cis trans isomerases


Summary: Enzymes that catalyze the rearrangement of geometry about double bonds. EC 5.2.

Top Publications

  1. Frigaard N, Maresca J, Yunker C, Jones A, Bryant D. Genetic manipulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:5210-20 pubmed
    ..The phylogeny of carotenogenic enzymes in green sulfur bacteria and green filamentous bacteria is also discussed...
  2. Isaacson T, Ohad I, Beyer P, Hirschberg J. Analysis in vitro of the enzyme CRTISO establishes a poly-cis-carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in plants. Plant Physiol. 2004;136:4246-55 pubmed
    ..These results establish that in plants carotene desaturation to lycopene proceeds via cis-carotene intermediates. ..
  3. Nath P, Dong G, Braiman A, Isakov N. In vivo regulation of human CrkII by cyclophilin A and FK506-binding protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;470:411-416 pubmed publisher
  4. Jiang Q, Li X, Wang C, Cheng J, Tan C, Cui T, et al. A fluorescent peptidyl substrate for visualizing peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase activity in live cells. Chem Commun (Camb). 2018;54:1857-1860 pubmed publisher
    ..PPI-P is capable of responding to both recombinant and cellular PPIases fluorogenically, and has been shown to specifically image active PPIases in live cells. ..
  5. Kanaoka R, Kushiyama A, Seno Y, Nakatsu Y, Matsunaga Y, Fukushima T, et al. Pin1 Inhibitor Juglone Exerts Anti-Oncogenic Effects on LNCaP and DU145 Cells despite the Patterns of Gene Regulation by Pin1 Differing between These Cell Lines. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0127467 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest the potential effectiveness of Pin1 inhibitors as therapeutic agents for prostate cancers, regardless of their androgen sensitivity. ..
  6. Shen X, Jiang C, Huang Y, Liu Z, Liu S. Functional identification of novel genes involved in the glutathione-independent gentisate pathway in Corynebacterium glutamicum. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:3442-52 pubmed
    ..Based on the results obtained in this study, a GSH-independent gentisate pathway was proposed, and genes involved in this pathway were identified. ..
  7. Jeong Y, Jung M, Kim M, Hwang C. A 4-Nitroquinoleneoxide-Induced Pleurotus eryngii Mutant Variety Increases Pin1 Expression in Rat Brain. J Med Food. 2017;20:65-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The mutant mushroom, NQ2A-12, could be developed as a new variety of P. eryngii with potential to protect against Alzheimer's disease. ..
  8. Wiemels R, Cech S, Meyer N, Burke C, Weiss A, Parks A, et al. An Intracellular Peptidyl-Prolyl cis/trans Isomerase Is Required for Folding and Activity of the Staphylococcus aureus Secreted Virulence Factor Nuclease. J Bacteriol. 2017;199: pubmed
    ..In this work, we investigate the role of PPIases in S. aureus and uncover a cyclophilin-type enzyme that assists in the folding/refolding of staphylococcal nuclease. ..
  9. Golczak M, Maeda A, Bereta G, Maeda T, Kiser P, Hunzelmann S, et al. Metabolic basis of visual cycle inhibition by retinoid and nonretinoid compounds in the vertebrate retina. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:9543-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we provide evidence for a crucial role of lecithin: retinol acyltransferase activity in mediating tissue specific absorption and long lasting therapeutic effects of retinoid-based visual cycle inhibitors. ..

