prephenate dehydrogenase


Summary: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of prephenate to p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate in the presence of NAD. In the enteric bacteria, this enzyme also possesses chorismate mutase activity, thereby catalyzing the first two steps in the biosynthesis of tyrosine. EC

Top Publications

  1. Xia T, Zhao G, Fischer R, Jensen R. A monofunctional prephenate dehydrogenase created by cleavage of the 5' 109 bp of the tyrA gene from Erwinia herbicola. J Gen Microbiol. 1992;138:1309-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Activity with L-arogenate, normally a relatively poor substrate, was reduced to a negligible level. The prephenate dehydrogenase activity encoded by tyrA* was hypersensitive to feedback inhibition by L-tyrosine (a competitive ..
  2. Ku H, Do N, Song J, Choi S, Yeon S, Shin M, et al. Crystal structure of prephenate dehydrogenase from Streptococcus mutans. Int J Biol Macromol. 2011;49:761-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Prephenate dehydrogenase (PDH) is a bacterial enzyme that catalyzes conversion of prephenate to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate through the oxidative decarboxylation pathway for tyrosine biosynthesis...
  3. Chen S, Vincent S, Wilson D, Ganem B. Mapping of chorismate mutase and prephenate dehydrogenase domains in the Escherichia coli T-protein. Eur J Biochem. 2003;270:757-63 pubmed
    ..The 373 amino acid T-protein is a homodimer that exhibits chorismate mutase (CM) and prephenate dehydrogenase (PDH) activities, both of which are feedback-inhibited by tyrosine...
  4. Rippert P, Matringe M. Molecular and biochemical characterization of an Arabidopsis thaliana arogenate dehydrogenase with two highly similar and active protein domains. Plant Mol Biol. 2002;48:361-8 pubmed the two separate domains were independently cloned into Escherichia coli mutant AT 2471 lacking prephenate dehydrogenase activity. Our results revealed that the three recombinant enzymes are active...
  5. Xie G, Bonner C, Jensen R. Cyclohexadienyl dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas stutzeri exemplifies a widespread type of tyrosine-pathway dehydrogenase in the TyrA protein family. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2000;125:65-83 pubmed
  6. Jiang C, Yin B, Tang M, Zhao G, He J, Shen P, et al. Identification of a metagenome-derived prephenate dehydrogenase gene from an alkaline-polluted soil microorganism. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2013;103:1209-19 pubmed publisher
    A novel prephenate dehydrogenase gene designated pdhE-1 was cloned by sequence-based screening of a plasmid metagenomic library from uncultured alkaline-polluted microorganisms...
  7. Xu S, Yang Y, Jin R, Zhang M, Wang H. Purification and characterization of a functionally active Mycobacterium tuberculosis prephenate dehydrogenase. Protein Expr Purif. 2006;49:151-8 pubmed
    ..b>Prephenate dehydrogenase (PDH) is a key regulatory enzyme in tyrosine biosynthesis, catalyzing the NAD(+)-dependent conversion of ..
  8. Legrand P, Dumas R, Seux M, Rippert P, Ravelli R, Ferrer J, et al. Biochemical characterization and crystal structure of Synechocystis arogenate dehydrogenase provide insights into catalytic reaction. Structure. 2006;14:767-76 pubmed
    The extreme diversity in substrate specificity, and in the regulation mechanism of arogenate/prephenate dehydrogenase enzymes in nature, makes a comparative structural study of these enzymes of great interest...
  9. Chiu H, Abdubek P, Astakhova T, Axelrod H, Carlton D, Clayton T, et al. The structure of Haemophilus influenzae prephenate dehydrogenase suggests unique features of bifunctional TyrA enzymes. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2010;66:1317-25 pubmed publisher
    Chorismate mutase/prephenate dehydrogenase from Haemophilus influenzae Rd KW20 is a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the rearrangement of chorismate to prephenate and the NAD(P)(+)-dependent oxidative decarboxylation of prephenate to 4-..

More Information


  1. Lütke Eversloh T, Stephanopoulos G. Feedback inhibition of chorismate mutase/prephenate dehydrogenase (TyrA) of Escherichia coli: generation and characterization of tyrosine-insensitive mutants. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:7224-8 pubmed
    ..In order to get insights into the feedback regulation by tyrosine of the Escherichia coli chorismate mutase/prephenate dehydrogenase (CM/PDH), which is encoded by the tyrA gene, feedback-inhibition-resistant (fbr) mutants were generated ..
