Summary: Members of a family of highly conserved proteins which are all cis-trans peptidyl-prolyl isomerases (PEPTIDYLPROLYL ISOMERASE). They bind the immunosuppressant drugs CYCLOSPORINE; TACROLIMUS and SIROLIMUS. They possess rotamase activity, which is inhibited by the immunosuppressant drugs that bind to them.

Top Publications

  1. He Z, Li L, Luan S. Immunophilins and parvulins. Superfamily of peptidyl prolyl isomerases in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2004;134:1248-67 pubmed
    b>Immunophilins are defined as receptors for immunosuppressive drugs including cyclosporin A, FK506, and rapamycin...
  2. Vespa L, Vachon G, Berger F, Perazza D, Faure J, Herzog M. The immunophilin-interacting protein AtFIP37 from Arabidopsis is essential for plant development and is involved in trichome endoreduplication. Plant Physiol. 2004;134:1283-92 pubmed
    ..Altogether, these data show that AtFIP37 is critical for life in Arabidopsis and implies a role for AtFIP37 in the regulation of the cell cycle as shown for FKBP12 and TOR (target of rapamycin) in mammals. ..
  3. Robson T, Joiner M, Wilson G, McCullough W, Price M, Logan I, et al. A novel human stress response-related gene with a potential role in induced radioresistance. Radiat Res. 1999;152:451-61 pubmed
    ..this gene reveals that it is unique but has similarities to a family of heat-shock-related proteins known as immunophilins. These have been implicated in various cellular functions including general stress responses and control of ..
  4. Galat A. Peptidylprolyl cis/trans isomerases (immunophilins): biological diversity--targets--functions. Curr Top Med Chem. 2003;3:1315-47 pubmed
  5. Jascur T, Brickner H, Salles Passador I, Barbier V, El Khissiin A, Smith B, et al. Regulation of p21(WAF1/CIP1) stability by WISp39, a Hsp90 binding TPR protein. Mol Cell. 2005;17:237-49 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrate the importance of posttranslational stabilization of p21 protein by WISp39 in regulating cellular p21 activity. ..
  6. Bell A, Monaghan P, Page A. Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases (immunophilins) and their roles in parasite biochemistry, host-parasite interaction and antiparasitic drug action. Int J Parasitol. 2006;36:261-76 pubmed
    ..In addition to enzymic activity, many immunophilins act as molecular chaperones...
  7. Romano P, He Z, Luan S. Introducing immunophilins. From organ transplantation to plant biology. Plant Physiol. 2004;134:1241-3 pubmed
  8. Galigniana M, Harrell J, Murphy P, Chinkers M, Radanyi C, Renoir J, et al. Binding of hsp90-associated immunophilins to cytoplasmic dynein: direct binding and in vivo evidence that the peptidylprolyl isomerase domain is a dynein interaction domain. Biochemistry. 2002;41:13602-10 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the PPIase domains of the hsp90-binding immunophilins interact directly with cytoplasmic dynein and that this interaction with the motor protein is responsible for ..
  9. Barik S. Immunophilins: for the love of proteins. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2006;63:2889-900 pubmed
    b>Immunophilins are chaperones that may also exhibit peptidylprolyl isomerase (PPIase) activity...

More Information


  1. Ke H, Huai Q. Structures of calcineurin and its complexes with immunophilins-immunosuppressants. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;311:1095-102 pubmed
    ..CN and its complexes with FKBP12-FK506 and cyclophilin-cyclosporin showed that the two structurally unrelated immunophilins-immunosuppressants bind to a common composite surface made up of the residues from both catalytic subunit and ..
  2. Aviezer Hagai K, Skovorodnikova J, Galigniana M, Farchi Pisanty O, Maayan E, Bocovza S, et al. Arabidopsis immunophilins ROF1 (AtFKBP62) and ROF2 (AtFKBP65) exhibit tissue specificity, are heat-stress induced, and bind HSP90. Plant Mol Biol. 2007;63:237-55 pubmed
    ..Such complexes might be regulated by environmental conditions such as heat stress or internal cues such as different hormones. ..
