Genomes and Genes
Summary: An enzyme that catalyzes the isomerization of proline residues within proteins. EC 220.127.116.11.
- Atkinson G, Nozell S, Harrison D, Stonecypher M, Chen D, Benveniste E. The prolyl isomerase Pin1 regulates the NF-kappaB signaling pathway and interleukin-8 expression in glioblastoma. Oncogene. 2009;28:3735-45 pubmed publisher..Taken together, these data suggest that Pin1 is an important regulator of NF-kappaB in GBM, and support the notion of using Pin1 as a therapeutic target in the future. ..
- Lu J, Yang L, Zhao H, Liu B, Li Y, Wu H, et al. The polymorphism and haplotypes of PIN1 gene are associated with the risk of lung cancer in Southern and Eastern Chinese populations. Hum Mutat. 2011;32:1299-308 pubmed publisher..842C variants and haplotype "C-C" in the PIN1 promoter contribute to decreased risk of lung cancer by diminishing the promoter activity, which may be susceptibility biomarkers for lung cancer. ..
- Behrens Kneip S. The role of SurA factor in outer membrane protein transport and virulence. Int J Med Microbiol. 2010;300:421-8 pubmed publisher..This review is a compilation of our current state of knowledge on E. coli SurA function and a discussion of recent findings with a particular emphasis on the pleiotropic contributions of SurA to pathogenicity. ..
- Barreteau H, Bouhss A, Gérard F, Duché D, Boussaid B, Blanot D, et al. Deciphering the catalytic domain of colicin M, a peptidoglycan lipid II-degrading enzyme. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:12378-89 pubmed publisher..Most of these residues are surface-exposed and located relatively close to each other, hence suggesting they belong to the colicin M active site. ..
- Tatara Y, Terakawa T, Uchida T. Identification of Pin1-binding phosphorylated proteins in the mouse brain. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2010;74:2480-3 pubmed..Pull-down and immunoprecipitation assay indicated that Pin1 binds CaMKII in a phosphorylation-specific manner. It was assumed that Pin1 participates in the neurotransmission pathway involving the phosphorylation signal by CaMKII. ..
- Akiyama H, Misawa T, Ono M, Uchida C, Uchida T. Prolyl isomerase pin1 protects mice from endotoxin shock. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e14656 pubmed publisher..1 and suppresses overreaction of macrophage that causes serious damages in lung. Pin1 may protect the mice from serious inflammation by LPS injection by attenuating the increase of IL-6 transcription of the mouse macrophages. ..
- Wang Y, Liu C, Yang D, Yu H, Liou Y. Pin1At encoding a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase regulates flowering time in Arabidopsis. Mol Cell. 2010;37:112-22 pubmed publisher..Taken together, we propose that phosphorylation-dependent prolyl cis/trans isomerization of key transcription factors is an important flowering regulatory mechanism. ..
- Kim S, Lee M, Lim S, Hien T, Kim J, Ahn S, et al. Role of Pin1 in neointima formation: down-regulation of Nrf2-dependent heme oxygenase-1 expression by Pin1. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010;48:1644-53 pubmed publisher..Pin1 may be a novel therapeutic target for several vascular diseases including atherosclerosis and stenosis...
- McNaughton L, Li Z, Van Roey P, Hanes S, LeMaster D. Restricted domain mobility in the Candida albicans Ess1 prolyl isomerase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1804:1537-41 pubmed publisher..The marked differences in interdomain interactions and linker flexibility between the human and fungal enzymes provide a structural basis for therapeutic targeting of the fungal enzymes...
- Nakatsu Y, Sakoda H, Kushiyama A, Ono H, Fujishiro M, Horike N, et al. Pin1 associates with and induces translocation of CRTC2 to the cytosol, thereby suppressing cAMP-responsive element transcriptional activity. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:33018-27 pubmed publisher..In conclusion, Pin1 regulates CRE transcriptional activity, by associating with CRTC1 or CRTC2. ..
