Genomes and Genes
carbon oxygen ligases
Summary: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-oxygen bond. EC 6.1.
- Rosvoll T, Pedersen T, Sletvold H, Johnsen P, Sollid J, Simonsen G, et al. PCR-based plasmid typing in Enterococcus faecium strains reveals widely distributed pRE25-, pRUM-, pIP501- and pHTbeta-related replicons associated with glycopeptide resistance and stabilizing toxin-antitoxin systems. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2010;58:254-68 pubmed publisher..PCR-based replicon typing, linked to the detection of other important plasmid-encoded traits, seems to be a feasible tool for tracing disseminating resistance plasmids stably maintained in various environments. ..
- Biavasco F, Foglia G, Paoletti C, Zandri G, Magi G, Guaglianone E, et al. VanA-type enterococci from humans, animals, and food: species distribution, population structure, Tn1546 typing and location, and virulence determinants. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:3307-19 pubmed
- Willems R, Top J, van den Braak N, van Belkum A, Mevius D, Hendriks G, et al. Molecular diversity and evolutionary relationships of Tn1546-like elements in enterococci from humans and animals. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1999;43:483-91 pubmed..The genetic diversity in Tn1546 combined with epidemiological data suggest that the DNA polymorphism among Tn1546 variants can successfully be exploited for the tracing of the routes of transmission of vancomycin resistance genes. ..
- Aarestrup F, Ahrens P, Madsen M, Pallesen L, Poulsen R, Westh H. Glycopeptide susceptibility among Danish Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis isolates of animal and human origin and PCR identification of genes within the VanA cluster. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1996;40:1938-40 pubmed..All vancomycin-resistant isolates examined carried the vanA, vanX, and vanR genes, suggesting that a gene cluster similar to that of the transposon Tn1546 was responsible for the resistance. ..
- Johnsen P, Østerhus J, Sletvold H, Sørum M, Kruse H, Nielsen K, et al. Persistence of animal and human glycopeptide-resistant enterococci on two Norwegian poultry farms formerly exposed to avoparcin is associated with a widespread plasmid-mediated vanA element within a polyclonal enterococcus faecium population. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:159-68 pubmed..In addition, we propose that "plasmid addiction systems" may contribute to the persistence of GREF in nonselective environments. ..
- Weigel L, Clewell D, Gill S, Clark N, McDougal L, Flannagan S, et al. Genetic analysis of a high-level vancomycin-resistant isolate of Staphylococcus aureus. Science. 2003;302:1569-71 pubmed..Genetic analyses suggest that the long-anticipated transfer of vancomycin resistance to a methicillin-resistant S. aureus occurred in vivo by interspecies transfer of Tn1546 from a co-isolate of Enterococcus faecalis. ..
- Zhu W, Clark N, McDougal L, Hageman J, McDonald L, Patel J. Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates associated with Inc18-like vanA plasmids in Michigan. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008;52:452-7 pubmed..An Inc18-like vanA plasmid was identified in the VRSA isolate from case patient 7. These findings suggest a role of Inc18-like plasmids as vanA donors. ..
- Sievert D, Rudrik J, Patel J, McDonald L, Wilkins M, Hageman J. Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the United States, 2002-2006. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46:668-74 pubmed publisher..Prompt detection by microbiology laboratories and adherence to recommended infection control measures for multidrug-resistant organisms appear to have prevented transmission to other patients. ..
- Patel R, Piper K, Cockerill F, Steckelberg J, Yousten A. The biopesticide Paenibacillus popilliae has a vancomycin resistance gene cluster homologous to the enterococcal VanA vancomycin resistance gene cluster. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2000;44:705-9 pubmed..The use of P. popilliae biopesticidal preparations in agricultural practice may have an impact on bacterial resistance in human pathogens. ..
- Sletvold H, Johnsen P, Simonsen G, Aasnaes B, Sundsfjord A, Nielsen K. Comparative DNA analysis of two vanA plasmids from Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from poultry and a poultry farmer in Norway. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:736-9 pubmed..A postsegregational killing system was identified. This system possibly explains the persistence of the vanA gene cluster in Norwegian poultry farms. ..