  2. Bonner C, Jensen R, Gander J, Keyhani N. A core catalytic domain of the TyrA protein family: arogenate dehydrogenase from Synechocystis. Biochem J. 2004;382:279-91 pubmed
    ..Comparative enzymology established that both of the arogenate-pathway enzymes, prephenate aminotransferase and TyrA(a), were present in many diverse cyanobacteria and in a variety of eukaryotic red and green algae. ..
  3. Rippert P, Matringe M. Purification and kinetic analysis of the two recombinant arogenate dehydrogenase isoforms of Arabidopsis thaliana. Eur J Biochem. 2002;269:4753-61 pubmed
    ..Moreover, TyrAAT2 presents a weak prephenate dehydrogenase activity whereas TyrAAT1 does not...
  4. Zhao G, Xia T, Ingram L, Jensen R. An allosterically insensitive class of cyclohexadienyl dehydrogenase from Zymomonas mobilis. Eur J Biochem. 1993;212:157-65 pubmed
    ..The ratio of the activity of arogenate dehydrogenase to that of prephenate dehydrogenase (approximately 3:1) remained constant throughout purification, and the two activities were therefore ..
  5. Sampathkumar P, Morrison J. Chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli. Purification and properties of the bifunctional enzyme. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1982;702:204-11 pubmed
    A pure, stable preparation of chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydrogenase (chorismate pyruvatemutase, EC oxidoreductase (decarboxylating), EC 1.3.1...
  6. Maruya A, O Connor M, Backman K. Genetic separability of the chorismate mutase and prephenate dehydrogenase components of the Escherichia coli tyrA gene product. J Bacteriol. 1987;169:4852-3 pubmed
    Fragments of the tyrA gene of Escherichia coli, when suitably engineered, can express either the chorismate mutase activity or the prephenate dehydrogenase activity without the other.
  7. Turnbull J, Morrison J, Cleland W. Kinetic studies on chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli: models for the feedback inhibition of prephenate dehydrogenase by L-tyrosine. Biochemistry. 1991;30:7783-8 pubmed
    ..studies have been undertaken to elucidate the mechanism of the allosteric inhibition by tyrosine of the prephenate dehydrogenase activity of the bifunctional dimeric enzyme chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydrogenase...
  8. Xia T, Jensen R. A single cyclohexadienyl dehydrogenase specifies the prephenate dehydrogenase and arogenate dehydrogenase components of the dual pathways to L-tyrosine in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:20033-6 pubmed
    ..b>Prephenate dehydrogenase and arogenate dehydrogenase activities could not be separated throughout fractionation steps yielding a ..
  9. Mannhaupt G, Stucka R, Pilz U, Schwarzlose C, Feldmann H. Characterization of the prephenate dehydrogenase-encoding gene, TYR1, from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Gene. 1989;85:303-11 pubmed
    TYR1, the gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which encodes prephenate dehydrogenase, one of the tyrosine biosynthetic enzymes, has been cloned by complementing a yeast tyr1 mutant strain...
  10. Shlaifer I, Turnbull J. Characterization of two key enzymes for aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in symbiotic archaea. Extremophiles. 2016;20:503-14 pubmed publisher
    ..the rearrangement of chorismate to prephenate, which can be either converted to hydroxyphenylpyruvate by prephenate dehydrogenase (PD) or to phenylpyruvate by prephenate dehydratase (PDT)...
  11. Wang R, Zhang M, Liu H, Xu J, Yu J, He F, et al. PsAAT3, an oomycete-specific aspartate aminotransferase, is required for full pathogenicity of the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae. Fungal Biol. 2016;120:620-630 pubmed publisher
    ..Some of the AATs contained additional prephenate dehydratase and/or prephenate dehydrogenase domains in their N-termini, which are unique to oomycetes...
  12. Mao J, Liu Q, Song X, Wang H, Feng H, Xu H, et al. Combinatorial analysis of enzymatic bottlenecks of L-tyrosine pathway by p-coumaric acid production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biotechnol Lett. 2017;39:977-982 pubmed publisher
    ..resistant derivatives in the host strains, the ARO2 and TYR1 genes, coding for chorismate synthase and prephenate dehydrogenase were further identified as new important rate-limiting steps...