- Zoldak G, Aumüller T, Lücke C, Hritz J, Oostenbrink C, Fischer G, et al. A library of fluorescent peptides for exploring the substrate specificities of prolyl isomerases. Biochemistry. 2009;48:10423-36 pubmed publisher..In a second application, the substrate specificity of SlyD, a protease-sensitive prolyl isomerase from Escherichia coli, was characterized and compared with that of human FKBP12 as well as with homologues from other bacteria. ..
- Sorrentino G, Mioni M, Giorgi C, Ruggeri N, Pinton P, Moll U, et al. The prolyl-isomerase Pin1 activates the mitochondrial death program of p53. Cell Death Differ. 2013;20:198-208 pubmed publisher..These findings have significant implications for treatment of p53-expressing tumors and for prospective use of p53-activating compounds in clinics. ..
- Uchida T, Furumai K, Fukuda T, Akiyama H, Takezawa M, Asano T, et al. Prolyl isomerase Pin1 regulates mouse embryonic fibroblast differentiation into adipose cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31823 pubmed publisher..Results of this study suggest that Pin1 down-regulation could be a potential approach in obesity-related dysfunctions, such as high blood pressure, diabetes, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. ..
- Weininger U, Jakob R, Kovermann M, Balbach J, Schmid F. The prolyl isomerase domain of PpiD from Escherichia coli shows a parvulin fold but is devoid of catalytic activity. Protein Sci. 2010;19:6-18 pubmed publisher..In its structure, the parvulin domain of PpiD resembles most closely the inactive first parvulin domain of SurA, which is part of the chaperone unit of this protein and presumably involved in substrate recognition. ..
- Jouvet N, Poschmann J, Douville J, Bulet L, Ramotar D. Rrd1 isomerizes RNA polymerase II in response to rapamycin. BMC Mol Biol. 2010;11:92 pubmed publisher..We propose as a mechanism, that upon rapamycin exposure Rrd1 isomerizes Rpb1 to promote its dissociation from the chromatin in order to modulate transcription. ..
- Jaremko Ł, Jaremko M, Elfaki I, Mueller J, Ejchart A, Bayer P, et al. Structure and dynamics of the first archaeal parvulin reveal a new functionally important loop in parvulin-type prolyl isomerases. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:6554-65 pubmed publisher..A glycine and two positively charged residues are conserved in most parvulin proteins in this flexible loop region, which may be of general functional importance for parvulin-type PPIases. ..
- Esaki K, Terashima Y, Toda E, Yoshinaga S, Araki N, Matsushima K, et al. Expression and purification of human FROUNT, a common cytosolic regulator of CCR2 and CCR5. Protein Expr Purif. 2011;77:86-91 pubmed publisher..It should be a powerful tool for further biochemical and structural studies to elucidate GPCR regulation and chemokine signaling, and also will contribute to drug development. ..
- Napoli M, Girardini J, Piazza S, Del Sal G. Wiring the oncogenic circuitry: Pin1 unleashes mutant p53. Oncotarget. 2011;2:654-6 pubmed..Unlike several tumor suppressor genes, whose inactivation is due to deletions or truncating mutations, TP53 is most frequently hit by missense mutations in its DNA binding domain. ..
- Luo Z, Wijeweera A, Oh Y, Liou Y, Melamed P. Pin1 facilitates the phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination of SF-1 to regulate gonadotropin beta-subunit gene transcription. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:745-63 pubmed publisher..Our results suggest that Pin1 functions as a novel player in GnRH-induced signal pathways and is involved in gonadotropin beta-subunit gene transcription by modulating the activity of various specific transcription factors. ..
- Girardini J, Napoli M, Piazza S, Rustighi A, Marotta C, Radaelli E, et al. A Pin1/mutant p53 axis promotes aggressiveness in breast cancer. Cancer Cell. 2011;20:79-91 pubmed publisher..These results define a Pin1/mutant p53 axis that conveys oncogenic signals to promote aggressiveness in human cancers. ..
