triose phosphate isomerase


Summary: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate. A deficiency in humans causes nonspherocytic hemolytic disease (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC, CONGENITAL NONSPHEROCYTIC). EC

Top Publications

  1. Rozovsky S, Jogl G, Tong L, McDermott A. Solution-state NMR investigations of triosephosphate isomerase active site loop motion: ligand release in relation to active site loop dynamics. J Mol Biol. 2001;310:271-80 pubmed
    ..The rate of ligand release is less than 1000 s(-1) at 0 degrees C and more than 1000 s(-1) at 30 degrees C. Therefore, loop motion and product release are probably concerted and likely to represent a rate limiting step for chemistry. ..
  2. Kurkcuoglu O, Jernigan R, Doruker P. Loop motions of triosephosphate isomerase observed with elastic networks. Biochemistry. 2006;45:1173-82 pubmed
    ..The loop motions are reproduced with an overlap of 0.75-0.79 by combining the four slowest modes of motion for the free and complex forms of the enzyme. ..
  3. Orosz F, Olah J, Ovadi J. Triosephosphate isomerase deficiency: facts and doubts. IUBMB Life. 2006;58:703-15 pubmed
  4. Walden H, Taylor G, Lilie H, Knura T, Hensel R. Triosephosphate isomerase of the hyperthermophile Thermoproteus tenax: thermostability is not everything. Biochem Soc Trans. 2004;32:305 pubmed
    ..tenax, suggesting that higher oligomerization of the TtxTIM serves functional rather than stabilizing purposes...
  5. Mainfroid V, Terpstra P, Beauregard M, Frere J, Mande S, Hol W, et al. Three hTIM mutants that provide new insights on why TIM is a dimer. J Mol Biol. 1996;257:441-56 pubmed
    ..The conformational stability of this double mutant is estimated 2.5 (+/-0.1) kcal/mol. All these data combined suggest that TIM monomers are thermodynamically unstable. This might explain why TIM occurs only as a dimer. ..
  6. Capitanio D, Merico A, Ranzi B, Compagno C. Effects of the loss of triose phosphate isomerase activity on carbon metabolism in Kluyveromyces lactis. Res Microbiol. 2002;153:593-8 pubmed
    The effect of the loss of triose phosphate isomerase activity on carbon metabolism in Kluyveromyces lactis was studied in batch and in continuous cultures...
  7. Olah J, Orosz F, Keseru G, Kovári Z, Kovacs J, Hollan S, et al. Triosephosphate isomerase deficiency: a neurodegenerative misfolding disease. Biochem Soc Trans. 2002;30:30-8 pubmed
    ..The relationships between mutation-induced TPI misfolding and formation of aberrant protein aggregates are discussed. ..
  8. Dhar Chowdhury P, Harrell M, Han S, Jankowska D, Parachuru L, Morrissey A, et al. The glycolytic enzymes, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, triose-phosphate isomerase, and pyruvate kinase are components of the K(ATP) channel macromolecular complex and regulate its function. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:38464-70 pubmed
    ..Our data are consistent with the concept that the activity of these enzymes (possibly by ATP formation in the immediate intracellular microenvironment of this macromolecular K(ATP) channel complex) causes channel closure. ..
  9. Lu S, Wen J, Li J, Wang F. DNA sequence analysis of the triose phosphate isomerase gene from isolates of Giardia lamblia. Chin Med J (Engl). 2002;115:99-102 pubmed
    ..Genomic DNA were extracted from the trophozoites or cysts of Giardia lamblia. The triose phosphate isomerase (tim) gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique...

More Information


  1. Kursula I, Wierenga R. Crystal structure of triosephosphate isomerase complexed with 2-phosphoglycolate at 0.83-A resolution. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:9544-51 pubmed
    ..The pyrrolidine ring of Pro(168) at the N-terminal region of loop 6 is in a strained planar conformation to facilitate loop opening and product release. ..
  2. Solem C, Koebmann B, Jensen P. Control analysis of the role of triosephosphate isomerase in glucose metabolism in Lactococcus lactis. IET Syst Biol. 2008;2:64-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The finding that an increased level of DHAP coincides with an increase in formate production is surprising and indicates that pyruvate formate lyase is not inhibited by DHAP under these conditions. ..