- Kilic A, Bedir O, Tunc T, Besirbellioglu B, Eyigun C, Başustaoğlu A. [An outbreak of vanA genotype Enterococcus faecium in pediatric clinic of a training hospital]. Mikrobiyol Bul. 2009;43:365-72 pubmed..When compared with PFGE, the DiversiLab commercial rep-PCR seems to be a reliable and more rapid method to detect the genetic relationship between strains leading to an outbreak. ..
- Paule S, Trick W, Tenover F, Lankford M, Cunningham S, Stosor V, et al. Comparison of PCR assay to culture for surveillance detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:4805-7 pubmed..001) or perianal swab (17 of 58 versus 12 of 58; P = 0.059) for the detection of gastrointestinal colonization by vancomycin-resistant enterococci. ..
- Liassine N, Frei R, Jan I, Auckenthaler R. Characterization of glycopeptide-resistant enterococci from a Swiss hospital. J Clin Microbiol. 1998;36:1853-8 pubmed..faecium isolates with the vanA gene in five patients for whom the epidemiological link could not be always elucidated. This study emphasizes the necessity of utilizing both phenotypic and genotypic methods to characterize GRE. ..
- Woodford N, Chadwick P, Morrison D, Cookson B. Strains of glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium can alter their van genotypes during an outbreak. J Clin Microbiol. 1997;35:2966-8 pubmed..The genotype of this strain changed from vanB to vanA through an intermediate isolate that contained both the vanA and vanB gene clusters on distinct plasmids. ..
- Borgen K, Sørum M, Wasteson Y, Kruse H, Oppegaard H. Genetic linkage between erm(B) and vanA in Enterococcus hirae of poultry origin. Microb Drug Resist. 2002;8:363-8 pubmed..Mating experiments with the E. hirae isolate as donor and E. faecalis JH2-2 as recipient did not result in any transconjugants, indicating that the vanA/erm(B)-carrying plasmid was nonconjugative under the given experimental conditions. ..
- Henrique P, Palazzo I, Zanella R, Darini A. Molecular characterization of enterococci harboring genotype and phenotype incongruence related to glycopeptide resistance isolated in Brazilian hospitals. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2008;103:301-5 pubmed..faecium strain showed an insertion element in the vanXY intergenic region. Mutations in VanA elements were not found. Rearrangements in the VanA element could be responsible for incongruities in genotype and phenotype in these strains. ..
- Wannaprasat W, Koowatananukul C, Ekkapobyotin C, Chuanchuen R. Quality analysis of commercial probiotic products for food animals. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2009;40:1103-12 pubmed..5%). The vanA gene was present in one L. plantarum and one B. subtilis isolate. The vanA-containing B. subtilis also harbored the tetW gene. None of the genes detected appeared to be associated with a conjugative plasmid. ..
- Berry M, McGhee G, Zhao Y, Sundin G. Effect of a waaL mutation on lipopolysaccharide composition, oxidative stress survival, and virulence in Erwinia amylovora. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2009;291:80-7 pubmed publisher..amylovora and the unexpected finding of an additional function of lipopolysaccharide in protection from oxidative stress in E. amylovora and P. aeruginosa...
- Gao G, Rogers K, Li F, Guo Q, Osato D, Zhou S, et al. Uridine insertion/deletion RNA editing in Trypanosomatids: specific stimulation in vitro of Leishmania tarentolae REL1 RNA ligase activity by the MP63 zinc finger protein. Protist. 2010;161:489-96 pubmed publisher..The specificity for REL1 is consistent with MP63 being a component of the REL1 subcomplex. These results suggest that in vivo the interaction of MP63 with REL1 may play a role in regulating the overall activity of RNA editing. ..