  13. Shlaifer I, Quashie P, Kim H, Turnbull J. Biochemical characterization of TyrA enzymes from Ignicoccus hospitalis and Haemophilus influenzae: A comparative study of the bifunctional and monofunctional dehydrogenase forms. Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom. 2017;1865:312-320 pubmed publisher
    ..the rearrangement of chorismate to prephenate, which is then converted to hydroxyphenylpyruvate by prephenate dehydrogenase (PD)...
  14. Christopherson R. Partial inactivation of chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli in the presence of analogues of chorismate. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 1997;29:589-94 pubmed
    ..structural analogues of chorismate that act as competitive inhibitors of both the chorismate mutase and prephenate dehydrogenase activities of the bifunctional enzyme, hydroxyphenylpyruvate synthase...
  15. Muñoz A, Hernández Chávez G, de Anda R, Martinez A, Bolivar F, Gosset G. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for improving L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) synthesis from glucose. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;38:1845-52 pubmed publisher
    ..6 mg/g/h, L-DOPA yield from glucose of 51.7 mg/g and a final L-DOPA titer of 320 mg/l. In a batch fermentor culture in rich medium this strain produced 1.51 g/l of L-DOPA in 50 h. ..
  16. Hund H, Bar G, Lingens F. Purification and properties of arogenate dehydrogenase from Actinoplanes missouriensis. Z Naturforsch C. 1989;44:797-801 pubmed
    ..missouriensis utilizes arogenate as an intermediate in L-tyrosine biosynthesis, while no evidence of prephenate dehydrogenase was observed. Arogenate dehydrogenase has been partially purified by a five-step procedure...
  17. Speth A, Hund H, Lingens F. Terminal phenylalanine and tyrosine biosynthesis of Microtetraspora glauca. Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler. 1989;370:591-9 pubmed
  18. Bonvin J, Aponte R, Marcantonio M, Singh S, Christendat D, Turnbull J. Biochemical characterization of prephenate dehydrogenase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus. Protein Sci. 2006;15:1417-32 pubmed
    A monofunctional prephenate dehydrogenase (PD) from Aquifex aeolicus was expressed as a His-tagged protein in Escherichia coli and was purified by nickel affinity chromatography allowing the first biochemical and biophysical ..
  19. Turnbull J, Morrison J. Chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli. 2. Evidence for two different active sites. Biochemistry. 1990;29:10255-61 pubmed
    The inhibition of the bifunctional enzyme chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydrogenase by substrate analogues, by the end product, tyrosine, and by the protein modifying agent iodoacetate has been investigated...
  20. Yang Q, Yu K, Yan L, Li Y, Chen C, Li X. Structural view of the regulatory subunit of aspartate kinase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Protein Cell. 2011;2:745-54 pubmed publisher
    ..composed of two perpendicular non-equivalent ACT domains [aspartate kinase, chorismate mutase, and TyrA (prephenate dehydrogenase)] per monomer. Each ACT domain contains two ? helices and four antiparallel ? strands...
  21. Vincent S, Chen S, Wilson D, Ganem B. Probing the overlap of chorismate mutase and prephenate dehydrogenase sites in the escherichia coli T-protein: a dehydrogenase-selective inhibitor. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2002;12:929-31 pubmed
    An inhibitor of prephenate dehydrogenase has been identified that has no effect on the chorismate mutase activity in the Escherichia coli T-protein, thus supporting the idea of two separate active sites.
  22. Christendat D, Turnbull J. Identifying groups involved in the binding of prephenate to prephenate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 1999;38:4782-93 pubmed
    ..of Lys178, Arg286, and Arg294 in the binding of prephenate to the bifunctional enzyme chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydrogenase. From comparison of the kinetic parameters of wild-type enzyme and selected mutants, we conclude that ..
  23. Harvey M, Bandilla D, Banks P. Subnanomolar detection limit for sodium dodecyl sulfate-capillary gel electrophoresis using a fluorogenic, noncovalent dye. Electrophoresis. 1998;19:2169-74 pubmed
    ..SDS-CGE purity and molecular weight determination of purified chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydrogenase (CMPD) from Escherichia coli is shown to be comparable in accuracy with slab gel SDS-polyacrylamide gel ..
  24. Alagna F, Mariotti R, Panara F, Caporali S, Urbani S, Veneziani G, et al. Olive phenolic compounds: metabolic and transcriptional profiling during fruit development. BMC Plant Biol. 2012;12:162 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data represent the first step towards the functional characterisation of important genes for the determination of olive fruit quality. ..