- Han C, Lu J, Wei Q, Bondy M, Brewster A, Yu T, et al. The functional promoter polymorphism (-842G>C) in the PIN1 gene is associated with decreased risk of breast cancer in non-Hispanic white women 55 years and younger. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;122:243-9 pubmed publisher..In conclusion, the PIN1 polymorphisms may contribute to the etiology of sporadic breast cancer in non-Hispanic white women 55 years and younger. Further validation in large population-based studies is needed. ..
- Fujimoto Y, Shiraki T, Horiuchi Y, Waku T, Shigenaga A, Otaka A, et al. Proline cis/trans-isomerase Pin1 regulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activity through the direct binding to the activation function-1 domain. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:3126-32 pubmed publisher..Thus, our results suggest that Pin1 regulates macrophage function through the direct binding to the phosphorylated AF-1 domain of PPARgamma. ..
- Nakatsu Y, Sakoda H, Kushiyama A, Zhang J, Ono H, Fujishiro M, et al. Peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1 associates with insulin receptor substrate-1 and enhances insulin actions and adipogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:20812-22 pubmed publisher..Taken together, these observations indicate that Pin1 binds to IRS-1 and thereby markedly enhances insulin action, essential for adipogenesis. ..
- Jeong H, Pokharel Y, Lim S, Hwang Y, Han E, Yoon J, et al. Novel role of Pin1 induction in type II collagen-mediated rheumatoid arthritis. J Immunol. 2009;183:6689-97 pubmed publisher..These results demonstrate that Pin1 induction during RA progress stimulates proinflammatory protein expression by activating NF-kappaB, CREB, and C/EBP, and suggest that Pin1 is a potential therapeutic target of RA. ..
- Zhou W, Yang Q, Low C, Karthik B, Wang Y, Ryo A, et al. Pin1 catalyzes conformational changes of Thr-187 in p27Kip1 and mediates its stability through a polyubiquitination process. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:23980-8 pubmed publisherThe cis-trans peptidylprolyl isomerase Pin1 plays a critical role in regulating a subset of phosphoproteins by catalyzing conformational changes on the phosphorylated Ser/Thr-Pro motifs...
- La Montagna R, Caligiuri I, Maranta P, Lucchetti C, Esposito L, Paggi M, et al. Androgen receptor serine 81 mediates Pin1 interaction and activity. Cell Cycle. 2012;11:3415-20 pubmed publisher..Since Pin1 expression positively correlates with tumor grade, our results suggest that Pin1 can participate in this process by modulating AR function. ..
- Namanja A, Wang X, Xu B, Mercedes Camacho A, Wilson K, Etzkorn F, et al. Stereospecific gating of functional motions in Pin1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:12289-94 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that specific input conformations can gate dynamic changes that support intraprotein communication. Such gating may help control the propagation of chemical signals by Pin1, and other modular signaling proteins. ..
- Lu J, Hu Z, Wei S, Wang L, Liu Z, El Naggar A, et al. A novel functional variant (-842G>C) in the PIN1 promoter contributes to decreased risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck by diminishing the promoter activity. Carcinogenesis. 2009;30:1717-21 pubmed publisher..Large prospective studies of diverse ethnic groups and diverse cancer sites are warranted to validate our findings. ..
- Driver J, Lu K. Pin1: a new genetic link between Alzheimer's disease, cancer and aging. Curr Aging Sci. 2010;3:158-65 pubmed..We review the role of Pin1 in cancer and neurodegeneration, discuss the relationship between Pin1 and aging, and explore its potential as a diagnostic and therapeutic target. ..
- Hyyryl inen H, Marciniak B, Dahncke K, Pieti inen M, Courtin P, Vitikainen M, et al. Penicillin-binding protein folding is dependent on the PrsA peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase in Bacillus subtilis. Mol Microbiol. 2010;77:108-27 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that PrsA is essential for normal growth most probably as PBP folding is dependent on this PPIase...
- Xu G, Zhang Y, Mercedes Camacho A, Etzkorn F. A reduced-amide inhibitor of Pin1 binds in a conformation resembling a twisted-amide transition state. Biochemistry. 2011;50:9545-50 pubmed publisher..Three additional reduced amides, with Thr replacing Ser and l- or d-pipecolate (Pip) replacing Pro, were slightly weaker inhibitors of Pin1. ..
