alanine racemase

Summary

Summary: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that reversibly catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine to D-alanine. EC 5.1.1.1.

Top Publications

  1. McKevitt M, Bryant K, Shakir S, Larabee J, Blanke S, Lovchik J, et al. Effects of endogenous D-alanine synthesis and autoinhibition of Bacillus anthracis germination on in vitro and in vivo infections. Infect Immun. 2007;75:5726-34 pubmed
    ..This threshold effect correlated with D-alanine production, was prevented by an alanine racemase inhibitor, and required L-alanine...
  2. Huang C, Elmets C, Tang D, Li F, Yusuf N. Proteomics reveals that proteins expressed during the early stage of Bacillus anthracis infection are potential targets for the development of vaccines and drugs. Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics. 2004;2:143-51 pubmed
    ..Three proteins (immune inhibitor A, GPR-like spore protease, and alanine racemase) initially identified by proteomics in our laboratory were found to have differential expressions during ..
  3. Oikawa T, Tauch A, Schaffer S, Fujioka T. Expression of alr gene from Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 in Escherichia coli and molecular characterization of the recombinant alanine racemase. J Biotechnol. 2006;125:503-12 pubmed
    ..The Alr was expressed in the soluble fractions of the cell extract of the E. coli clone and showed alanine racemase activity. The purified Alr was a dimer with a molecular mass of 78 kDa...
  4. Mustata G, Soares T, Briggs J. Molecular dynamics studies of alanine racemase: a structural model for drug design. Biopolymers. 2003;70:186-200 pubmed
    b>Alanine racemase (AlaR) is a bacterial enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of L- and D-alanine, which is an essential constituent of the peptidoglycan layer of the bacterial cell wall and requires pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) as a ..
  5. Yokoigawa K, Okubo Y, Soda K. Subunit interaction of monomeric alanine racemases from four Shigella species in catalytic reaction. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2003;221:263-7 pubmed
    ..The Bacillus psychrosaccharolyticus alanine racemase, having a dimeric structure, showed a constant molecular mass irrespective of the absence or presence of the ..
  6. Strych U, Benedik M. Mutant analysis shows that alanine racemases from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli are dimeric. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:4321-5 pubmed
    ..Moreover, we demonstrate that expression of a K35A Y235A double mutation of dadX in E. coli suppresses bacterial growth in a dominant negative fashion. ..
  7. Copie V, Faraci W, Walsh C, Griffin R. Inhibition of alanine racemase by alanine phosphonate: detection of an imine linkage to pyridoxal 5'-phosphate in the enzyme-inhibitor complex by solid-state 15N nuclear magnetic resonance. Biochemistry. 1988;27:4966-70 pubmed
    Inhibition of alanine racemase from the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus stearothermophilus by (1-aminoethyl) phosphonic acid (Ala-P) proceeds via a two-step reaction pathway in which reactivation occurs very slowly...
  8. LeMagueres P, Im H, Ebalunode J, Strych U, Benedik M, Briggs J, et al. The 1.9 A crystal structure of alanine racemase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis contains a conserved entryway into the active site. Biochemistry. 2005;44:1471-81 pubmed
    We report the crystal structure of alanine racemase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Alr(Mtb)) at 1.9 A resolution...
  9. Francois J, Kappock T. Alanine racemase from the acidophile Acetobacter aceti. Protein Expr Purif. 2007;51:39-48 pubmed
    ..b>Alanine racemase (Alr) is a pyridoxal 5' phosphate (PLP) -dependent enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of the d- and l-..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Wasserman S, Daub E, Grisafi P, Botstein D, Walsh C. Catabolic alanine racemase from Salmonella typhimurium: DNA sequence, enzyme purification, and characterization. Biochemistry. 1984;23:5182-7 pubmed
    The alanine racemase encoded by the Salmonella typhimurium dadB gene was purified to 90% homogeneity from an overproducing strain. At 37 degrees C the enzyme has a specific activity of 1400 units/mg (V max, L- to D-alanine)...