More Information


  1. Dimou M, Venieraki A, Katinakis P. Microbial cyclophilins: specialized functions in virulence and beyond. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2017;33:164 pubmed publisher
    ..Since many existing family members do not have well-defined functions and novel ones are being characterized, the requirement for further studies on their biological role and molecular mechanism of action is apparent. ..
  2. Kallscheuer N, Bott M, van Ooyen J, Polen T. Single-Domain Peptidyl-Prolyl cis/trans Isomerase FkpA from Corynebacterium glutamicum Improves the Biomass Yield at Increased Growth Temperatures. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2015;81:7839-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparative transcriptome analysis revealed 69 genes which exhibit ≥2-fold mRNA level changes in C. glutamicum ΔfkpA, giving insight into the transcriptional response upon mild heat stress when FkpA is absent. ..
  3. Ernst K, Schmid J, Beck M, Hägele M, Hohwieler M, Hauff P, et al. Hsp70 facilitates trans-membrane transport of bacterial ADP-ribosylating toxins into the cytosol of mammalian cells. Sci Rep. 2017;7:2724 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Hsp70-inhibition might lead to development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat diseases associated with bacterial ADP-ribosylating toxins. ..
  4. MacDonald C, Boyd R. Computational insights into the suicide inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum Fk506-binding protein 35. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2015;25:3221-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Modification of the natural substrate has shown suicide inhibition is a valid approach for novel anti-malarials with little risk for parasitic resistance. ..
  5. Robin G, Ortiz E, Szurek B, Brizard J, Koebnik R. Comparative proteomics reveal new HrpX-regulated proteins of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. J Proteomics. 2014;97:256-64 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we identified new HrpX-regulated proteins of X. oryzae pv. oryzae that might be important for pathogenicity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Trends in microbial proteomics...
  6. Ahmed Belkacem A, Colliandre L, Ahnou N, Nevers Q, Gelin M, Bessin Y, et al. Fragment-based discovery of a new family of non-peptidic small-molecule cyclophilin inhibitors with potent antiviral activities. Nat Commun. 2016;7:12777 pubmed publisher
    ..This family of compounds has the potential for broad-spectrum, high-barrier-to-resistance treatment of viral infections. ..
  7. Löffler C, Eberlein C, Mäusezahl I, Kappelmeyer U, Heipieper H. Physiological evidence for the presence of a cis-trans isomerase of unsaturated fatty acids in Methylococcus capsulatus Bath to adapt to the presence of toxic organic compounds. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2010;308:68-75 pubmed publisher
  8. Redmond T, Weber C, Poliakov E, Yu S, Gentleman S. Effect of Leu/Met variation at residue 450 on isomerase activity and protein expression of RPE65 and its modulation by variation at other residues. Mol Vis. 2007;13:1813-21 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that subtle species-specific residue changes may be involved in "tuning" of RPE65 activity to required evolutionary criteria. ..
  9. Wenzel A, Oberhauser V, Pugh E, Lamb T, Grimm C, Samardzija M, et al. The retinal G protein-coupled receptor (RGR) enhances isomerohydrolase activity independent of light. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:29874-84 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we find that light accelerates rhodopsin regeneration, independent of RGR. ..
  10. Chen J, Liefke R, Jiang L, Wang J, Huang C, Gong Z, et al. Biochemical Features of Recombinant Human Cyclophilin J. Anticancer Res. 2016;36:1175-80 pubmed
    ..CYPJ structurally resembles CYPA. It is sensitive to inhibition by CsA and plays a role in regulating cell growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. ..
  11. Ernst K, Schnell L, Barth H. Host Cell Chaperones Hsp70/Hsp90 and Peptidyl-Prolyl Cis/Trans Isomerases Are Required for the Membrane Translocation of Bacterial ADP-Ribosylating Toxins. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2016;: pubmed
    ..Moreover, the medical implications of host cell chaperones and PPIases as new drug targets for the development of novel therapeutic strategies against diseases caused by bacterial ADP-ribosylating toxins are discussed. ..
  12. Takahashi Y, Moiseyev G, Chen Y, Ma J. The roles of three palmitoylation sites of RPE65 in its membrane association and isomerohydrolase activity. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:5191-6 pubmed
    ..There are additional yet to be identified palmitoylation sites in RPE65. The structural distortions induced by the Cys mutations may be responsible for the mislocalization and decreased isomerohydrolase activities of RPE65. ..
  13. Segura A, Duque E, Hurtado A, Ramos J. Mutations in genes involved in the flagellar export apparatus of the solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E strain impair motility and lead to hypersensitivity to toluene shocks. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:4127-33 pubmed
    ..The results are discussed regarding a possible role of the flagellar export apparatus in the transport of one or more proteins necessary for toluene tolerance in P. putida DOT-T1E to the periplasm. ..
  14. Ahuja P, Cantrelle F, Huvent I, Hanoulle X, Lopez J, Smet C, et al. Proline Conformation in a Functional Tau Fragment. J Mol Biol. 2016;428:79-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data hence disagree with the notion that specific prolyl bonds in tau would adopt preferentially the cis conformation. ..
