Summary: A family of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases that bind to CYCLOSPORINS and regulate the IMMUNE SYSTEM. EC 5.2.1.-

Top Publications

  1. Chinnaswamy S, Yarbrough I, Palaninathan S, Kumar C, Vijayaraghavan V, Demeler B, et al. A locking mechanism regulates RNA synthesis and host protein interaction by the hepatitis C virus polymerase. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:20535-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Different conformations of the HCV RdRp can thus affect RNA synthesis and interaction with cellular proteins. ..
  2. Marini J, Cabral W, Barnes A. Null mutations in LEPRE1 and CRTAP cause severe recessive osteogenesis imperfecta. Cell Tissue Res. 2010;339:59-70 pubmed publisher
  3. Linard D, Kandlbinder A, Degand H, Morsomme P, Dietz K, Knoops B. Redox characterization of human cyclophilin D: identification of a new mammalian mitochondrial redox sensor?. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2009;491:39-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Cyclophilin D, the only human mitochondrial isoform of cyclophilins, plays an essential role in the formation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore leading to cell ..
  4. Ratajczak T, Ward B, Cluning C, Allan R. Cyclophilin 40: an Hsp90-cochaperone associated with apo-steroid receptors. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009;41:1652-5 pubmed publisher
  5. Halestrap A. What is the mitochondrial permeability transition pore?. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2009;46:821-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Agents that modulate pore opening may act on either or both the PiC and the ANT. However, knockdown and reconstitution studies are awaited to confirm or refute this model. ..
  6. Ma X, Song L, Yang Y, Liu D. A gain-of-function mutation in the ROC1 gene alters plant architecture in Arabidopsis. New Phytol. 2013;197:751-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The altered plant architecture may result from the activation of an R gene by the roc1 protein. We also present a working model for the interaction between the roc1 mutation and GA signaling in regulating stem elongation. ..
  7. Gaither L, Borawski J, Anderson L, Balabanis K, Devay P, Joberty G, et al. Multiple cyclophilins involved in different cellular pathways mediate HCV replication. Virology. 2010;397:43-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanism of action of these, however, is not completely understood. There are at least 16 cyclophilins expressed in human cells which are involved in a diverse set of cellular processes...
  8. Basso E, Petronilli V, Forte M, Bernardi P. Phosphate is essential for inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore by cyclosporin A and by cyclophilin D ablation. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:26307-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings call for a reassessment of conclusions on the role of the PTP in cell death that are based on the effects of CsA or of CyP-D ablation. ..
  9. Kozlov G, Bastos Aristizabal S, M tt nen P, Rosenauer A, Zheng F, Killikelly A, et al. Structural basis of cyclophilin B binding by the calnexin/calreticulin P-domain. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:35551-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal the P-domain functions as a unique protein-protein interaction domain and implicate a peptidyl prolyl isomerase as a new element in the calnexin cycle...

More Information


  1. Campos B, Sfor a M, Ambrosio A, Domingues M, Barbosa J, Paes Leme A, et al. A redox 2-Cys mechanism regulates the catalytic activity of divergent cyclophilins. Plant Physiol. 2013;162:1311-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests a new type of allosteric regulation in divergent cyclophilins, involving disulfide bond formation and a loop-displacement mechanism.
  2. Wang Z, Song J, Milne T, Wang G, Li H, Allis C, et al. Pro isomerization in MLL1 PHD3-bromo cassette connects H3K4me readout to CyP33 and HDAC-mediated repression. Cell. 2010;141:1183-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results highlight the role of PHD3-Bromo cassette as a regulatory platform, orchestrating MLL1 binding of H3K4me3/2 marks and cyclophilin-mediated repression through HDAC recruitment. ..
  3. Hansson M, Morota S, Chen L, Matsuyama N, Suzuki Y, Nakajima S, et al. Cyclophilin D-sensitive mitochondrial permeability transition in adult human brain and liver mitochondria. J Neurotrauma. 2011;28:143-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We concluded that adult viable human brain and liver mitochondria possess an active CypD-sensitive mPT. Our findings support the rationale of CypD and mPT inhibition as pharmacological targets in acute and chronic neurodegeneration. ..