- Matsumoto T, Muratani T, Okada K, Shiraishi M, Hayashida T, Oki T, et al. No regional spread of vancomycin-resistant enterococci with vanA or vanB in Kitakyushu, Japan. J Infect Chemother. 2004;10:331-4 pubmed..In the near future, the prevalence of VRE with vanA or vanB is likely to increase in Japan, as it has in other countries. We should continue to find and prevent nosocomial outbreaks of infection and colonization by VRE. ..
- Młynarczyk G, Grzybowska W, Młynarczyk A, Tyski S, Luczak M. [The resistance to glycopeptide antibiotics among strains of Enterococcus sp. isolated in 1998-2005 from patients of one of the university hospitals in Warsaw]. Med Dosw Mikrobiol. 2006;58:19-25 pubmed..All strains isolated in recent years possessed vanA ligase genes. Although among all enterococci E. faecalis made majority (over 70%), among VRE predominated E. faecium. ..
- Sabia C, De Niederhausern S, Guerrieri E, Messi P, Anacarso I, Manicardi G, et al. Detection of bacteriocin production and virulence traits in vancomycin-resistant enterococci of different sources. J Appl Microbiol. 2008;104:970-9 pubmed..The strains of interest in the food industry or used as probiotics should be tested for antibiotic resistance and virulence traits. ..
- Vilela M, Souza S, Palazzo I, Ferreira J, Morais M, Darini A, et al. Identification and molecular characterization of Van A-type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis in Northeast of Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2006;101:715-9 pubmed..Tn1546 associated to genetic elements as plasmids shows the importance of infection control measures to avoid the spreading of glycopeptide resistance by conjugative transfer of VanA elements. ..
- Appleman M, Citron D, Kwok R. Evaluation of the Velogene genomic assay for detection of vanA and vanB genes in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus species. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:1751-2 pubmed..The VEL assay identified all enterococcal strains with vanA and vanB genes. ..
- Ramotar K, Woods W, Larocque L, Toye B. Comparison of phenotypic methods to identify enterococci intrinsically resistant to vancomycin (VanC VRE). Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2000;36:119-24 pubmed..MGP acidification can accurately differentiate VanC VRE from E. faecalis and E. faecium. Because some VanC VRE isolates are nonmotile, MGP acidification is preferred as a simple and less costly test for identification of these isolates. ..
- Jensen L. Internal size variations in Tn1546-like elements due to the presence of IS1216V. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1998;169:349-54 pubmed..Integration of the IS1216V element created both deletions and a duplication in a non-essential region of Tn1546. In several isolates, the entire vanY gene was deleted, proving that this gene is non-essential for vancomycin resistance...
- Currie B, Lemos Filho L. Evidence for biliary excretion of vancomycin into stool during intravenous therapy: potential implications for rectal colonization with vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48:4427-9 pubmed..Vancomycin was excreted via bile into the stools of almost all patients at concentrations of 3.3 to 94.8 microg/ml after >/=5 days of a therapy of 1 g every 12 h. ..
- Simjee S, White D, McDermott P, Wagner D, Zervos M, Donabedian S, et al. Characterization of Tn1546 in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolated from canine urinary tract infections: evidence of gene exchange between human and animal enterococci. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:4659-65 pubmed..Additionally, this is the first report of a vancomycin-resistant E. faecium isolated from a companion animal in the United States. ..
- Togneri A, Lopardo H, Corso A. [Bacteremia caused by Enterococcus gallinarum with a high level of glycopeptide resistance: 1st documented cases in Argentina]. Rev Argent Microbiol. 2003;35:96-9 pubmed..The present is the first report of an E. gallinarum isolate showing the van A genotype in Argentina. ..
- Park I, Lee W, Lim Y, Cho S. Genetic rearrangements of TN1546-like elements in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates collected from hospitalized patients over a seven-year period. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:3903-8 pubmed..The tendency for the rearrangement of Tn1546 was that the sequences were shortened as time passed, especially at the left or the right end, and hence, this could gradually modulate their transferability. ..