  3. Schneider A. Triosephosphate isomerase deficiency: historical perspectives and molecular aspects. Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol. 2000;13:119-40 pubmed
  4. Rodriguez Romero A, Hernandez Santoyo A, del Pozo Yauner L, Kornhauser A, Fernandez Velasco D. Structure and inactivation of triosephosphate isomerase from Entamoeba histolytica. J Mol Biol. 2002;322:669-75 pubmed
  5. Kathiresan T, Krishnan K, Krishnakumar V, Agrawal R, Anand A, Muralidhar D, et al. Triose phosphate isomerase, a novel enzyme-crystallin, and tau-crystallin in crocodile cornea. High accumulation of both proteins during late embryonic development. FEBS J. 2006;273:3370-80 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that tau-crystallin/alpha-enolase and triose phosphate isomerase (TIM) are among the major proteins expressed in the crocodile cornea as resolved by 2D gel ..
  6. Brown J, Daar I, Krug J, Maquat L. Characterization of the functional gene and several processed pseudogenes in the human triosephosphate isomerase gene family. Mol Cell Biol. 1985;5:1694-706 pubmed
    ..Sequence divergence calculations indicate that these pseudogenes arose approximately 18 million years ago. We present evidence that there is a single functional gene in the human triosephosphate isomerase gene family. ..
  7. Straus D, Gilbert W. Genetic engineering in the Precambrian: structure of the chicken triosephosphate isomerase gene. Mol Cell Biol. 1985;5:3497-506 pubmed
    ..The 3-kilobase-long gene is composed of seven similarly sized exons and six introns. By using crystallographic and sequence data, we argue that this ancient gene was originally assembled from the genetic antecedents of exons. ..
  8. Lu S, Li J, Zhang Y, Wen J, Wang F. The intraspecific difference of the triose phosphate isomerase (tim) gene from Giardia lamblia. Chin Med J (Engl). 2002;115:763-6 pubmed
    To investigate the intraspecific difference of the triose phosphate isomerase (tim) gene from Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia). Total genomic DNA of G...
  9. González Mondragón E, Zubillaga R, Saavedra E, Chánez Cárdenas M, Perez Montfort R, Hernández Arana A. Conserved cysteine 126 in triosephosphate isomerase is required not for enzymatic activity but for proper folding and stability. Biochemistry. 2004;43:3255-63 pubmed
    ..Thus, Cys126 is required for proper stability and efficient folding of TIM rather than for enzymatic catalysis. ..
  10. Leyva Vazquez M, Setlow P. Cloning and nucleotide sequences of the genes encoding triose phosphate isomerase, phosphoglycerate mutase, and enolase from Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:3903-10 pubmed
    The Bacillus subtilis genes tpi, pgm, and eno, encoding triose phosphate isomerase, phosphoglycerate mutase (PGM), and enolase, respectively, have been cloned and sequenced...
  11. Monis P, Andrews R, Mayrhofer G, Ey P. Molecular systematics of the parasitic protozoan Giardia intestinalis. Mol Biol Evol. 1999;16:1135-44 pubmed
    ..microti. Segments from four "housekeeping" genes (specifying glutamate dehydrogenase, triose phosphate isomerase, elongation factor 1 alpha, and 18S ribosomal RNA) were examined by analysis of 0.48-0...
  12. Lambeir A, Backmann J, Ruiz Sanz J, Filimonov V, Nielsen J, Kursula I, et al. The ionization of a buried glutamic acid is thermodynamically linked to the stability of Leishmania mexicana triose phosphate isomerase. Eur J Biochem. 2000;267:2516-24 pubmed
    The amino acid sequence of Leishmania mexicana triose phosphate isomerase is unique in having at position 65 a glutamic acid instead of a glutamine...