  4. Kim S, You Y, Park J, Joung Y, Kim B, Ahn J, et al. The rice thylakoid lumenal cyclophilin OsCYP20-2 confers enhanced environmental stress tolerance in tobacco and Arabidopsis. Plant Cell Rep. 2012;31:417-26 pubmed publisher
  5. Yurchenko V, Constant S, Eisenmesser E, Bukrinsky M. Cyclophilin-CD147 interactions: a new target for anti-inflammatory therapeutics. Clin Exp Immunol. 2010;160:305-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These functions reflect multiple interacting partners of CD147. Among these CD147-interacting proteins cyclophilins represent a particularly interesting class, both in terms of structural considerations and potential medical ..
  6. Earley K, Poethig R. Binding of the cyclophilin 40 ortholog SQUINT to Hsp90 protein is required for SQUINT function in Arabidopsis. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:38184-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that the interaction between CyP40 and Hsp90 is conserved in plants and that this interaction is essential for the function of CyP40. ..
  7. Ahn J, Kim D, You Y, Seok M, Park J, Hwang H, et al. Classification of rice (Oryza sativa L. Japonica nipponbare) immunophilins (FKBPs, CYPs) and expression patterns under water stress. BMC Plant Biol. 2010;10:253 pubmed publisher
    FK506 binding proteins (FKBPs) and cyclophilins (CYPs) are abundant and ubiquitous proteins belonging to the peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) superfamily, which regulate much of metabolism through a chaperone or an ..
  8. Jansen G, Maattanen P, Denisov A, Scarffe L, Schade B, Balghi H, et al. An interaction map of endoplasmic reticulum chaperones and foldases. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2012;11:710-23 pubmed publisher
  9. Ishikawa Y, Wirz J, Vranka J, Nagata K, Bachinger H. Biochemical characterization of the prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1.cartilage-associated protein.cyclophilin B complex. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:17641-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The P3H1.CRTAP.CypB complex also delayed the in vitro fibril formation of type I collagen, indicating that this complex is also able to interact with triple helical collagen and acts as a collagen chaperone. ..
  10. Ingelsson B, Shapiguzov A, Kieselbach T, Vener A. Peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity in chloroplast thylakoid lumen is a dispensable function of immunophilins in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Physiol. 2009;50:1801-14 pubmed publisher
    Chloroplast thylakoid lumen of Arabidopsis thaliana contains 16 immunophilins, five cyclophilins and 11 FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs), which are considered protein folding catalysts, although only two of them, AtFKBP13 and AtCYP20-2, ..
  11. Du H, Guo L, Fang F, Chen D, Sosunov A, McKhann G, et al. Cyclophilin D deficiency attenuates mitochondrial and neuronal perturbation and ameliorates learning and memory in Alzheimer's disease. Nat Med. 2008;14:1097-105 pubmed publisher
    ..Blockade of CypD may be a therapeutic strategy in Alzheimer's disease. ..
  12. Dominguez Solis J, He Z, Lima A, Ting J, Buchanan B, Luan S. A cyclophilin links redox and light signals to cysteine biosynthesis and stress responses in chloroplasts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:16386-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Cyclophilins belong to a large family of enzymes called "peptidyl prolyl isomerases" that assist protein folding and assembly...
  13. Puyang X, Poulin D, Mathy J, Anderson L, Ma S, Fang Z, et al. Mechanism of resistance of hepatitis C virus replicons to structurally distinct cyclophilin inhibitors. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:1981-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The interaction of cyclophilin with NS5A seems to be the most critical, since the NS5A mutations have the largest impact on resistance. ..
  14. Goto K, Watashi K, Inoue D, Hijikata M, Shimotohno K. Identification of cellular and viral factors related to anti-hepatitis C virus activity of cyclophilin inhibitor. Cancer Sci. 2009;100:1943-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide important evidence on the mechanisms underlying the regulation of HCV replication by CyP and for designing novel and specific anti-HCV strategies with CPIs. ..