  3. Pratt W, Toft D. Regulation of signaling protein function and trafficking by the hsp90/hsp70-based chaperone machinery. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2003;228:111-33 pubmed, hsp90 binds cofactors at other sites that are part of the heterocomplex assembly machinery as well as immunophilins that connect assembled substrate*hsp90 complexes to protein-trafficking systems...
  4. Arié J, Sassoon N, Betton J. Chaperone function of FkpA, a heat shock prolyl isomerase, in the periplasm of Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2001;39:199-210 pubmed
    ..We propose that FkpA functions as a chaperone for envelope proteins in the bacterial periplasm...
  5. Romano P, Gray J, Horton P, Luan S. Plant immunophilins: functional versatility beyond protein maturation. New Phytol. 2005;166:753-69 pubmed
    Originally identified as the cellular targets of immunosuppressant drugs, the immunophilins encompass two ubiquitous protein families: the FK-506 binding proteins or FKBPs, and the cyclosporin-binding proteins or cyclophilins...
  6. Kang C, Hong Y, Dhe Paganon S, Yoon H. FKBP family proteins: immunophilins with versatile biological functions. Neurosignals. 2008;16:318-25 pubmed publisher
    b>Immunophilins consist of a family of highly conserved proteins binding with immunosuppressive drugs such as FK506, rapamycin and cyclosporin A...
  7. Galigniana M, Harrell J, O Hagen H, Ljungman M, Pratt W. Hsp90-binding immunophilins link p53 to dynein during p53 transport to the nucleus. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:22483-9 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that hsp90.binding immunophilins link p53...
  8. Pratt W, Galigniana M, Harrell J, DeFranco D. Role of hsp90 and the hsp90-binding immunophilins in signalling protein movement. Cell Signal. 2004;16:857-72 pubmed
    ..hsp90 complexes also contain one of several TPR domain immunophilins or immunophilin homologs that bind to a TPR domain binding site on hsp90...
  9. Adams B, Musiyenko A, Kumar R, Barik S. A novel class of dual-family immunophilins. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:24308-14 pubmed
    b>Immunophilins are protein chaperones with peptidylprolyl isomerase activity that belong to one of two large families, the cyclosporin-binding cyclophilins (CyPs) and the FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs)...
  10. Chambraud B, Radanyi C, Camonis J, Rajkowski K, Schumacher M, Baulieu E. Immunophilins, Refsum disease, and lupus nephritis: the peroxisomal enzyme phytanoyl-COA alpha-hydroxylase is a new FKBP-associated protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:2104-9 pubmed
    ..This observation suggests that PAHX is a serious candidate for studying the cellular signaling pathway(s) involving FKBP52 in the presence of immunosuppressant drugs...
  11. Quintá H, Galigniana N, Erlejman A, Lagadari M, Piwien Pilipuk G, Galigniana M. Management of cytoskeleton architecture by molecular chaperones and immunophilins. Cell Signal. 2011;23:1907-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Molecular chaperones and immunophilins are counted among the most important proteins that interact closely with the cytoskeleton network, in ..
  12. McKeen H, Byrne C, Jithesh P, Donley C, Valentine A, Yakkundi A, et al. FKBPL regulates estrogen receptor signaling and determines response to endocrine therapy. Cancer Res. 2010;70:1090-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that FKBPL may have prognostic value based on its impact on tumor proliferative capacity and sensitivity to endocrine therapies, which improve outcome. ..
  13. Pratt W, Krishna P, Olsen L. Hsp90-binding immunophilins in plants: the protein movers. Trends Plant Sci. 2001;6:54-8 pubmed
    ..The hsp90/hsp70-based machinery and the plant FKBPs might be used to target the trafficking of signalling proteins in plants. ..
  14. Peterson R, Desai B, Hardwick J, Schreiber S. Protein phosphatase 2A interacts with the 70-kDa S6 kinase and is activated by inhibition of FKBP12-rapamycinassociated protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:4438-42 pubmed
  15. Ahn J, Kim D, You Y, Seok M, Park J, Hwang H, et al. Classification of rice (Oryza sativa L. Japonica nipponbare) immunophilins (FKBPs, CYPs) and expression patterns under water stress. BMC Plant Biol. 2010;10:253 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, many of the genes upregulated by water stress offer the possibility of manipulating the stress responses in rice. ..