  13. Mande S, Mainfroid V, Kalk K, Goraj K, Martial J, Hol W. Crystal structure of recombinant human triosephosphate isomerase at 2.8 A resolution. Triosephosphate isomerase-related human genetic disorders and comparison with the trypanosomal enzyme. Protein Sci. 1994;3:810-21 pubmed
    ..Inspection of the 3-dimensional structure of trypanosomal triosephosphate isomerase, which has a methionine at position 122, only increased the mystery of the effects of the Gly to Arg mutation in the human enzyme. ..
  14. Compagno C, Brambilla L, Capitanio D, Boschi F, Ranzi B, Porro D. Alterations of the glucose metabolism in a triose phosphate isomerase-negative Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant. Yeast. 2001;18:663-70 pubmed
    The absence of triose phosphate isomerase activity causes an accumulation of only one of the two trioses, dihydroxyacetone phosphate, and this produces a shift in the final product of glucose catabolism from ethanol to glycerol (Compagno ..
  15. Arya R, Lalloz M, Bellingham A, Layton D. Evidence for founder effect of the Glu104Asp substitution and identification of new mutations in triosephosphate isomerase deficiency. Hum Mutat. 1997;10:290-4 pubmed
    ..Cosegregation of the low frequency 2898A allele with the G-->C base change at nucleotide 315 supports a single origin for the Glu104Asp mutation in a common ancestor. ..
  16. Saab Rincon G, Juárez V, Osuna J, Sanchez F, Soberon X. Different strategies to recover the activity of monomeric triosephosphate isomerase by directed evolution. Protein Eng. 2001;14:149-55 pubmed
    ..A small difference in growth rate is observed when both mutant genes are compared, which seems to be attributable to a difference in solubility of the expressed proteins. ..
  17. Zomosa Signoret V, Aguirre López B, Hernandez Alcantara G, Perez Montfort R, de Gomez Puyou M, Gomez Puyou A. Crosstalk between the subunits of the homodimeric enzyme triosephosphate isomerase. Proteins. 2007;67:75-83 pubmed
    ..This could be another reason of why TIM is an obligatory dimer. ..
  18. Wierenga R. The TIM-barrel fold: a versatile framework for efficient enzymes. FEBS Lett. 2001;492:193-8 pubmed
    ..Sequence and structure comparisons now suggest that many of the TIM-barrel enzymes are evolutionarily related. Common structural properties of TIM-barrel enzymes are discussed. ..
  19. Orosz F, Wagner G, Liliom K, Kovacs J, Baróti K, Horanyi M, et al. Enhanced association of mutant triosephosphate isomerase to red cell membranes and to brain microtubules. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:1026-31 pubmed
    ..This distinct microcompartmentation of mutant proteins may be relevant in the development of the neurodegenerative process in TPI deficiency and in other, more common neurological diseases. ..
  20. Yamaji R, Fujita K, Nakanishi I, Nagao K, Naito M, Tsuruo T, et al. Hypoxic up-regulation of triosephosphate isomerase expression in mouse brain capillary endothelial cells. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2004;423:332-42 pubmed
  21. Schneider A, Forman L, Westwood B, Yim C, Lin J, Singh S, et al. The relationship of the -5, -8, and -24 variant alleles in African Americans to triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) enzyme activity and to TPI deficiency. Blood. 1998;92:2959-62 pubmed
    ..Despite these findings, the possibility remains that the -5 -8 or -5 -8 -24 haplotypes may in some instances contribute to compound heterozygosity and clinical TPI deficiency. ..
  22. Ahmed N, Battah S, Karachalias N, Babaei Jadidi R, Horanyi M, Baróti K, et al. Increased formation of methylglyoxal and protein glycation, oxidation and nitrosation in triosephosphate isomerase deficiency. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003;1639:121-32 pubmed
    ..The increased derangement of MG metabolism and associated glycation, oxidative and nitrosative stress in the propositus may be linked to neurodegenerative process in triosephosphate isomerase deficiency. ..
  23. Oslancová A, Janecek S. Evolutionary relatedness between glycolytic enzymes most frequently occurring in genomes. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2004;49:247-58 pubmed
    ..g., Buchnera along with Wigglesworthia and the rest of gamma-proteobacteria, or mycoplasmas and the rest of firmicutes. The results support the view that these glycolytic enzymes may have their own evolutionary history. ..