- Mueller J, Link N, Matena A, Hoppstock L, Rüppel A, Bayer P, et al. Crystallographic proof for an extended hydrogen-bonding network in small prolyl isomerases. J Am Chem Soc. 2011;133:20096-9 pubmed publisher..The observed catalytic tetrad is strikingly conserved in Pin1- and parvulin-type proteins and hence constitutes a common feature of small peptidyl prolyl isomerases. ..
- Ma Z, Atencio D, Barnes C, Defiglio H, Hanes S. Multiple roles for the Ess1 prolyl isomerase in the RNA polymerase II transcription cycle. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:3594-607 pubmed publisher..Thus, Ess1 has direct effects on RNA polymerase transcription by controlling cofactor binding via conformationally induced changes in the CTD and indirect effects by influencing chromatin modification. ..
- You Y, Deng J, Zheng J, Jiang L, Li N, Wu H, et al. Functional polymorphisms in PIN1 promoter and esophageal carcinoma susceptibility in Chinese population. Mol Biol Rep. 2013;40:829-38 pubmed publisher..These results indicated that -842G>C genetic variant in PIN1 promoter may decrease the promoter activity, resulting in changes in the levels of PIN1 and modifying cancer susceptibility. ..
- Goh J, Lai C, Tan L, Yang D, He C, Liou Y. Functional characterization of two novel parvulins in Trypanosoma brucei. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:2901-8 pubmed publisher..Functionally, a knockdown of TbPAR42 in its procyclic form results in reduced proliferation rates suggesting an important role in cell growth. ..
- Tun Kyi A, Finn G, Greenwood A, Nowak M, Lee T, Asara J, et al. Essential role for the prolyl isomerase Pin1 in Toll-like receptor signaling and type I interferon-mediated immunity. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:733-41 pubmed publisher..Given the critical role of aberrant activation of IRAK1 and type I interferons in various immune diseases, controlling IRAK1 activation via inhibition of Pin1 may represent a useful therapeutic approach. ..
- Peng J, Wilson B, Namanja A. Mapping the dynamics of ligand reorganization via 13CH3 and 13CH2 relaxation dispersion at natural abundance. J Biomol NMR. 2009;45:171-83 pubmed publisher..Collectively, our studies illustrate how side-chain relaxation dispersion can shed light on ligand conformational transitions required for activity, and thereby suggest strategies for its optimization. ..
- Lee T, Chen C, Suizu F, Huang P, Schiene Fischer C, Daum S, et al. Death-associated protein kinase 1 phosphorylates Pin1 and inhibits its prolyl isomerase activity and cellular function. Mol Cell. 2011;42:147-59 pubmed publisher..Thus, phosphorylation of Pin1 Ser71 by DAPK1 inhibits its catalytic activity and cellular function, providing strong evidence for an essential role of the Pin1 enzymatic activity for its cellular function. ..
- Denoncin K, Schwalm J, Vertommen D, Silhavy T, Collet J. Dissecting the Escherichia coli periplasmic chaperone network using differential proteomics. Proteomics. 2012;12:1391-401 pubmed publisher..Our data, which provide a unique glimpse into the protein content of the nonviable surA skp mutant, clarify the roles of the periplasmic chaperones in E. coli...
- Ieva R, Tian P, Peterson J, Bernstein H. Sequential and spatially restricted interactions of assembly factors with an autotransporter beta domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:E383-91 pubmed publisher..In addition to leading to a detailed model of autotransporter biogenesis, our results suggest that the lipoprotein components of the Bam complex play a direct role in the membrane integration of ? barrel proteins...
- Mori T, Hidaka M, Lin Y, Yoshizawa I, Okabe T, Egashira S, et al. A dual inhibitor against prolyl isomerase Pin1 and cyclophilin discovered by a novel real-time fluorescence detection method. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;406:439-43 pubmed publisher..This compound does not inhibit FKBP. This finding suggests the existence of similarities of structure and reaction mechanism between Pin1 and cyclophilin, and may lead to a more complete understanding of the active sites of PPIases. ..