  16. Quintá H, Maschi D, Gomez Sanchez C, Piwien Pilipuk G, Galigniana M. Subcellular rearrangement of hsp90-binding immunophilins accompanies neuronal differentiation and neurite outgrowth. J Neurochem. 2010;115:716-34 pubmed publisher
    FKBP51 and FKBP52 (FK506-binding protein 51 and 52) are tetratricopeptide repeat-domain immunophilins belonging to the tetratricopeptide-protein•hsp90•hsp70•p23 heterocomplex bound to steroid receptors...
  17. Harding M. Immunophilins, mTOR, and pharmacodynamic strategies for a targeted cancer therapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2003;9:2882-6 pubmed
  18. Dornan J, Taylor P, Walkinshaw M. Structures of immunophilins and their ligand complexes. Curr Top Med Chem. 2003;3:1392-409 pubmed
    ..For all structures discussed in the review a summary of the available biological data is also presented. ..
  19. Yarosh D, Cruz P, Dougherty I, Bizios N, Kibitel J, Goodtzova K, et al. FRAP DNA-dependent protein kinase mediates a late signal transduced from ultraviolet-induced DNA damage. J Invest Dermatol. 2000;114:1005-10 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that the FKBP12-rapamycin-associated DNA protein kinase transduces the signal of ultraviolet-induced DNA damage into production of immunosuppressive cytokines at late times after ultraviolet irradiation. ..
  20. Edvardsson A, Shapiguzov A, Petersson U, Schröder W, Vener A. Immunophilin AtFKBP13 sustains all peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity in the thylakoid lumen from Arabidopsis thaliana deficient in AtCYP20-2. Biochemistry. 2007;46:9432-42 pubmed
    The physiological roles of immunophilins are unclear, but many possess peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase) activity, and they have been found in all organisms examined to date, implying that they are involved in fundamental, protein-..
  21. Bailly A, Sovero V, Vincenzetti V, Santelia D, Bartnik D, Koenig B, et al. Modulation of P-glycoproteins by auxin transport inhibitors is mediated by interaction with immunophilins. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:21817-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support a novel model for the mode of drug-mediated P-glycoprotein regulation mediated via protein-protein interaction with immunophilin-like TWD1. ..
  22. Avramut M, Achim C. Immunophilins and their ligands: insights into survival and growth of human neurons. Physiol Behav. 2002;77:463-8 pubmed
    ..effectors in mediating the effects of FK506 and RM on human brain cells and (3) clarifying the role of immunophilins (IP) in the normal and degenerating human brain...
  23. Robson T, Price M, Moore M, Joiner M, McKelvey Martin V, McKeown S, et al. Increased repair and cell survival in cells treated with DIR1 antisense oligonucleotides: implications for induced radioresistance. Int J Radiat Biol. 2000;76:617-23 pubmed
    ..Because DIR1 is repressed by X-rays in the dose range where IRR is observed, it may represent a candidate gene involved in the IRR phenomenon. ..
  24. Mesa A, Somarelli J, Herrera R. Spliceosomal immunophilins. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:2345-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In humans, several of the known proteinaceous splicing factors are members of the immunophilin superfamily. Immunophilins are peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases that catalyze the conversion of proteins from cis to trans at Xaa-Pro ..
  25. McKeen H, McAlpine K, Valentine A, Quinn D, McClelland K, Byrne C, et al. A novel FK506-like binding protein interacts with the glucocorticoid receptor and regulates steroid receptor signaling. Endocrinology. 2008;149:5724-34 pubmed publisher
    ..three tetratricopeptide repeat motifs are homologous to the heat shock protein 90 interaction sites of other immunophilins that have roles in steroid hormone receptor signaling...