  24. Najera H, Costas M, Fernandez Velasco D. Thermodynamic characterization of yeast triosephosphate isomerase refolding: insights into the interplay between function and stability as reasons for the oligomeric nature of the enzyme. Biochem J. 2003;370:785-92 pubmed
    ..There is interplay between function and stability. ..
  25. Pichersky E, Gottlieb L, Hess J. Nucleotide sequence of the triose phosphate isomerase gene of Escherichia coli. Mol Gen Genet. 1984;195:314-20 pubmed
    We report here the complete nucleotide sequence of the E. coli triose phosphate isomerase gene...
  26. Zomosa Signoret V, Hernandez Alcantara G, Reyes Vivas H, Martínez Martínez E, Garza Ramos G, Perez Montfort R, et al. Control of the reactivation kinetics of homodimeric triosephosphate isomerase from unfolded monomers. Biochemistry. 2003;42:3311-8 pubmed
    ..9:0.2. This distribution suggests that, in the hybrid, the characteristics of the TcTIM monomers influence the properties of TbTIM monomers. ..
  27. Olivares Illana V, Perez Montfort R, López Calahorra F, Costas M, Rodriguez Romero A, Tuena de Gómez Puyou M, et al. Structural differences in triosephosphate isomerase from different species and discovery of a multitrypanosomatid inhibitor. Biochemistry. 2006;45:2556-60 pubmed
    ..Thus, the data indicate that it is possible to find compounds that induce selective inactivation of the enzymes from three different trypanosomatids. ..
  28. Walden H, Taylor G, Lorentzen E, Pohl E, Lilie H, Schramm A, et al. Structure and function of a regulated archaeal triosephosphate isomerase adapted to high temperature. J Mol Biol. 2004;342:861-75 pubmed
    ..The comparison confirms the increase in charged surface-exposed residues at the expense of polar residues...
  29. Téllez Valencia A, Olivares Illana V, Hernandez Santoyo A, Perez Montfort R, Costas M, Rodriguez Romero A, et al. Inactivation of triosephosphate isomerase from Trypanosoma cruzi by an agent that perturbs its dimer interface. J Mol Biol. 2004;341:1355-65 pubmed
    ..Thus, we show that by focusing on protein-protein interfaces, it is possible to discover low molecular weight compounds that are selective for enzymes from parasites. ..
  30. Cui Q, Karplus M. Quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics studies of triosephosphate isomerase-catalyzed reactions: effect of geometry and tunneling on proton-transfer rate constants. J Am Chem Soc. 2002;124:3093-124 pubmed
    ..e., the tunneling factor of 10 is "small" relative to the overall rate acceleration by 10(9). For the intramolecular proton transfer, the tunneling in the enzyme is larger by a factor of 5 than in solution. ..
  31. Compagno C, Boschi F, Daleffe A, Porro D, Ranzi B. Isolation, nucleotide sequence, and physiological relevance of the gene encoding triose phosphate isomerase from Kluyveromyces lactis. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1999;65:4216-9 pubmed
    Lack of triose phosphate isomerase activity (TIM) is of special interest because this enzyme works at an important branch point of glycolytic flux...
  32. Merkle S, Pretsch W. Characterization of triosephosphate isomerase mutants with reduced enzyme activity in Mus musculus. Genetics. 1989;123:837-44 pubmed
    ..The study furthermore suggests one functional TPI gene per haploid genome in the erythrocyte and seven other tested organs of the mouse. ..
  33. Seigle J, Celotto A, Palladino M. Degradation of functional triose phosphate isomerase protein underlies sugarkill pathology. Genetics. 2008;179:855-62 pubmed publisher
    b>Triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) deficiency glycolytic enzymopathy is a progressive neurodegenerative condition that remains poorly understood...
  34. Reyes Vivas H, Martínez Martínez E, Mendoza Hernandez G, Lopez Velazquez G, Perez Montfort R, Tuena de Gomez Puyou M, et al. Susceptibility to proteolysis of triosephosphate isomerase from two pathogenic parasites: characterization of an enzyme with an intact and a nicked monomer. Proteins. 2002;48:580-90 pubmed
    ..In comparison to the action of subtilisin on TIMs from other species, the trypanosomal enzymes appear to be unique. ..