  15. Tiepolo T, Angelin A, Palma E, Sabatelli P, Merlini L, Nicolosi L, et al. The cyclophilin inhibitor Debio 025 normalizes mitochondrial function, muscle apoptosis and ultrastructural defects in Col6a1-/- myopathic mice. Br J Pharmacol. 2009;157:1045-52 pubmed publisher
    ..They represent an essential step towards an effective therapy for Ullrich Congenital Muscular Dystrophy and Bethlem Myopathy, because Debio 025 does not expose patients to the potentially harmful effects of immunosuppression. ..
  16. Bauer K, Kretzschmar A, Cvijic H, Blumert C, Löffler D, Brocke Heidrich K, et al. Cyclophilins contribute to Stat3 signaling and survival of multiple myeloma cells. Oncogene. 2009;28:2784-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Cyps support the anti-apoptotic action of Stat3. Taken together, CypA and CypB both play pivotal roles, yet at different signaling levels, for Stat3 activation and function. These data also suggest a novel mechanism of CsA action. ..
  17. Hopkins S, Dimassimo B, Rusnak P, Heuman D, Lalezari J, Sluder A, et al. The cyclophilin inhibitor SCY-635 suppresses viral replication and induces endogenous interferons in patients with chronic HCV genotype 1 infection. J Hepatol. 2012;57:47-54 pubmed publisher
    SCY-635 is a non-immunosuppressive analog of cyclosporin A that inhibits cyclophilins A and B and hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in vitro...
  18. Willaert A, Malfait F, Symoens S, Gevaert K, Kayserili H, Megarbane A, et al. Recessive osteogenesis imperfecta caused by LEPRE1 mutations: clinical documentation and identification of the splice form responsible for prolyl 3-hydroxylation. J Med Genet. 2009;46:233-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These proteins constitute together with cyclophilin B (CyPB) the prolyl 3-hydroxylation complex that hydroxylates the Pro986 residue in both the type I and type II collagen alpha1-chains...
  19. Periyasamy S, Hinds T, Shemshedini L, Shou W, Sanchez E. FKBP51 and Cyp40 are positive regulators of androgen-dependent prostate cancer cell growth and the targets of FK506 and cyclosporin A. Oncogene. 2010;29:1691-701 pubmed publisher
    ..These proteins and their cognate ligands thus provide new strategies in the treatment of PCa. ..
  20. Fang F, Flegler A, Du P, Lin S, Clevenger C. Expression of cyclophilin B is associated with malignant progression and regulation of genes implicated in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Am J Pathol. 2009;174:297-308 pubmed publisher
  21. Venugopal V, Datta A, Bhattacharyya D, Dasgupta D, Banerjee R. Structure of cyclophilin from Leishmania donovani bound to cyclosporin at 2.6 A resolution: correlation between structure and thermodynamic data. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2009;65:1187-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the structural and biophysical results have been discussed in the context of leishmanial drug resistance and could also set the stage for the design of potent non-immunosuppressive antileishmanials. ..
  22. Pyott S, Schwarze U, Christiansen H, Pepin M, Leistritz D, Dineen R, et al. Mutations in PPIB (cyclophilin B) delay type I procollagen chain association and result in perinatal lethal to moderate osteogenesis imperfecta phenotypes. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:1595-609 pubmed publisher
  23. Calkins M, Manczak M, Mao P, Shirendeb U, Reddy P. Impaired mitochondrial biogenesis, defective axonal transport of mitochondria, abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and synaptic degeneration in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:4515-29 pubmed publisher
  24. Fernandes F, Ansari I, Striker R. Cyclosporine inhibits a direct interaction between cyclophilins and hepatitis C NS5A. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9815 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, this data suggests direct interactions between cyclophilins and NS5A are critical to understand for optimal use of cyclophilin inhibitors in anti-HCV therapy.
  25. Tomasello F, Messina A, Lartigue L, Schembri L, Medina C, Reina S, et al. Outer membrane VDAC1 controls permeability transition of the inner mitochondrial membrane in cellulo during stress-induced apoptosis. Cell Res. 2009;19:1363-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data thus support a model of the PTP complex involving VDAC1 at the MOM, and indicate that VDAC1-dependent MPT is an upstream mechanism playing a causal role in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. ..