  26. Feldkämper I, Verspohl E, Neye H. The serpins alpha-1-antitrypsin and alpha-1-antichymotrypsin specifically interact with immunophilins. Pharmazie. 2003;58:811-6 pubmed
  27. Wang T, Donahoe P. The immunophilin FKBP12: a molecular guardian of the TGF-beta family type I receptors. Front Biosci. 2004;9:619-31 pubmed
  28. Sinkins W, Goel M, Estacion M, Schilling W. Association of immunophilins with mammalian TRPC channels. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:34521-9 pubmed
    ..immunoprecipitations from Sf9 cells individually co-expressing each of the TRPC proteins along with the immunophilins showed that TRPC3, -C6, and -C7 interact with FKBP12, whereas TRPC1, -C4, and -C5 interact with FKBP52...
  29. McKeen H, Brennan D, Hegarty S, Lanigan F, Jirstrom K, Byrne C, et al. The emerging role of FK506-binding proteins as cancer biomarkers: a focus on FKBPL. Biochem Soc Trans. 2011;39:663-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Since this protein family has roles in a plethora of signalling pathways, its members represent novel prognostic markers and therapeutic targets for cancer diagnosis and treatment. ..
  30. Hochwagen A, Tham W, Brar G, Amon A. The FK506 binding protein Fpr3 counteracts protein phosphatase 1 to maintain meiotic recombination checkpoint activity. Cell. 2005;122:861-73 pubmed
    ..Our findings define a branch of the recombination checkpoint involved in the adaptation to persistent chromosomal damage and a critical function for FK506 binding proteins during meiosis. ..
  31. Vallon O. Chlamydomonas immunophilins and parvulins: survey and critical assessment of gene models. Eukaryot Cell. 2005;4:230-41 pubmed
  32. Valentine A, O Rourke M, Yakkundi A, Worthington J, Hookham M, Bicknell R, et al. FKBPL and peptide derivatives: novel biological agents that inhibit angiogenesis by a CD44-dependent mechanism. Clin Cancer Res. 2011;17:1044-56 pubmed publisher
    ..FKBPL and its peptide derivative AD-01 have potent antiangiogenic activity. Thus, these agents offer the potential of an attractive new approach to antiangiogenic therapy. ..
  33. Ivery M. Immunophilins: switched on protein binding domains?. Med Res Rev. 2000;20:452-84 pubmed
    ..the initial targets of the immunosuppressant drugs-cyclosporin A (CsA), FK506, and rapamycin-have been called immunophilins. Immunophilins have been found to be both widely distributed and abundantly expressed leading to suggestions ..
  34. Wilson D, Yen Lieberman B, Reischl U, Gordon S, Procop G. Detection of Legionella pneumophila by real-time PCR for the mip gene. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:3327-30 pubmed
    ..pneumophila, 20 isolates of 14 other Legionella species, and 103 non-Legionella bacteria. Eight culture-positive and 40 culture-negative clinical specimens were tested. This assay was 100% sensitive and 100% specific for L. pneumophila. ..
  35. Lopez E, Rosado J, Redondo P. Immunophilins and thrombotic disorders. Curr Med Chem. 2011;18:5414-23 pubmed
    The immunophilin family includes a large group of proteins with peptidyl prolyl-isomerase activity (PPI-ase). Immunophilins chaperone activity has been documented to be crucial for the correct folding and activation of many proteins...
  36. Justice S, Hunstad D, Harper J, Duguay A, Pinkner J, Bann J, et al. Periplasmic peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerases are not essential for viability, but SurA is required for pilus biogenesis in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:7680-6 pubmed
  37. Ibarra A, Martiñón S. Pharmacological approaches to induce neuroregeneration in spinal cord injury: an overview. Curr Drug Discov Technol. 2009;6:82-90 pubmed
    ..Aside from this, the use of hydrogels alone or in combination with drugs, growth factors or stem cells will also be revised. ..
  38. Summers M, Leighton M, Liu D, Pong K, Graziani E. 3-normeridamycin: a potent non-immunosuppressive immunophilin ligand is neuroprotective in dopaminergic neurons. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2006;59:184-9 pubmed
    ..The structure of 1 was determined via spectroscopic methods, and the immunosuppressive and immunophilin binding properties of the compound were also measured. ..