- Kim E, Lee J. Competitive inhibitions of the chlorophyll synthase of Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 by bacteriochlorophyllide a and the bacteriochlorophyll synthase of Rhodobacter sphaeroides by chlorophyllide a. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:198-207 pubmed publisher..Although neither inhibitor is catalyzed by the target enzyme, inhibitions in the competitive mode suggest a structural similarity between their active sites. ..
- Kolar M, Pantucek R, Bardon J, Cekanova L, Kesselova M, Sauer P, et al. Occurrence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in humans and animals in the Czech Republic between 2002 and 2004. J Med Microbiol. 2005;54:965-7 pubmed..Most (54.5 %) were identified as VanA E. faecium. Cluster analysis of SmaI-generated macrorestriction patterns showed high variability in both human and animal VRE strains and no relatedness between strains from the two sources. ..
- Galdiero E, Villari P, Di Onofrio V, Pisciotta M, Lucariello A, Sommese L, et al. Characterization of glycopeptide resistant enterococci isolated from a hospital in Naples (Italy). New Microbiol. 2005;28:171-6 pubmed..gallinarum (n = 3), E. faecalis (n = 2) and E. hirae (n = 1), showed resistance to glycopeptides. The vanA gene was found in all 32 VRE. Molecular typing was performed by RAPD analysis which showed two majors patterns. ..
- Cruz Reyes J, Zhelonkina A, Huang C, Sollner Webb B. Distinct functions of two RNA ligases in active Trypanosoma brucei RNA editing complexes. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:4652-60 pubmed
- May J, Finking R, Wiegeshoff F, Weber T, Bandur N, Koert U, et al. Inhibition of the D-alanine:D-alanyl carrier protein ligase from Bacillus subtilis increases the bacterium's susceptibility to antibiotics that target the cell wall. FEBS J. 2005;272:2993-3003 pubmed..We also performed in vivo studies and determined a significant inhibition of growth for different Bacillus subtilis strains when the inhibitor is used in combination with vancomycin. ..
- Mater D, Langella P, Corthier G, Flores M. Evidence of vancomycin resistance gene transfer between enterococci of human origin in the gut of mice harbouring human microbiota. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2005;56:975-8 pubmed
- Kaniuk N, Vinogradov E, Whitfield C. Investigation of the structural requirements in the lipopolysaccharide core acceptor for ligation of O antigens in the genus Salmonella: WaaL "ligase" is not the sole determinant of acceptor specificity. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:36470-80 pubmed..The data provide the first indication of a more complicated recognition process involving additional cellular components. ..
- Guardabassi L, Perichon B, van Heijenoort J, Blanot D, Courvalin P. Glycopeptide resistance vanA operons in Paenibacillus strains isolated from soil. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:4227-33 pubmed..Altogether, the results are compatible with the notion that van operons in soil Paenibacillus strains and in enterococci have evolved from a common ancestor. ..
- Suppola J, Kolho E, Salmenlinna S, Tarkka E, Vuopio Varkila J, Vaara M. vanA and vanB incorporate into an endemic ampicillin-resistant vancomycin-sensitive Enterococcus faecium strain: effect on interpretation of clonality. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:3934-9 pubmed..None of the differences was specific to or determinative for any of the groups. Our material suggests that vanA and vanB incorporate into an endemic ampicillin-resistant VSE strain. ..
- Krawczyk B, Lewandowski K, Bronk M, Samet A, Myjak P, Kur J. Evaluation of a novel method based on amplification of DNA fragments surrounding rare restriction sites (ADSRRS fingerprinting) for typing strains of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. J Microbiol Methods. 2003;52:341-51 pubmed..Data presented here demonstrate the complexity of the epidemiological situation concerning VREM that may occur in a single medical ward. ..
- Jorgensen J, Crawford S, Kelly C, Patterson J. In vitro activity of daptomycin against vancomycin-resistant enterococci of various Van types and comparison of susceptibility testing methods. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:3760-3 pubmed..However, improved standardization of the calcium content of MH agar will be important for reliable testing of daptomycin by clinical laboratories using either the E test or disk diffusion methods. ..