  2. Couñago R, Davlieva M, Strych U, Hill R, Krause K. Biochemical and structural characterization of alanine racemase from Bacillus anthracis (Ames). BMC Struct Biol. 2009;9:53 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report the biochemical and structural characterization of B. anthracis (Ames) alanine racemase (AlrBax), an essential enzyme in prokaryotes and a target for antimicrobial drug development...
  3. LeMagueres P, Im H, Dvorak A, Strych U, Benedik M, Krause K. Crystal structure at 1.45 A resolution of alanine racemase from a pathogenic bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, contains both internal and external aldimine forms. Biochemistry. 2003;42:14752-61 pubmed
    The structure of the catabolic alanine racemase, DadX, from the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, reported here at 1...
  4. Noda M, Matoba Y, Kumagai T, Sugiyama M. A novel assay method for an amino acid racemase reaction based on circular dichroism. Biochem J. 2005;389:491-6 pubmed
    ..dichroism that can be used for the kinetic study of the activity of amino acid racemases, such as ALR (alanine racemase)...
  5. Strych U, Davlieva M, Longtin J, Murphy E, Im H, Benedik M, et al. Purification and preliminary crystallization of alanine racemase from Streptococcus pneumoniae. BMC Microbiol. 2007;7:40 pubmed
    ..b>Alanine racemase, a ubiquitous enzyme among bacteria and absent in humans, provides the essential cell wall precursor, D-..
  6. ANTHONY K, Strych U, Yeung K, Shoen C, Perez O, Krause K, et al. New classes of alanine racemase inhibitors identified by high-throughput screening show antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20374 pubmed publisher
    In an effort to discover new drugs to treat tuberculosis (TB) we chose alanine racemase as the target of our drug discovery efforts...
  7. Awasthy D, Bharath S, Subbulakshmi V, Sharma U. Alanine racemase mutants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis require D-alanine for growth and are defective for survival in macrophages and mice. Microbiology. 2012;158:319-27 pubmed publisher
    b>Alanine racemase (Alr) is an essential enzyme in most bacteria; however, some species (e.g. Listeria monocytogenes) can utilize d-amino acid transaminase (Dat) to generate d-alanine, which renders Alr non-essential...
  8. Thompson R, Bouwer H, Portnoy D, Frankel F. Pathogenicity and immunogenicity of a Listeria monocytogenes strain that requires D-alanine for growth. Infect Immun. 1998;66:3552-61 pubmed
    ..We have found in L. monocytogenes two genes that control the synthesis of this compound, an alanine racemase gene (dal) and a D-amino acid aminotransferase gene (dat)...
  9. Spies M, Woodward J, Watnik M, Toney M. Alanine racemase free energy profiles from global analyses of progress curves. J Am Chem Soc. 2004;126:7464-75 pubmed
    Free energy profiles for alanine racemase from Bacillus stearothermophilus have been determined at pH 6.9 and 8.9 from global analysis of racemization progress curves...
  10. Zajdowicz S, Jones Carson J, Vazquez Torres A, Jobling M, Gill R, Holmes R. Alanine racemase mutants of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei and use of alanine racemase as a non-antibiotic-based selectable marker. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21523 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated alanine racemase deficient mutants of B. pseudomallei and B...
  11. Strych U, Penland R, Jimenez M, Krause K, Benedik M. Characterization of the alanine racemases from two mycobacteria. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2001;196:93-8 pubmed
    ..The alanine racemase gene from both Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. avium was amplified by PCR and cloned in Escherichia coli...
  12. Patrick W, Weisner J, Blackburn J. Site-directed mutagenesis of Tyr354 in Geobacillus stearothermophilus alanine racemase identifies a role in controlling substrate specificity and a possible role in the evolution of antibiotic resistance. Chembiochem. 2002;3:789-92 pubmed
  13. Ju J, Xu S, Furukawa Y, Zhang Y, Misono H, Minamino T, et al. Correlation between catalytic activity and monomer-dimer equilibrium of bacterial alanine racemases. J Biochem. 2011;149:83-9 pubmed publisher
    From the reaction mechanism and crystal structure analysis, a bacterial alanine racemase is believed to work as a homodimer with a substrate, l-alanine or d-alanine...