  39. Castedo M, Ferri K, Blanco J, Roumier T, Larochette N, Barretina J, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus 1 envelope glycoprotein complex-induced apoptosis involves mammalian target of rapamycin/FKBP12-rapamycin-associated protein-mediated p53 phosphorylation. J Exp Med. 2001;194:1097-110 pubmed
    ..In summary, we demonstrate that phosphorylation of p53S15 by mTOR/FRAP plays a critical role in syncytial apoptosis driven by HIV-1 Env. ..
  40. Reynolds P, Ruan Y, Smith D, Scammell J. Glucocorticoid resistance in the squirrel monkey is associated with overexpression of the immunophilin FKBP51. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999;84:663-9 pubmed
    ..A role for changes in immunophilins, causing glucocorticoid resistance in neotropical primates, is supported by the following: the changes in ..
  41. Burnett A, Becker R. Immunophilin ligands promote penile neurogenesis and erection recovery after cavernous nerve injury. J Urol. 2004;171:495-500 pubmed
    ..Immunophilin ligands exert neurotrophic effects on the penile innervation that preserve cavernous tissue structure and promote erectile function recovery in rats after extensive CN injury. ..
  42. Ivery M. Immunophilins--the long and winding road. Curr Top Med Chem. 2003;3:NA pubmed
  43. Bertram P, Zeng C, Thorson J, Shaw A, Zheng X. The 14-3-3 proteins positively regulate rapamycin-sensitive signaling. Curr Biol. 1998;8:1259-67 pubmed
    ..Our studies reveal 14-3-3 as an important component in rapamycin-sensitive signaling and provide significant new insights into the structure and function of 14-3-3 proteins. ..
  44. Kuffler D. Chapter 18: Enhancement of nerve regeneration and recovery by immunosuppressive agents. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2009;87:347-62 pubmed publisher
  45. Li X, Wang W, Wei G, Wang G, Zhang W, Ma X. Immunophilin FK506 loaded in chitosan guide promotes peripheral nerve regeneration. Biotechnol Lett. 2010;32:1333-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, FK506-releasing chitosan guide should be acted as a long-lasting delivery device of immunosuppressive and neuroregenerative agent for peripheral nerve repair. ..
  46. Park S, Xiao H, Lei M. Nuclear FKBPs, Fpr3 and Fpr4 affect genome-wide genes transcription. Mol Genet Genomics. 2014;289:125-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The results thus provide a further demonstration for the elusive role of Fpr3 and Fpr4 in histone chaperones. ..
  47. Choi J, Bertram P, Drenan R, Carvalho J, Zhou H, Zheng X. The FKBP12-rapamycin-associated protein (FRAP) is a CLIP-170 kinase. EMBO Rep. 2002;3:988-94 pubmed
    ..Our observations suggest that multiple CLIP-170 kinases are involved in positive and negative control of CLIP-170, and FRAP is a CLIP-170 kinase positively regulating the MT-binding behavior of CLIP-170. ..
  48. Tanaka K, Ogawa N. Possibility of non-immunosuppressive immunophilin ligands as potential therapeutic agents for Parkinson's disease. Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10:669-77 pubmed
    ..Thus, NI-IPLs might have a potentially beneficial effect by ameliorating neurological disorders, since they do not cause serious side effects such as immune deficiency. ..
  49. Sosa I, Reyes O, Kuffler D. Immunosuppressants: neuroprotection and promoting neurological recovery following peripheral nerve and spinal cord lesions. Exp Neurol. 2005;195:7-15 pubmed
  50. Ratajczak T, Ward B, Minchin R. Immunophilin chaperones in steroid receptor signalling. Curr Top Med Chem. 2003;3:1348-57 pubmed
    ..of ATPases, is the central player in receptor assembly, an energy-driven process that allows receptor and the immunophilins to be proximally located, or to interact directly, on a Hsp90 scaffold...