  35. Lemee L, Dhalluin A, Testelin S, Mattrat M, Maillard K, Lemeland J, et al. Multiplex PCR targeting tpi (triose phosphate isomerase), tcdA (Toxin A), and tcdB (Toxin B) genes for toxigenic culture of Clostridium difficile. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:5710-4 pubmed
    ..of primers were designed for the amplification of (i) a species-specific internal fragment of the tpi (triose phosphate isomerase) gene, (ii) an internal fragment of the tcdB (toxin B) gene, and (iii) an internal fragment of the tcdA (..
  36. Kursula I, Partanen S, Lambeir A, Antonov D, Augustyns K, Wierenga R. Structural determinants for ligand binding and catalysis of triosephosphate isomerase. Eur J Biochem. 2001;268:5189-96 pubmed
    ..Comparison of the TIM-IPP and the TIM-PGH structures with other liganded and unliganded structures also highlights the conformational flexibility of the ligand and the active site, as well as the conserved mode of ligand binding. ..
  37. Ralser M, Wamelink M, Kowald A, Gerisch B, Heeren G, Struys E, et al. Dynamic rerouting of the carbohydrate flux is key to counteracting oxidative stress. J Biol. 2007;6:10 pubmed
    ..As a consequence, altering the homoeostasis of cytoplasmic metabolites is a fundamental mechanism for balancing the redox state of eukaryotic cells under stress conditions. ..
  38. Chen M, Thelen J. The plastid isoform of triose phosphate isomerase is required for the postgerminative transition from heterotrophic to autotrophic growth in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2010;22:77-90 pubmed publisher
    ..A plastid isoform of triose phosphate isomerase (pdTPI) plays a crucial role in this transition from heterotrophic to autotrophic growth...
  39. Merritt T, Quattro J. Evidence for a period of directional selection following gene duplication in a neurally expressed locus of triosephosphate isomerase. Genetics. 2001;159:689-97 pubmed
    ..Further, the number of nucleotide changes required for the observed amino acid substitutions suggests that selection acted on the overall charge of the protein and not on specific key amino acids...
  40. Rozovsky S, McDermott A. The time scale of the catalytic loop motion in triosephosphate isomerase. J Mol Biol. 2001;310:259-70 pubmed
    ..The loop motion appears to be partially rate limiting for chemistry in both directions. ..
  41. Maithal K, Ravindra G, Balaram H, Balaram P. Inhibition of plasmodium falciparum triose-phosphate isomerase by chemical modification of an interface cysteine. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometric analysis of differential cysteine reactivities. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:25106-14 pubmed
    ..The C13D mutant exhibits a reduced stability to denaturants and 7-fold reduction in the enzymatic activity even under the concentrations in which dimeric species are observed. ..
  42. Xiang J, Jung J, Sampson N. Entropy effects on protein hinges: the reaction catalyzed by triosephosphate isomerase. Biochemistry. 2004;43:11436-45 pubmed
    ..This reduced population results in a reduced catalytic activity. ..
  43. Reis E, Mauadi Carmo T, Athanazio R, Reis M, Harn D. Schistosoma mansoni triose phosphate isomerase peptide MAP4 is able to trigger naïve donor immune response towards a type-1 cytokine profile. Scand J Immunol. 2008;68:169-76 pubmed publisher
    ..MAP4 is a multiple antigen peptide containing B- and T-cell epitopes derived from the glycolytic enzyme triose phosphate isomerase. PBMC primed and restimulated with MAP4 first and secondary recalls (MAP4 PIV cells) were examined for ..
  44. Watanabe M, Zingg B, Mohrenweiser H. Molecular analysis of a series of alleles in humans with reduced activity at the triosephosphate isomerase locus. Am J Hum Genet. 1996;58:308-16 pubmed
    ..Thus, molecular alterations at the TPI locus were detected in 10 unrelated individuals in whom segregation of a phenotype of reduced TPI activity previously had been identified. ..