  14. Priyadarshi A, Lee E, Sung M, Nam K, Lee W, Kim E, et al. Structural insights into the alanine racemase from Enterococcus faecalis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1794:1030-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Alanine racemase (AlaR) is a bacterial enzyme that belongs to the fold-type III group of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes...
  15. Strych U, Huang H, Krause K, Benedik M. Characterization of the alanine racemases from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Curr Microbiol. 2000;41:290-4 pubmed
    ..Both gene products were purified to electrophoretic homogeneity, the enzymes were characterized biochemically, and preliminary crystals were obtained. ..
  16. Wild J, Hennig J, Lobocka M, Walczak W, Kłopotowski T. Identification of the dadX gene coding for the predominant isozyme of alanine racemase in Escherichia coli K12. Mol Gen Genet. 1985;198:315-22 pubmed
    Evidence is presented that alanine racemase activity in E. coli K12 is due to two distinct gene products. The predominant isozyme is inducible by either alanine stereoisomer and repressible by glucose...
  17. Mustata G, Briggs J. Cluster analysis of water molecules in alanine racemase and their putative structural role. Protein Eng Des Sel. 2004;17:223-34 pubmed
    Conservation of water molecules was identified by a cluster analysis of seven crystal structures of alanine racemase from Bacillus stearothermophilus...
  18. Watanabe A, Yoshimura T, Mikami B, Hayashi H, Kagamiyama H, Esaki N. Reaction mechanism of alanine racemase from Bacillus stearothermophilus: x-ray crystallographic studies of the enzyme bound with N-(5'-phosphopyridoxyl)alanine. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:19166-72 pubmed
    The crystal structures of alanine racemase bound with reaction intermediate analogs, N-(5'-phosphopyridoxyl)-L-alanine (PLP-L-Ala) and N-(5'-phosphopyridoxyl)-D-alanine (PLP-D-Ala), were determined at 2...
  19. Stamper G, Morollo A, Ringe D, Stamper C. Reaction of alanine racemase with 1-aminoethylphosphonic acid forms a stable external aldimine. Biochemistry. 1998;37:10438-45 pubmed
    ..inactivation of the enzyme by L-Ala-P, we determined the crystal structure of the complex between L-Ala-P and alanine racemase at 1.6 A resolution...
  20. Halouska S, Chacon O, Fenton R, Zinniel D, Barletta R, Powers R. Use of NMR metabolomics to analyze the targets of D-cycloserine in mycobacteria: role of D-alanine racemase. J Proteome Res. 2007;6:4608-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We have applied NMR-based metabolomics combined with principal component analysis to monitor the in vivo effect of DCS on Mycobacterium smegmatis. Our analysis suggests DCS functions by inhibiting multiple protein targets...
  21. Toney M. Reaction specificity in pyridoxal phosphate enzymes. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2005;433:279-87 pubmed
    ..Our studies with alanine racemase suggest that the enzyme selectively destabilizes the carbanionic quinonoid intermediate to promote higher ..
  22. Fenn T, Stamper G, Morollo A, Ringe D. A side reaction of alanine racemase: transamination of cycloserine. Biochemistry. 2003;42:5775-83 pubmed
    b>Alanine racemase (EC 5.1.1.1) catalyzes the interconversion of alanine enantiomers, and thus represents the first committed step involved in bacterial cell wall biosynthesis...
  23. Moore B, Leigh J. Markerless mutagenesis in Methanococcus maripaludis demonstrates roles for alanine dehydrogenase, alanine racemase, and alanine permease. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:972-9 pubmed publisher
    ..how this occurs, we tested the roles of three adjacent genes encoding homologs of alanine dehydrogenase, alanine racemase, and alanine permease...