  51. Wu X, Wilcox C, Devasahayam G, Hackett R, Ar valo Rodr guez M, Cardenas M, et al. The Ess1 prolyl isomerase is linked to chromatin remodeling complexes and the general transcription machinery. EMBO J. 2000;19:3727-38 pubmed publisher
    ..In this model, Ess1 binds and isomerizes the CTD of RNA polymerase II, thus altering its interaction with proteins required for transcription of essential cell cycle genes...
  52. Moore J. NMR techniques for characterization of ligand binding: utility for lead generation and optimization in drug discovery. Biopolymers. 1999;51:221-43 pubmed
  53. Declerck P, Verelst L, Duvivier L, Van Damme A, Ollevier F. PCR as a test for the presence or absence of Legionella in (cooling) water. Water Sci Technol. 2003;47:103-7 pubmed
    ..The PCR techniques were able to detect small amounts of Legionella in tap water samples. Cooling water, however, often contained PCR-inhibiting substances that could result in false negative PCR results for Legionella. ..
  54. Klettner A, Herdegen T. FK506 and its analogs - therapeutic potential for neurological disorders. Curr Drug Targets CNS Neurol Disord. 2003;2:153-62 pubmed
    ..The induction of the heat shock response by immunophilin ligands might prove to be an interesting target for neuroregeneration and neuroprotection. ..
  55. Riboldi Tunnicliffe A, Konig B, Jessen S, Weiss M, Rahfeld J, Hacker J, et al. Crystal structure of Mip, a prolylisomerase from Legionella pneumophila. Nat Struct Biol. 2001;8:779-83 pubmed
  56. Zhang Z, Song L, Fang M, Wang F, He D, Zhao R, et al. Production of soluble and functional engineered antibodies in Escherichia coli improved by FkpA. Biotechniques. 2003;35:1032-8, 1041-2 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, PG, BH1, and TRI were biologically active as judged by ELISA and in vitro cytotoxicity assay. These results suggest that overexpression of FkpA should be useful in expressing heterologous proteins in E. coli. ..
  57. Sanokawa Akakura R, Dai H, Akakura S, Weinstein D, Fajardo J, Lang S, et al. A novel role for the immunophilin FKBP52 in copper transport. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:27845-8 pubmed
    ..Several recent studies indicate that immunophilins can regulate neuronal survival and nerve regeneration although the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood...
  58. Trepanier D, Abel M, Freitag D, Yatscoff R. Study of FK-binding protein: FK506-metabolite complexes by electrospray mass spectrometry: correlation to immunosuppressive activity. Ther Drug Monit. 1999;21:274-80 pubmed
    ..The method demonstrates potential as a simple, rapid, and automatable technique for prediction of the immunosuppressive activity of FKBP:drug complexes. ..
  59. Wang G, Yang J, Huibregtse J. Functional domains of the Rsp5 ubiquitin-protein ligase. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:342-52 pubmed
    ..In addition, we show that haploid yeast strains bearing complete disruptions of either of two other hect E3 genes of yeast, designated HUL4 (YJR036C) and HUL5 (YGL141W), are viable. ..
  60. Kainer D, Doris P. Cyclophilin B expression in renal proximal tubules of hypertensive rats. Hypertension. 2000;35:958-64 pubmed
    ..In view of evidence linking CypB to the regulation of elongation initiation factor-2, the upregulation of CypB may result from metabolic stress. ..
  61. Sayo Y, Hosokawa H, Imachi H, Murao K, Sato M, Wong N, et al. Transforming growth factor beta induction of insulin gene expression is mediated by pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene-1 in rat insulinoma cells. Eur J Biochem. 2000;267:971-8 pubmed
    ..In summary, the results of these studies show that TGF-beta stimulates the transcription of insulin gene and this action is mediated by the transcription factor, PDX-1. ..
  62. Vadasz Z, Attias D, Kessel A, Toubi E. Neuropilins and semaphorins - from angiogenesis to autoimmunity. Autoimmun Rev. 2010;9:825-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Their involvement in the development of autoimmune diseases and the various mechanisms by which they may induce autoimmunity will be discussed in this review. ..
