-54 pubmed
    The kinetics of nucleotide binding to pyruvate carboxylase have been studied by measuring the fluorescence changes that occur on the binding and release of FTP and FDP, which are fluorescent formycin analogues of ATP and ADP...
  50. Lu D, Mulder H, Zhao P, Burgess S, Jensen M, Kamzolova S, et al. 13C NMR isotopomer analysis reveals a connection between pyruvate cycling and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:2708-13 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that exchange of pyruvate with TCA cycle intermediates, rather than oxidation of pyruvate via acetyl-CoA, correlates with glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. ..
  51. Murin R, Cesar M, Kowtharapu B, Verleysdonk S, Hamprecht B. Expression of pyruvate carboxylase in cultured oligodendroglial, microglial and ependymal cells. Neurochem Res. 2009;34:480-9 pubmed publisher
    The mitochondrial enzyme, pyruvate carboxylase (PC; EC 6.4.1.1) is considered to play a significant role in the intermediary metabolism of neural tissue...
  52. Bauer J, Luttik M, Flores C, van Dijken J, Pronk J, Niederberger P. By-product formation during exposure of respiring Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures to excess glucose is not caused by a limited capacity of pyruvate carboxylase. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1999;179:107-13 pubmed
    ..A possible role of a limited anaplerotic capacity in this process was investigated by overexpressing pyruvate carboxylase and by replacing it with a heterologous enzyme (Escherichia coli phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase)...
  53. Petersen K, Blair J, Shulman G. Triiodothyronine treatment increases substrate cycling between pyruvate carboxylase and malic enzyme in perfused rat liver. Metabolism. 1995;44:1380-3 pubmed
    ..The combined flux through pyruvate kinase plus malic enzyme relative to pyruvate carboxylase flux was assessed by the 13C-enrichment ratio of alanine C2 to glucose C5 in the perfusate, determined with ..