  24. Ono K, Yanagida K, Oikawa T, Ogawa T, Soda K. Alanine racemase of alfalfa seedlings (Medicago sativa L.): first evidence for the presence of an amino acid racemase in plants. Phytochemistry. 2006;67:856-60 pubmed
    We demonstrated several kinds of D-amino acids in plant seedlings, and moreover alanine racemase (E.C.5.1.1.1) in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seedlings. This is the first evidence for the presence of amino acid racemase in plant...
  25. Noda M, Matoba Y, Kumagai T, Sugiyama M. Structural evidence that alanine racemase from a D-cycloserine-producing microorganism exhibits resistance to its own product. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:46153-61 pubmed
    b>Alanine racemase (ALR), an enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of Ala enantiomers, is essential for the synthesis of the bacterial cell wall...
  26. Milligan D, Tran S, Strych U, Cook G, Krause K. The alanine racemase of Mycobacterium smegmatis is essential for growth in the absence of D-alanine. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:8381-6 pubmed
    b>Alanine racemase, encoded by the gene alr, is an important enzyme in the synthesis of d-alanine for peptidoglycan biosynthesis...
  27. Au K, Ren J, Walter T, Harlos K, Nettleship J, Owens R, et al. Structures of an alanine racemase from Bacillus anthracis (BA0252) in the presence and absence of (R)-1-aminoethylphosphonic acid (L-Ala-P). Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2008;64:327-33 pubmed publisher
    ..As part of this work, the structures of an alanine racemase (BA0252) in the presence and absence of the inhibitor (R)-1-aminoethylphosphonic acid (L-Ala-P) have ..
  28. Verch T, Pan Z, Paterson Y. Listeria monocytogenes-based antibiotic resistance gene-free antigen delivery system applicable to other bacterial vectors and DNA vaccines. Infect Immun. 2004;72:6418-25 pubmed
    ..developed a Listeria monocytogenes-Escherichia coli shuttle plasmid that is retained by complementation of D-alanine racemase-deficient mutant strains both in vitro and in vivo...
  29. Badet B, Roise D, Walsh C. Inactivation of the dadB Salmonella typhimurium alanine racemase by D and L isomers of beta-substituted alanines: kinetics, stoichiometry, active site peptide sequencing, and reaction mechanism. Biochemistry. 1984;23:5188-94 pubmed
    The pyridoxal phosphate dependent Salmonella typhimurium dadB alanine racemase was inactivated with D- and L-beta-fluoroalanine, D- and L-beta-chloroalanine, and O-acetyl-D-serine...
  30. Ondrechen M, Briggs J, McCammon J. A model for enzyme-substrate interaction in alanine racemase. J Am Chem Soc. 2001;123:2830-4 pubmed
    We report on a theoretical model for the complex of the enzyme alanine racemase with its natural substrate (L-alanine) and cofactor (pyridoxal 5'-phosphate)...
  31. Kim M, Strych U, Krause K, Benedik M, Kohn H. N(2)-substituted D,L-cycloserine derivatives: synthesis and evaluation as alanine racemase inhibitors. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2003;56:160-8 pubmed
    ..N(2)-Modification led to loss of enzymatic inhibitory activity in most cases consistent with a recent proposal for cycloserine function. ..
  32. Panizzutti R, de Souza Leite M, Pinheiro C, Meyer Fernandes J. The occurrence of free D-alanine and an alanine racemase activity in Leishmania amazonensis. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2006;256:16-21 pubmed
    ..to D-alanine was detected in cell lysates and this enzyme activity was inhibited by D-cycloserine, an alanine racemase inhibitor...
  33. Contestabile R, Paiardini A, Pascarella S, di Salvo M, D Aguanno S, Bossa F. l-Threonine aldolase, serine hydroxymethyltransferase and fungal alanine racemase. A subgroup of strictly related enzymes specialized for different functions. Eur J Biochem. 2001;268:6508-25 pubmed
    ..that SHMT and l-threonine aldolase may actually belong to a subgroup of closely related proteins; fungal alanine racemase, an extremely close relative of l-threonine aldolase, also appears to be a member of the same subgroup...