- Liu T, Liu Y, Kao H, Pei D. Membrane permeable cyclic peptidyl inhibitors against human Peptidylprolyl Isomerase Pin1. J Med Chem. 2010;53:2494-501 pubmed publisherb>Peptidylprolyl isomerase Pin1 regulates the function and/or stability of phosphoproteins by altering the conformation of specific pSer/pThr-Pro peptide bonds...
- Hagan C, Kim S, Kahne D. Reconstitution of outer membrane protein assembly from purified components. Science. 2010;328:890-2 pubmed publisher..The assembly of this protein occurred without an energy source but required a soluble chaperone in addition to the multi-protein assembly complex. ..
- Bennion D, Charlson E, Coon E, Misra R. Dissection of ?-barrel outer membrane protein assembly pathways through characterizing BamA POTRA 1 mutants of Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2010;77:1153-71 pubmed publisher..The two assembly pathways finally merge at some step beyond POTRA 1 but presumably before membrane insertion, which is thought to be catalysed by the trans-membrane ?-barrel domain of BamA. ..
- Moretto Zita M, Jin H, Shen Z, Zhao T, Briggs S, Xu Y. Phosphorylation stabilizes Nanog by promoting its interaction with Pin1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:13312-7 pubmed publisher..Therefore, in addition to the stringent transcriptional regulation of Nanog, the expression level of Nanog is also modulated by posttranslational mechanisms. ..
- Chen H, Li L, Wang W, Du X, Wen Q, He J, et al. Prolyl isomerase Pin1 stabilizes and activates orphan nuclear receptor TR3 to promote mitogenesis. Oncogene. 2012;31:2876-87 pubmed publisher..Importantly, we found that Pin1 is indispensable for TR3 to promote tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo. Our study thus suggests that Pin1 has an important role in cell proliferation by isomerizing TR3. ..
- Liou Y, Zhou X, Lu K. Prolyl isomerase Pin1 as a molecular switch to determine the fate of phosphoproteins. Trends Biochem Sci. 2011;36:501-14 pubmed publisher..We finally stress the need to develop tools to visualize directly Pin1-catalyzed protein conformational changes as a way to determine their roles in the development and treatment of human diseases. ..
- Sun L, Xiao L, Nie J, Liu F, Ling G, Zhu X, et al. p66Shc mediates high-glucose and angiotensin II-induced oxidative stress renal tubular injury via mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2010;299:F1014-25 pubmed publisher..These data suggest that p66Shc mediates HG- and ANG II-induced mitochondrial dysfunctions via PKC-? and Pin1-dependent pathways in renal tubular cells. ..
- Naidu R, Har Y, Taib N. Analysis of peptidyl-propyl-cis/trans isomerase 1 (PIN1) gene -842(G > C) and -667(T > C) polymorphic variants in relation to breast cancer risk and clinico-pathological parameters. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2011;71:500-6 pubmed publisher..Our findings suggest that the polymorphic variants of -842(G > C) and -667(T > C) genes may not appear to have an influence on breast cancer risk among Malaysian Malay, Chinese and Indian women. ..
- Nagaoka A, Takizawa N, Takeuchi R, Inaba Y, Saito I, Nagashima Y, et al. Possible involvement of peptidylprolyl isomerase Pin1 in rheumatoid arthritis. Pathol Int. 2011;61:59-66 pubmed publisherThe peptidylprolyl isomerase Pin1 is over-expressed in some human diseases including malignancies and chronic inflammatory diseases, this suggests that it contributes to the constitutive activation of certain intracellular signaling ..
- Lee K, Lee J, Nam H, Shim J, Song Y, Kang K. PI3-kinase/p38 kinase-dependent E2F1 activation is critical for Pin1 induction in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells. Mol Cells. 2011;32:107-11 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that Pin1 overexpression and subsequent VEGF production in TAMR-MCF-7 cells are mediated through PI3-kinase or p38 kinase-dependent E2F1 activation. ..