  26. Obermayr E, Castillo Tong D, Pils D, Speiser P, Braicu I, Van Gorp T, et al. Molecular characterization of circulating tumor cells in patients with ovarian cancer improves their prognostic significance -- a study of the OVCAD consortium. Gynecol Oncol. 2013;128:15-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Ultimately CTC diagnostics may lead to more personalized treatment of EOC, especially in the recurrent situation. ..
  27. Marcant A, Denys A, Melchior A, Martinez P, Deligny A, Carpentier M, et al. Cyclophilin B attenuates the expression of TNF-? in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages through the induction of B cell lymphoma-3. J Immunol. 2012;189:2023-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings suggest an unexpected role for CyPB in attenuation of the responses of proinflammatory macrophages. ..
  28. Su K, Savino C, Marracci G, Chaudhary P, Yu X, Morris B, et al. Genetic inactivation of the p66 isoform of ShcA is neuroprotective in a murine model of multiple sclerosis. Eur J Neurosci. 2012;35:562-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These results confirm the critical role of ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction in the axonal loss that accompanies EAE, and identify p66 as a new pharmacologic target for MS neuroprotective therapeutics...
  29. Wang X, Carlsson Y, Basso E, Zhu C, Rousset C, Rasola A, et al. Developmental shift of cyclophilin D contribution to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. J Neurosci. 2009;29:2588-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of CypD in HI shifts from a predominantly prosurvival protein in the immature to a cell death mediator in the adult brain. ..
  30. Smith M, Willmann M, Wu G, Berardini T, Möller B, Weijers D, et al. Cyclophilin 40 is required for microRNA activity in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:5424-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that AGO1, or an AGO1-interacting protein, is a major client of CyP40 and that miR156 and its targets play a central role in the regulation of vegetative phase change in Arabidopsis. ..
  31. Nagy P, Wang R, Pogany J, Hafren A, Makinen K. Emerging picture of host chaperone and cyclophilin roles in RNA virus replication. Virology. 2011;411:374-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This review also discusses the emerging roles of cyclophilins, which are peptidyl-prolyl isomerases with chaperone functions, in replication of selected (+)RNA viruses.
  32. de Wilde A, Li Y, van der Meer Y, Vuagniaux G, Lysek R, Fang Y, et al. Cyclophilin inhibitors block arterivirus replication by interfering with viral RNA synthesis. J Virol. 2013;87:1454-64 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that CypA is an essential component of the viral RNA-synthesizing machinery. ..
  33. Lee J, Kim S. An overview of cyclophilins in human cancers. J Int Med Res. 2010;38:1561-74 pubmed
    b>Cyclophilins (Cyps) belong to a group of proteins that have peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) and molecular chaperone activities...
  34. Ishikawa Y, Vranka J, Boudko S, Pokidysheva E, Mizuno K, Zientek K, et al. Mutation in cyclophilin B that causes hyperelastosis cutis in American Quarter Horse does not affect peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerase activity but shows altered cyclophilin B-protein interactions and affects collagen folding. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:22253-65 pubmed publisher
  35. Thomas B, Banerjee R, Starkova N, Zhang S, Calingasan N, Yang L, et al. Mitochondrial permeability transition pore component cyclophilin D distinguishes nigrostriatal dopaminergic death paradigms in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2012;16:855-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that CYPD deficiency distinguishes the modes of dopaminergic neurodegeneration in various regimens of MPTP-neurotoxicity. ..
  36. Hanoulle X, Badillo A, Wieruszeski J, Verdegem D, Landrieu I, Bartenschlager R, et al. Hepatitis C virus NS5A protein is a substrate for the peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase activity of cyclophilins A and B. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:13589-601 pubmed publisher
    ..2 of the nonstructural 5A protein (NS5A) from the JFH1 Hepatitis C virus strain and its interactions with cyclophilins A and B (CypA and CypB)...
  37. Lee J, Kim S. Current implications of cyclophilins in human cancers. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2010;29:97 pubmed publisher
    b>Cyclophilins (Cyps), the intracellular receptor for immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA), play important cellular roles through activities of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) and chaperones...