- Petrich A, Luinstra K, Page B, Callery S, Stevens D, Gafni A, et al. Effect of routine use of a multiplex PCR for detection of vanA- and vanB- mediated enterococcal resistance on accuracy, costs and earlier reporting. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2001;41:215-20 pubmed..The sensitivity and specificity of MPCR were 98.4% and 96.1%. MPCR identifications of VRE were achieved approximately 48 h earlier than CBT and at 60% of the costs. ..
- Streit J, Sader H, Fritsche T, Jones R. Dalbavancin activity against selected populations of antimicrobial-resistant Gram-positive pathogens. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2005;53:307-10 pubmed..In summary, dalbavancin was very active against a wide spectrum of resistant Gram-positive isolates and demonstrated greater potency than vancomycin or teicoplanin. ..
- Schoonmaker D, Bopp L, Baltch A, Smith R, Rafferty M, George M. Genetic analysis of multiple vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus isolates obtained serially from two long-term-care patients. J Clin Microbiol. 1998;36:2105-8 pubmed..However, many isolates from patient B were found to lack vanA by hybridization. Our results demonstrate the importance of examining multiple isolates, especially from patients who are at high risk of infection. ..
- Usacheva E, Ginocchio C, Morgan M, Maglanoc G, Mehta M, Tremblay S, et al. Prospective, multicenter evaluation of the BD GeneOhm VanR assay for direct, rapid detection of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus species in perianal and rectal specimens. Am J Clin Pathol. 2010;134:219-26 pubmed publisher..Samples positive for the vanB genotype should be confirmed by culture owing to the apparent high number of false-positive results. ..
- Foucault M, Courvalin P, Grillot Courvalin C. Fitness cost of VanA-type vancomycin resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:2354-9 pubmed publisher..Thus, the potential for the dissemination of VRSA clinical isolates should not be underestimated. ..
- Fifadara N, Radu S, Hassan Z, Beuchat L, Rusul G. Hemolytic and nonhemolytic vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis isolated from beef imported to Malaysia. J Food Prot. 2003;66:1845-50 pubmed..It is concluded that several clones of vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis are represented in the isolates obtained from beef imported to Malaysia. ..
- Mak A, Miller M, Chong G, Monczak Y. Comparison of PCR and culture for screening of vancomycin-resistant Enterococci: highly disparate results for vanA and vanB. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:4136-7 pubmed publisher..The positive and negative predictive values of vanB PCR were 1.42% and 99.9%, respectively. A positive vanB result by PCR is poorly predictive and necessitates culture for differentiation of VRE-positive and -negative individuals. ..
- Peset V, Tallon P, Sola C, Sanchez E, Sarrión A, Pérez Bellés C, et al. Epidemiological, microbiological, clinical, and prognostic factors of bacteremia caused by high-level vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus species. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2000;19:742-9 pubmed..This is believed to be the first and only such outbreak described in a Spanish hospital thus far. ..
- Reimundo P, Menendez A, Mendez J, Pérez Pascual D, Navais R, Gomez E, et al. dltA gene mutation in the teichoic acids alanylation system of Lactococcus garvieae results in diminished proliferation in its natural host. Vet Microbiol. 2010;143:434-9 pubmed publisher..These results, together with the fact that the dltA Delta Tn917 mutant was isolated as a STM clone, reveal that the dltA locus of Lactococcus garvieae is required for full growth and pathogenesis on rainbow trout. ..
- Cha C, An H, Kim J. [Detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci using multiplex real-time PCR assay and melting curve analysis]. Korean J Lab Med. 2010;30:138-46 pubmed publisher..VRE genotyping and identification of clinically relevant enterococci were rapidly and correctly performed using multiplex real-time PCR assay and melting curve analysis. ..
- Jurkovic D, Krizkova L, Dusinsky R, Belicová A, Sojka M, Krajcovic J, et al. Identification and characterization of enterococci from bryndza cheese. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2006;42:553-9 pubmed..To our knowledge, this is the first report of enterococcal microflora in bryndza cheese and its evaluation for the presence of vanA and vanB genes as well as virulence determinants. ..