  34. Mustata G, Briggs J. A structure-based design approach for the identification of novel inhibitors: application to an alanine racemase. J Comput Aided Mol Des. 2002;16:935-53 pubmed
    ..This approach has been applied to Bacillus stearothermophilus alanine racemase (AlaR), an enzyme implicated in the biosynthesis of the bacterial cell wall...
  35. Bron P, Hoffer S, van Swam I, de Vos W, Kleerebezem M. Selection and characterization of conditionally active promoters in Lactobacillus plantarum, using alanine racemase as a promoter probe. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:310-7 pubmed
    This paper describes the use of the alr gene, encoding alanine racemase, as a promoter-screening tool for the identification of conditional promoters in Lactobacillus plantarum. Random fragments of the L...
  36. di Salvo M, Florio R, Paiardini A, Vivoli M, D Aguanno S, Contestabile R. Alanine racemase from Tolypocladium inflatum: a key PLP-dependent enzyme in cyclosporin biosynthesis and a model of catalytic promiscuity. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2013;529:55-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Its biosynthesis is strictly dependent on the action of the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme alanine racemase, which produces the d-alanine incorporated in the cyclic peptide...
  37. Lenz L, Huang W, Zhou C, Li Z, Calendar R. Stable integration vector for nutrient broth-based selection of attenuated Listeria monocytogenes strains with recombinant antigen expression. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2008;15:1414-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The selectable markers in pPL2dalGlnA are glutamine synthetase (GlnA) and alanine racemase (Dal). This novel vector was stably maintained in auxotropic L...
  38. Uo T, Yoshimura T, Tanaka N, Takegawa K, Esaki N. Functional characterization of alanine racemase from Schizosaccharomyces pombe: a eucaryotic counterpart to bacterial alanine racemase. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:2226-33 pubmed
    ..pombe has an open reading frame, which we named alr1(+), encoding a putative protein similar to bacterial alanine racemase. We cloned the alr1(+) gene in Escherichia coli and purified the gene product (Alr1p), with an M(r) of 41,590,..
  39. Fenn T, Holyoak T, Stamper G, Ringe D. Effect of a Y265F mutant on the transamination-based cycloserine inactivation of alanine racemase. Biochemistry. 2005;44:5317-27 pubmed
    The requirement for d-alanine in the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls is fulfilled in part by alanine racemase (EC 5.1.1.1), a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-assisted enzyme...
  40. Hols P, Defrenne C, Ferain T, Derzelle S, Delplace B, Delcour J. The alanine racemase gene is essential for growth of Lactobacillus plantarum. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:3804-7 pubmed
    The Lactobacillus plantarum alr gene encoding alanine racemase was cloned by complementation of an Escherichia coli Alr- DadX- double mutant strain...
  41. Wu D, Hu T, Zhang L, Chen J, Du J, Ding J, et al. Residues Asp164 and Glu165 at the substrate entryway function potently in substrate orientation of alanine racemase from E. coli: Enzymatic characterization with crystal structure analysis. Protein Sci. 2008;17:1066-76 pubmed publisher
    b>Alanine racemase (Alr) is an important enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of L-alanine and D-alanine, an essential building block in the peptidoglycan biosynthesis...
  42. Chacon O, Feng Z, Harris N, Caceres N, Adams L, Barletta R. Mycobacterium smegmatis D-Alanine Racemase Mutants Are Not Dependent on D-Alanine for Growth. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002;46:47-54 pubmed
    ..This study focused on the D-alanine racemase gene (alrA), which is involved in the synthesis of D-alanine, a basic component of peptidoglycan that forms ..