  38. Ruan S, Ma H, Wang S, Fu Y, Xin Y, Liu W, et al. Proteomic identification of OsCYP2, a rice cyclophilin that confers salt tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings when overexpressed. BMC Plant Biol. 2011;11:34 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, OsCYP2 is also likely to act as a key component that is involved in signal pathways of other types of stresses-PEG, heat, cold, or ABA. ..
  39. Chatterji U, Bobardt M, Selvarajah S, Yang F, Tang H, Sakamoto N, et al. The isomerase active site of cyclophilin A is critical for hepatitis C virus replication. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:16998-7005 pubmed publisher
    ..The study of the roles of Cyps in HCV replication should lead to the identification of new targets for the development of alternate anti-HCV therapies. ..
  40. Trivedi D, Yadav S, Vaid N, Tuteja N. Genome wide analysis of Cyclophilin gene family from rice and Arabidopsis and its comparison with yeast. Plant Signal Behav. 2012;7:1653-66 pubmed publisher
    ..of proteins, known for their property of binding to the immune-suppressant drug cyclosporin A, hence named as cyclophilins. These proteins are characterized by the presence of peptidyl prolyl isomerase (PPIase) domain which catalyzes ..
  41. Gallay P. Cyclophilin inhibitors. Clin Liver Dis. 2009;13:403-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent clinical studies demonstrate that Cyp inhibitors are potent anti-HCV drugs, with a novel mechanism of action and efficacy profiles that make them attractive candidates for combination with current and future HCV treatments. ..
  42. Favreau D, Meessen Pinard M, Desforges M, Talbot P. Human coronavirus-induced neuronal programmed cell death is cyclophilin d dependent and potentially caspase dispensable. J Virol. 2012;86:81-93 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our results are consistent with mitochondrial AIF and cyclophilin D being central in HCoV-OC43-induced PCD, while caspases appear not to be essential. ..
  43. Ferreira P, Orry A. From Drosophila to humans: reflections on the roles of the prolyl isomerases and chaperones, cyclophilins, in cell function and disease. J Neurogenet. 2012;26:132-43 pubmed publisher
    ..This report highlights advances made by studies on some members of immunophilins, the cyclophilins. Finally, it reexamines critically data and dogmas derived from past and recent genetic, structural, biological,..
  44. Trupkin S, Mora Garcia S, Casal J. The cyclophilin ROC1 links phytochrome and cryptochrome to brassinosteroid sensitivity. Plant J. 2012;71:712-23 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a model where perception of light by phyA, cry1 or phyB activates ROC1 (at least in part by enhancing its expression). This in turn reduces the intensity of brassinosteroid signalling and fine-tunes seedling de-etiolation. ..
  45. Bannikova O, Zywicki M, Márquez Y, Skrahina T, Kalyna M, Barta A. Identification of RNA targets for the nuclear multidomain cyclophilin atCyp59 and their effect on PPIase activity. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:1783-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Deregulation of this class of cyclophilins has been shown to affect transcription and to influence phosphorylation of the C-terminal repeat domain of the ..
  46. Hafner A, Dai J, Gomes A, Xiao C, Palmeira C, Rosenzweig A, et al. Regulation of the mPTP by SIRT3-mediated deacetylation of CypD at lysine 166 suppresses age-related cardiac hypertrophy. Aging (Albany NY). 2010;2:914-23 pubmed
  47. Davis T, Walker J, Ouyang H, MacKenzie F, Butler Cole C, Newman E, et al. The crystal structure of human WD40 repeat-containing peptidylprolyl isomerase (PPWD1). FEBS J. 2008;275:2283-95 pubmed publisher
    b>Cyclophilins comprise one of the three classes of peptidylprolyl isomerases found in all eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms, as well as viruses...
  48. Elrod J, Wong R, Mishra S, Vagnozzi R, Sakthievel B, Goonasekera S, et al. Cyclophilin D controls mitochondrial pore-dependent Ca(2+) exchange, metabolic flexibility, and propensity for heart failure in mice. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:3680-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the MPTP maintains homeostatic mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels to match metabolism with alterations in myocardial workload, thereby suggesting a physiologic function for the MPTP...