  63. Rockey D, Chesebro B, Heinzen R, Hackstadt T. A 28 kDa major immunogen of Chlamydia psittaci shares identity with Mip proteins of Legionella spp. and Chlamydia trachomatis-cloning and characterization of the C. psittaci mip-like gene. Microbiology. 1996;142 ( Pt 4):945-53 pubmed
    ..Sequence analysis of PCR products produced using genomic DNA from an ovine abortion strain of C. psittaci and from C. trachomatis strain LGV-434 demonstrated that the arrangement of mip, spoU and trxA is common among these chlamydiae. ..
  64. Luo Z, Wang Y, Werlen G, Camp S, Chien K, Taylor P. Calcineurin enhances acetylcholinesterase mRNA stability during C2-C12 muscle cell differentiation. Mol Pharmacol. 1999;56:886-94 pubmed
    ..Myoblasts and myotubes of C2-C12 cells express similar amounts of cyclophilin A and FKBP12, immunophilins known to be intracellular-binding targets for CsA and tacrolimus, respectively...
  65. Buchanan B, Luan S. Redox regulation in the chloroplast thylakoid lumen: a new frontier in photosynthesis research. J Exp Bot. 2005;56:1439-47 pubmed
    ..The present review provides a perspective on this recent work. ..
  66. Freeman E, Grosskreutz C. The effects of FK506 on retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve crush. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000;41:1111-5 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was twofold: to determine whether immunophilins were present in the rat retina and to determine the physiologic consequence of their presence...
  67. Ko K, Lee H, Park M, Lee K, Yun Y, Woo S, et al. Application of RNA polymerase beta-subunit gene (rpoB) sequences for the molecular differentiation of Legionella species. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:2653-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the partial sequences of rpoB determined in this study might be applicable to the molecular differentiation of Legionella species. ..
  68. Marianayagam N, Khan F, Male L, Jackson S. Fast folding of a four-helical bundle protein. J Am Chem Soc. 2002;124:9744-50 pubmed
    ..Data presented for FRB is compared with kinetic data obtained for other all-helical proteins. ..
  69. Patterson C, Abrams W, Wolter N, Rosenbloom J, Davis E. Developmental regulation and coordinate reexpression of FKBP65 with extracellular matrix proteins after lung injury suggest a specialized function for this endoplasmic reticulum immunophilin. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2005;10:285-95 pubmed
    ..The response to injury, which may be in part a direct response to TGF-beta1, assures the presence of FKBP65 in the ER of cells actively producing components of the extracellular matrix. ..
  70. Scholz C, Schaarschmidt P, Engel A, Andres H, Schmitt U, Faatz E, et al. Functional solubilization of aggregation-prone HIV envelope proteins by covalent fusion with chaperone modules. J Mol Biol. 2005;345:1229-41 pubmed
    ..Covalent fusions with SlyD or FkpA might be valuable generic tools for the solubilization and activation of aggregation-prone proteins. ..
  71. Riggs D, Cox M, Cheung Flynn J, Prapapanich V, Carrigan P, Smith D. Functional specificity of co-chaperone interactions with Hsp90 client proteins. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2004;39:279-95 pubmed
    ..This review focuses on the differential effects of Hsp90 co-chaperones toward client protein function and on the specificity that allows co-chaperones to discriminate between even closely related clients. ..
  72. Murayama T, Oba T, Katayama E, Oyamada H, Oguchi K, Kobayashi M, et al. Further characterization of the type 3 ryanodine receptor (RyR3) purified from rabbit diaphragm. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:17297-308 pubmed
    ..This is also a likely explanation for the difference in the Ca2+ dependence of RyR3 between [3H]ryanodine binding and channel activity. ..
  73. Cox M, Johnson J. The role of p23, Hop, immunophilins, and other co-chaperones in regulating Hsp90 function. Methods Mol Biol. 2011;787:45-66 pubmed publisher
    ..This chapter focuses on the role of Hsp90 and partner co-chaperones in promoting the folding and activation of a diverse group of proteins with critical roles in cellular signaling and function. ..