  43. Lobocka M, Hennig J, Wild J, Kłopotowski T. Organization and expression of the Escherichia coli K-12 dad operon encoding the smaller subunit of D-amino acid dehydrogenase and the catabolic alanine racemase. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:1500-10 pubmed
    A fragment of the Escherichia coli K-12 chromosome complementing the D-amino acid dehydrogenase and catabolic alanine racemase deficiency of a dad operon deletion mutant was cloned in a mini-Mu plasmid...
  44. Tauch A, G tker S, P hler A, Kalinowski J, Thierbach G. The alanine racemase gene alr is an alternative to antibiotic resistance genes in cloning systems for industrial Corynebacterium glutamicum strains. J Biotechnol. 2002;99:79-91 pubmed
    The potential of the alanine racemase gene alr from Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 to substitute for antibiotic resistance determinants in cloning systems has been investigated...
  45. Esaki N, Walsh C. Biosynthetic alanine racemase of Salmonella typhimurium: purification and characterization of the enzyme encoded by the alr gene. Biochemistry. 1986;25:3261-7 pubmed
    An alanine racemase, encoded by the alr (dal) gene and believed to be the biosynthetic source of D-alanine for cell wall formation, was purified to homogeneity from an overproducing strain of Salmonella typhimurium (dadB), and the ..
  46. Jamindar D, Gutheil W. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for Marfey's derivatives of L-Ala, D-Ala, and D-Ala-D-Ala: application to the in vivo confirmation of alanine racemase as the target of cycloserine in Escherichia coli. Anal Biochem. 2010;396:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations indicate that cycloserine inhibits alanine racemase production of D-Ala in E...
  47. Cao Q, Zhao Z, Zhang Y, Wang Y, Ding J. [Cloning, sequence analysis and expression of alanine racemase gene in Pseudomonas putida]. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2006;46:80-4 pubmed
    Two distinct alanine racemase genes from Pseudomonas putida 200 were cloned and sequenced. DadX encodes a peptide of 357 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 38.82kDa...
  48. Yoshikawa N, Ashida W, Hamase K, Abe H. HPLC determination of the distribution of D-amino acids and effects of ecdysis on alanine racemase activity in kuruma prawn Marsupenaeus japonicus. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2011;879:3283-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The changes of alanine racemase activity were determined in the muscle and hepatopancreas of M. japonicus before and after molting...
  49. Wang E, Walsh C. Suicide substrates for the alanine racemase of Escherichia coli B. Biochemistry. 1978;17:1313-21 pubmed
  50. Yan X, Gai Y, Liang L, Liu G, Tan H. A gene encoding alanine racemase is involved in spore germination in Bacillus thuringiensis. Arch Microbiol. 2007;187:371-8 pubmed
    b>Alanine racemase is a major component of the exosporium of Bacillus cereus spores. A gene homologous to that of alanine racemase (alrA) was cloned from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp...
  51. Lu W, Kong J, Kong W. Construction and application of a food-grade expression system for Lactococcus lactis. Mol Biotechnol. 2013;54:170-6 pubmed publisher
    A food-grade host/vector expression system for Lactococcus lactis was constructed using alanine racemase gene (alr) as the complementation marker. We obtained an alanine racemase auxotrophic mutant L...
  52. Palumbo E, Favier C, Deghorain M, Cocconcelli P, Grangette C, Mercenier A, et al. Knockout of the alanine racemase gene in Lactobacillus plantarum results in septation defects and cell wall perforation. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004;233:131-8 pubmed
    A stable mutant of Lactobacillus plantarum deficient in alanine racemase (Alr) was constructed by two successive homologous recombination steps. When the mutant was supplemented with D-alanine, growth and viability were unaffected...
  53. Prosser G, Rodenburg A, Khoury H, de Chiara C, Howell S, Snijders A, et al. Glutamate Racemase Is the Primary Target of ?-Chloro-d-Alanine in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016;60:6091-9 pubmed publisher
    ..During our studies on alternative inhibitors of the d-alanine pathway, we discovered that the canonical alanine racemase (Alr) inhibitor ?-chloro-d-alanine (BCDA) is a very poor inhibitor of recombinant M...