  49. Baldridge D, Schwarze U, Morello R, Lennington J, Bertin T, Pace J, et al. CRTAP and LEPRE1 mutations in recessive osteogenesis imperfecta. Hum Mutat. 2008;29:1435-42 pubmed publisher
  50. Qing M, Yang F, Zhang B, Zou G, Robida J, Yuan Z, et al. Cyclosporine inhibits flavivirus replication through blocking the interaction between host cyclophilins and viral NS5 protein. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:3226-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that cyclophilins (CyPs), a family of cellular peptidyl-prolyl isomerases (PPIases), play a role in flavivirus replication. Huh-7...
  51. Eliseev R, Malecki J, Lester T, Zhang Y, Humphrey J, Gunter T. Cyclophilin D interacts with Bcl2 and exerts an anti-apoptotic effect. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:9692-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The fact that some tumors overexpress CypD suggests that this may be an additional mechanism of suppression of apoptosis in cancer. ..
  52. Davis T, Walker J, Campagna Slater V, Finerty P, Paramanathan R, Bernstein G, et al. Structural and biochemical characterization of the human cyclophilin family of peptidyl-prolyl isomerases. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000439 pubmed publisher
    ..inhibits attempts to design drug specificity; additionally, in order to define physiological functions for the cyclophilins, definitive isoform characterization is required...
  53. Martin L, Gertz B, Pan Y, Price A, Molkentin J, Chang Q. The mitochondrial permeability transition pore in motor neurons: involvement in the pathobiology of ALS mice. Exp Neurol. 2009;218:333-46 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that mitochondria have causal roles in the disease mechanisms in MNs in ALS mice. This work defines a new mitochondrial mechanism for MN degeneration in ALS. ..
  54. Du H, Guo L, Zhang W, Rydzewska M, Yan S. Cyclophilin D deficiency improves mitochondrial function and learning/memory in aging Alzheimer disease mouse model. Neurobiol Aging. 2011;32:398-406 pubmed publisher
  55. Leung A, Varanyuwatana P, Halestrap A. The mitochondrial phosphate carrier interacts with cyclophilin D and may play a key role in the permeability transition. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:26312-23 pubmed publisher
    ..An interaction of the PiC with the ANT may enable agents that bind to either transporter to modulate pore opening...
  56. Mendu V, Chiu M, Barajas D, Li Z, Nagy P. Cpr1 cyclophilin and Ess1 parvulin prolyl isomerases interact with the tombusvirus replication protein and inhibit viral replication in yeast model host. Virology. 2010;406:342-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that the Ess1p parvulin prolyl isomerase partly complements Cpr1p function as an inhibitor of tombusvirus replication...
  57. Mathy J, Ma S, Compton T, Lin K. Combinations of cyclophilin inhibitor NIM811 with hepatitis C Virus NS3-4A Protease or NS5B polymerase inhibitors enhance antiviral activity and suppress the emergence of resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008;52:3267-75 pubmed publisher
    ..An alternative and complementary strategy is to target host factors such as cyclophilins that are also essential for viral replication...
  58. Sirpiö S, Khrouchtchova A, Allahverdiyeva Y, Hansson M, Fristedt R, Vener A, et al. AtCYP38 ensures early biogenesis, correct assembly and sustenance of photosystem II. Plant J. 2008;55:639-51 pubmed publisher
    ..It is proposed that during PSII assembly AtCYP38 protein guides the proper folding of D1 (and CP43) into PSII, thereby enabling the correct assembly of the water-splitting Mn(4)-Ca cluster even with high turnover of PSII. ..
  59. Kambara H, Tani H, Mori Y, Abe T, Katoh H, Fukuhara T, et al. Involvement of cyclophilin B in the replication of Japanese encephalitis virus. Virology. 2011;412:211-9 pubmed publisher
    ..CypB was colocalized and immunoprecipitated with JEV NS4A in infected cells. These results suggest that CypB plays a crucial role in the replication of JEV through an interaction with NS4A...
  60. Yau W, Blisnick T, Taly J, Helmer Citterich M, Schiene Fischer C, Leclercq O, et al. Cyclosporin A treatment of Leishmania donovani reveals stage-specific functions of cyclophilins in parasite proliferation and viability. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e729 pubmed publisher
    ..A (CsA) has important anti-microbial activity against parasites of the genus Leishmania, suggesting CsA-binding cyclophilins (CyPs) as potential drug targets...