  45. Schneider A, Westwood B, Yim C, Cohen Solal M, Rosa R, Labotka R, et al. The 1591C mutation in triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) deficiency. Tightly linked polymorphisms and a common haplotype in all known families. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 1996;22:115-25 pubmed
    ..The data indicate that all TPI 1591C subjects are descendants of a common ancestor who probably lived in what is now England or France. The original mutation probably occurred well in excess of 1000 years ago. ..
  46. Pereira L, Báo S, Barbosa M, da Silva J, Felipe M, de Santana J, et al. Analysis of the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis triosephosphate isomerase suggests the potential for adhesin function. FEMS Yeast Res. 2007;7:1381-8 pubmed
    ..brasiliensis and extracellular matrix molecules such as laminin and that this interaction may play an important role in the fungal adherence and invasion of host cells. ..
  47. Ikeda R, Saito F, Matsuo M, Kurokawa K, Sekimizu K, Yamaguchi M, et al. Contribution of the mannan backbone of cryptococcal glucuronoxylomannan and a glycolytic enzyme of Staphylococcus aureus to contact-mediated killing of Cryptococcus neoformans. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:4815-26 pubmed
    ..neoformans. Thus, TPI on S. aureus adheres to the capsule of C. neoformans by recognizing the structure of mannotriose units in the backbone of GXM; we suggest that this contact is required for killing of C. neoformans. ..
  48. Banner D, Bloomer A, Petsko G, Phillips D, Wilson I. Atomic coordinates for triose phosphate isomerase from chicken muscle. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1976;72:146-55 pubmed
  49. Perry B, Mohrenweiser H. Human triosephosphate isomerase: substitution of Arg for Gly at position 122 in a thermolabile electromorph variant, TPI-Manchester. Hum Genet. 1992;88:634-8 pubmed
    ..The data provide additional insight into the amino acid residues that are important for the maintenance of the structural characteristics of this very evolutionary constrained protein. ..
  50. Garza Ramos G, Cabrera N, Saavedra Lira E, Tuena de Gomez Puyou M, Ostoa Saloma P, Perez Montfort R, et al. Sulfhydryl reagent susceptibility in proteins with high sequence similarity--triosephosphate isomerase from Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania mexicana. Eur J Biochem. 1998;253:684-91 pubmed
    ..The barrier is lower in T. cruzi triosephosphate isomerase which makes its dimer interface more susceptible for perturbation. ..
  51. Poysti N, Oresnik I. Characterization of Sinorhizobium meliloti triose phosphate isomerase genes. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:3445-51 pubmed
    ..strain of Sinorhizobium meliloti with an insertion in tpiA (systematic identifier SMc01023), a putative triose phosphate isomerase (TPI)-encoding gene, was isolated...
  52. Orosz F, Olah J, Alvarez M, Keseru G, Szabo B, Wagner G, et al. Distinct behavior of mutant triosephosphate isomerase in hemolysate and in isolated form: molecular basis of enzyme deficiency. Blood. 2001;98:3106-12 pubmed
    ..The possible role of cellular components, other than the mutant enzymes, in the distinct behavior of TPI in isolated form versus in hemolysates from the compound heterozygotes and the simple heterozygote family members is discussed. ..
  53. Amar C, Dear P, Pedraza Diaz S, Looker N, Linnane E, McLauchlin J. Sensitive PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay for detection and genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in human feces. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:446-52 pubmed
    ..analysis for the detection and genotyping of Giardia duodenalis on the basis of polymorphism in the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) gene was developed...
  54. Shi Y, Vaden D, Ju S, Ding D, Geiger J, Greenberg M. Genetic perturbation of glycolysis results in inhibition of de novo inositol biosynthesis. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:41805-10 pubmed
    ..The TPI1 gene encodes triose phosphate isomerase, which catalyzes the interconversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate...
  55. Canback B, Andersson S, Kurland C. The global phylogeny of glycolytic enzymes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:6097-102 pubmed publisher
    ..Otherwise, surprisingly little exchange between the bacterial and eukaryotic domains is observed. The descent of eukaryotic genes encoding enzymes of intermediary metabolism is reevaluated...