  25. Christendat D, Turnbull J. Identification of active site residues of chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 1996;35:4468-79 pubmed
    Chemical modification studies of the bifunctional enzyme chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydrogenase and mass spectral analysis of peptide fragments containing modified residues are presented...
  26. Byng G, Whitaker R, Shapiro C, Jensen R. The aromatic amino acid pathway branches at L-arogenate in Euglena gracilis. Mol Cell Biol. 1981;1:426-38 pubmed
    ..Possible natural relationships between Euglena spp. and fungi previously considered in the literature are discussed in terms of data currently available to define enzymological variation in the shikimate pathway. ..
  27. Osuna J, Flores H, Gaytan P. A reporter system that discriminates EF-hand-sensor motifs from signal-modulators at the single-motif level. FEBS Lett. 2012;586:3398-403 pubmed publisher
    ..T-protein is a single-polypeptide bi-functional enzyme composed of a chorismate mutase domain fused to a prephenate dehydrogenase domain (TyrA)...
  28. Turnbull J, Cleland W, Morrison J. pH dependency of the reactions catalyzed by chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 1991;30:7777-82 pubmed
    ..kinetic parameters associated with the mutase and dehydrogenase reactions catalyzed by chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydrogenase has been determined with the aim of elucidating the role that ionizing amino acid residues play in ..
  29. Zamir L, Tiberio R, Devor K, Sauriol F, Ahmad S, Jensen R. Structure of D-prephenyllactate. A carboxycyclohexadienyl metabolite from Neurospora crassa. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:17284-90 pubmed
    ..Enzymatic utilization of prephenyllactate by cyclohexadienyl dehydratase and by cyclohexadienyl dehydrogenase from Klebsiella pneumoniae was demonstrated. ..
  30. Bertaux S, Harrison R. Purification of prephenate dehydratase from Corynebacterium glutamicum by affinity chromatography. Prep Biochem. 1991;21:269-75 pubmed
    ..Three ligands, L-Trp, L-Tyr, and L-Phe have been tested as well as conditions for elution. L-Phe is the most specific ligand: it leads to a purification factor of 11 in one step using step gradients of NaCl in Tris-HCl buffer at pH 7.5. ..
  31. Hudson G, Wong V, Davidson B. Chorismate mutase/prephenate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli K12: purification, characterization, and identification of a reactive cysteine. Biochemistry. 1984;23:6240-9 pubmed
    The bifunctional enzyme involved in tyrosine biosynthesis, chorismate mutase/prephenate dehydrogenase, has been isolated from extracts of a regulatory mutant of Escherichia coli K12...
  32. Timms A, Bridges B. Reversion of the tyrosine ochre strain Escherichia coli WU3610 under starvation conditions depends on a new gene tas. Genetics. 1998;148:1627-35 pubmed
    ..The activity of tas complements the prephenate dehydrogenase dysfunction of tyrA14 (the chorismate mutase activity of tyrA possibly being still functional)...
  33. Sun W, Singh S, Zhang R, Turnbull J, Christendat D. Crystal structure of prephenate dehydrogenase from Aquifex aeolicus. Insights into the catalytic mechanism. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:12919-28 pubmed
    The enzyme prephenate dehydrogenase catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of prephenate to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate for the biosynthesis of tyrosine. Prephenate dehydrogenases exist as either monofunctional or bifunctional enzymes...
  34. Qamra R, Prakash P, Aruna B, Hasnain S, Mande S. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis chorismate mutase. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2005;61:473-5 pubmed
    ..2 A. Matthews coefficient and self-rotation function calculations revealed the presence of two monomers in the asymmetric unit. ..
  35. Christendat D, Saridakis V, Turnbull J. Use of site-directed mutagenesis to identify residues specific for each reaction catalyzed by chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 1998;37:15703-12 pubmed
    Site-directed mutagenesis was performed on the bifunctional enzyme chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydrogenase in order to identify groups important for each of the two reactions...
  36. Sun W, Shahinas D, Bonvin J, Hou W, Kimber M, Turnbull J, et al. The crystal structure of Aquifex aeolicus prephenate dehydrogenase reveals the mode of tyrosine inhibition. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:13223-32 pubmed publisher
    ..understanding of TyrA-catalyzed reactions, we have determined the crystal structures of Aquifex aeolicus prephenate dehydrogenase bound with NAD(+) plus either 4-hydroxyphenylpyuvate, 4-hydroxyphenylpropionate, or l-tyrosine and have ..