  61. Kim J, Choi T, Ding Y, Kim Y, Ha K, Lee K, et al. Overexpressed cyclophilin B suppresses apoptosis associated with ROS and Ca2+ homeostasis after ER stress. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:3636-48 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Cyclophilins are protein chaperones that accelerate the rate of protein folding through their peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans ..
  62. Choi J, Sutor S, Lindquist L, Evans G, Madden B, Bergen H, et al. Severe osteogenesis imperfecta in cyclophilin B-deficient mice. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000750 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide significant new mechanistic insight into the pathophysiology of OI and reveal how the members of the P3H1/CRTAP/CypB complex interact to direct proper formation of collagen and bone. ..
  63. Malouitre S, Dube H, Selwood D, Crompton M. Mitochondrial targeting of cyclosporin A enables selective inhibition of cyclophilin-D and enhanced cytoprotection after glucose and oxygen deprivation. Biochem J. 2009;425:137-48 pubmed publisher
    CsA (cyclosporin A) is a hydrophobic undecapeptide that inhibits CyPs (cyclophilins), a family of PPIases (peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerases)...
  64. Du H, Yan S. Mitochondrial permeability transition pore in Alzheimer's disease: cyclophilin D and amyloid beta. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1802:198-204 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, the role of Abeta in the formation of mPTP and the potential of mPTP inhibition as a therapeutic strategy in AD treatment are examined. ..
  65. Heck J, Meng X, Frick D. Cyclophilin B stimulates RNA synthesis by the HCV RNA dependent RNA polymerase. Biochem Pharmacol. 2009;77:1173-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Cyclophilins are cellular peptidyl isomerases that have been implicated in regulating hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication...
  66. Kumari S, Singh P, Singla Pareek S, Pareek A. Heterologous expression of a salinity and developmentally regulated rice cyclophilin gene (OsCyp2) in E. coli and S. cerevisiae confers tolerance towards multiple abiotic stresses. Mol Biotechnol. 2009;42:195-204 pubmed publisher
    ..It has a catalytic efficiency (K (cat)/K (m)) of 4.5 x 10(6)/(mol/l)/s, which is comparable to known cyclophilins from plants...
  67. Dube H, Selwood D, Malouitre S, Capano M, Simone M, Crompton M. A mitochondrial-targeted cyclosporin A with high binding affinity for cyclophilin D yields improved cytoprotection of cardiomyocytes. Biochem J. 2012;441:901-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate the potential value of selective CyP-D inhibition in cytoprotection. ..
  68. Hausenloy D, Lim S, Ong S, Davidson S, Yellon D. Mitochondrial cyclophilin-D as a critical mediator of ischaemic preconditioning. Cardiovasc Res. 2010;88:67-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The CYPD component of the mPTP is required by IPC to generate mitochondrial ROS and phosphorylate Akt and Erk1/2, major steps in the IPC signalling pathway. ..
  69. Watanabe A, Yoneda M, Ikeda F, Terao Muto Y, Sato H, Kai C. CD147/EMMPRIN acts as a functional entry receptor for measles virus on epithelial cells. J Virol. 2010;84:4183-93 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report among members of the Mononegavirales that CD147 is used as a virus entry receptor via incorporated CypB in the virions. ..
  70. Morota S, Månsson R, Hansson M, Kasuya K, Shimazu M, Hasegawa E, et al. Evaluation of putative inhibitors of mitochondrial permeability transition for brain disorders--specificity vs. toxicity. Exp Neurol. 2009;218:353-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that a clinically relevant mPT inhibitor should have a mitochondrial target and increase mitochondrial calcium retention at concentrations which can be translated to human use. ..
  71. Chen J, Santillan D, Koonce M, Wei W, Luo R, Thirman M, et al. Loss of MLL PHD finger 3 is necessary for MLL-ENL-induced hematopoietic stem cell immortalization. Cancer Res. 2008;68:6199-207 pubmed publisher
    ..This leads to constitutive overexpression of MLL target genes that block stem cell commitment and promote stem cell renewal, probably the first step in MLL-related leukemogenesis. ..
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