- Chen C, Chang C, Lee T, Luo M, Huang P, Liao P, et al. SENP1 deSUMOylates and regulates Pin1 protein activity and cellular function. Cancer Res. 2013;73:3951-62 pubmed publisher..These results not only uncover Pin1 SUMOylation on Lys6/63 as a novel mechanism to inhibit its activity and function but also identify a critical role for SENP1-mediated deSUMOylation in promoting Pin1 function during tumorigenesis. ..
- Steger M, Murina O, Huhn D, Ferretti L, Walser R, Hänggi K, et al. Prolyl isomerase PIN1 regulates DNA double-strand break repair by counteracting DNA end resection. Mol Cell. 2013;50:333-43 pubmed publisher..Collectively, these data uncover PIN1-mediated isomerization as a regulatory mechanism coordinating DSB repair. ..
- Siepe D, Jentsch S. Prolyl isomerase Pin1 acts as a switch to control the degree of substrate ubiquitylation. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:967-72 pubmed publisher..This suggests that the Pin1 activity is often translated into a fate-determining ubiquitylation switch, and that Pin1 may affect the degree of substrate ubiquitylation in other pathways as well. ..
- Xu G, Etzkorn F. Convergent synthesis of alpha-ketoamide inhibitors of Pin1. Org Lett. 2010;12:696-9 pubmed publisher..Two diastereomers of a phospho-Ser-Pro alpha-ketoamide analogue were synthesized. The IC(50) values of 100 and 200 microM were surprisingly weak for Pin1 peptidyl prolyl isomerase. ..
- Wu S, Ge X, Lv Z, Zhi Z, Chang Z, Zhao X. Interaction between bacterial outer membrane proteins and periplasmic quality control factors: a kinetic partitioning mechanism. Biochem J. 2011;438:505-11 pubmed publisher..Such a kinetic partitioning mechanism for the chaperone-substrate interaction may be essential for the quality control of the biogenesis of OMPs...
- Lim J, Liu Y, Reineke E, Kao H. Mitogen-activated protein kinase extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 phosphorylates and promotes Pin1 protein-dependent promyelocytic leukemia protein turnover. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:44403-11 pubmed publisher..Taken together, our results support a model in which Pin1 promotes PML degradation in an ERK2-dependent manner. ..
- Nicole Tsang Y, Wu X, Lim J, Wee Ong C, Salto Tellez M, Ito K, et al. Prolyl isomerase Pin1 downregulates tumor suppressor RUNX3 in breast cancer. Oncogene. 2013;32:1488-96 pubmed publisher..Knocking down Pin1 enhances the cellular levels and transcriptional activity of RUNX3 by inhibiting the ubiquitination and degradation of RUNX3. Our results identify Pin1 as a new regulator of RUNX3 inactivation in breast cancer. ..
- Rizzolio F, Lucchetti C, Caligiuri I, Marchesi I, Caputo M, Klein Szanto A, et al. Retinoblastoma tumor-suppressor protein phosphorylation and inactivation depend on direct interaction with Pin1. Cell Death Differ. 2012;19:1152-61 pubmed publisher..Here we show that Pin1 (protein interacting with NIMA (never in mitosis A)-1), a peptidylprolyl isomerase involved in the control of protein phosphorylation, is an essential mediator for inactivation of the pRb...
- Cheng C, Chow A, Pang R, Fok E, Kwong Y, Tse E. PIN1 inhibits apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma through modulation of the antiapoptotic function of survivin. Am J Pathol. 2013;182:765-75 pubmed publisher..Such functional interaction between PIN1 and survivin may therefore play an important role in hepatocarcinogenesis and chemoresistance. ..
- Grison A, Mantovani F, Comel A, Agostoni E, Gustincich S, Persichetti F, et al. Ser46 phosphorylation and prolyl-isomerase Pin1-mediated isomerization of p53 are key events in p53-dependent apoptosis induced by mutant huntingtin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:17979-84 pubmed publisher..These results provide a rationale for the use of small-molecule inhibitors of stress-responsive protein kinases and Pin1 as a potential therapeutic strategy for HD treatment. ..