  37. Turnbull J, Cleland W, Morrison J. Chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli. 1. Kinetic characterization of the dehydrogenase reaction by use of alternative substrates. Biochemistry. 1990;29:10245-54 pubmed
    The bifunctional enzyme involved in tyrosine biosynthesis, chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydrogenase, has been isolated from extracts of a plasmid-containing strain of Escherichia coli K12 and purified to homogeneity by a modified ..
  38. Osuna J, Flores H, Saab Rincon G. The ?1 domain of protein G can replace the chorismate mutase domain of the T-protein. FEBS Lett. 2012;586:466-71 pubmed publisher
    T-protein is composed of chorismate mutase (AroQ(T)) fused to the N-terminus of prephenate dehydrogenase (TyrA). Here, we report the replacement of AroQ(T) with the ?1-domain of protein G (G?1)...
  39. Rippert P, Scimemi C, Dubald M, Matringe M. Engineering plant shikimate pathway for production of tocotrienol and improving herbicide resistance. Plant Physiol. 2004;134:92-100 pubmed
    ..This was achieved by the expression of the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) prephenate dehydrogenase gene in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants that already overexpress the Arabidopsis p-..
  40. Song J, Bonner C, Wolinsky M, Jensen R. The TyrA family of aromatic-pathway dehydrogenases in phylogenetic context. BMC Biol. 2005;3:13 pubmed
  41. Hudson G, Howlett G, Davidson B. The binding of tyrosine and NAD+ to chorismate mutase/prephenate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli K12 and the effects of these ligands on the activity and self-association of the enzyme. Analysis in terms of a model. J Biol Chem. 1983;258:3114-20 pubmed
  42. Berry A, Jensen R, Hendry A. Enzymic arrangement and allosteric regulation of the aromatic amino acid pathway in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Arch Microbiol. 1987;149:87-94 pubmed
    ..Prephenate dehydratase was strongly activated by L-tyrosine. NAD+-linked prephenate dehydrogenase and arogenate dehydrogenase activities coeluted following ion-exchange chromatography, suggesting their ..
  43. Chávez Béjar M, Lara A, López H, Hernández Chávez G, Martinez A, Ramírez O, et al. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for L-tyrosine production by expression of genes coding for the chorismate mutase domain of the native chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydratase and a cyclohexadienyl dehydrogenase from Zymomonas mobilis. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:3284-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Escherichia coli was compared to the expression of native feedback inhibition-sensitive chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydrogenase (CM-TyrA(p)) with regard to the capacity to produce l-tyrosine in E...
  44. Holding D, Meeley R, Hazebroek J, Selinger D, Gruis F, Jung R, et al. Identification and characterization of the maize arogenate dehydrogenase gene family. J Exp Bot. 2010;61:3663-73 pubmed publisher
  45. Doroshenko V, Shakulov R, Kazakova S, Kivero A, Yampolskaya T, Mashko S. Construction of an L-phenylalanine-producing tyrosine-prototrophic Escherichia coli strain using tyrA ssrA-like tagged alleles. Biotechnol Lett. 2010;32:1117-21 pubmed publisher
    To construct a Phe-producing Tyr(+) Escherichia coli strain, TyrA (chorismate mutase/prephenate dehydrogenase) activity was varied by engineering a proteolytically unstable protein. The tyrA in the E...
  46. Ahmad S, Jensen R. The phylogenetic origin of the bifunctional tyrosine-pathway protein in the enteric lineage of bacteria. Mol Biol Evol. 1988;5:282-97 pubmed
    ..The absence of both the T-protein and DAHP synthase-phe elsewhere in superfamily B indicates the emergence of these character states at approximately the same evolutionary time. ..
  47. Schenck C, Holland C, Schneider M, Men Y, Lee S, Jez J, et al. Molecular basis of the evolution of alternative tyrosine biosynthetic routes in plants. Nat Chem Biol. 2017;13:1029-1035 pubmed publisher
    ..Tyr can be synthesized via two alternative routes by different key regulatory TyrA family enzymes, prephenate dehydrogenase (PDH, also known as TyrAp) or arogenate dehydrogenase (ADH, also known as TyrAa), ..