  15. Ammini C, Fernandez Canon J, Shroads A, Cornett R, Cheung J, James M, et al. Pharmacologic or genetic ablation of maleylacetoacetate isomerase increases levels of toxic tyrosine catabolites in rodents. Biochem Pharmacol. 2003;66:2029-38 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that pharmacologic or genetic ablation of MAAI cause potentially toxic concentrations of tyrosine intermediates to accumulate in mice and perhaps in other species. ..
  16. Matena A, Rehic E, Hönig D, Kamba B, Bayer P. Structure and function of the human parvulins Pin1 and Par14/17. Biol Chem. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..This review on human parvulins summarizes the current knowledge of these enzymes and intends to oppose the well-studied Pin1 to its less well-examined homolog human Par14/17 with respect to structure, catalytic and cellular function...
  17. Swain J, Gierasch L. A new twist for an Hsp70 chaperone. Nat Struct Biol. 2002;9:406-8 pubmed
  18. Maeda A, Maeda T, Imanishi Y, Golczak M, Moise A, Palczewski K. Aberrant metabolites in mouse models of congenital blinding diseases: formation and storage of retinyl esters. Biochemistry. 2006;45:4210-9 pubmed
    ..The data presented here support the idea that 13-cis-retinyl esters are formed through an aberrant enzymatic isomerization process. ..
  19. Lantum H, Board P, Anders M. Kinetics of the biotransformation of maleylacetone and chlorofluoroacetic acid by polymorphic variants of human glutathione transferase zeta (hGSTZ1-1). Chem Res Toxicol. 2002;15:957-63 pubmed
  20. Bernal P, Segura A, Ramos J. Compensatory role of the cis-trans-isomerase and cardiolipin synthase in the membrane fluidity of Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E. Environ Microbiol. 2007;9:1658-64 pubmed
    ..However, the cls and cls/cti mutants were more sensitive to solvents than the wild-type and the cti mutant because of the impaired functioning of efflux drug transporters. ..
  21. Oberhauser V, Voolstra O, Bangert A, von Lintig J, Vogt K. NinaB combines carotenoid oxygenase and retinoid isomerase activity in a single polypeptide. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:19000-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study demonstrates that trans/cis isomerase activity can be intrinsic to this class of proteins and establishes these enzymes as key components for both invertebrate and vertebrate vision...
  22. Jin M, Li S, Moghrabi W, Sun H, Travis G. Rpe65 is the retinoid isomerase in bovine retinal pigment epithelium. Cell. 2005;122:449-59 pubmed
    ..Rpe65 with the Leber-associated C330Y and Y368H substitutions had no isomerase activity. Identification of Rpe65 as the isomerase explains the phenotypes in rpe65-/- knockout mice and in humans with Leber congenital amaurosis. ..
  23. Marsh M, Shoemark D, Jacob A, Robinson C, Cahill B, Zhou N, et al. Structure of bacterial glutathione-S-transferase maleyl pyruvate isomerase and implications for mechanism of isomerisation. J Mol Biol. 2008;384:165-77 pubmed publisher
    ..We re-examined the roles of the residues in the active site of both enzymes and the Zeta motif itself. ..
  24. Jin M, Yuan Q, Li S, Travis G. Role of LRAT on the retinoid isomerase activity and membrane association of Rpe65. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:20915-24 pubmed
    ..The affinity of Rpe65 for membranes is probably an intrinsic feature of this protein. ..
  25. Masamoto K, Wada H, Kaneko T, Takaichi S. Identification of a gene required for cis-to-trans carotene isomerization in carotenogenesis of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Plant Cell Physiol. 2001;42:1398-402 pubmed
  26. Takahashi Y, Chen Y, Moiseyev G, Ma J. Two point mutations of RPE65 from patients with retinal dystrophies decrease the stability of RPE65 protein and abolish its isomerohydrolase activity. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:21820-6 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that these mutations may result in critical structural alterations of RPE65 protein, disrupt its membrane association, and consequently impair its isomerohydrolase activity, leading to retinal degeneration. ..
  27. Lu Y, White S, Rock C. Domain swapping between Enterococcus faecalis FabN and FabZ proteins localizes the structural determinants for isomerase activity. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:30342-8 pubmed publisher
  28. Härtig C, Loffhagen N, Harms H. Formation of trans fatty acids is not involved in growth-linked membrane adaptation of Pseudomonas putida. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:1915-22 pubmed
    ..The cis-trans isomerization reaction was in competition with the cis-to-cyclopropane fatty acid conversion. The potential for the formation of trans fatty acids depended on the cyclopropane content that was already present. ..
  29. Deng M, Grund A, Schneider K, Langley K, Wassink S, Peng S, et al. Linoleic acid isomerase from Propionibacterium acnes: purification, characterization, molecular cloning, and heterologous expression. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2007;143:199-211 pubmed
    ..coli, but it was almost totally sequestered in inclusion bodies. The level of active isomerase was increased 376-fold by medium and process optimization in bench-scale fermentors. ..
  30. Fisch F, Fleites C, Delenne M, Baudendistel N, Hauer B, Turkenburg J, et al. A covalent succinylcysteine-like intermediate in the enzyme-catalyzed transformation of maleate to fumarate by maleate isomerase. J Am Chem Soc. 2010;132:11455-7 pubmed publisher
  31. Moiseyev G, Crouch R, Goletz P, Oatis J, Redmond T, Ma J. Retinyl esters are the substrate for isomerohydrolase. Biochemistry. 2003;42:2229-38 pubmed
    ..g., at 36 weeks, the levels are 20x that of WT). Our data indicate that the retinyl esters are the substrate of the isomerization reaction. ..
  32. Nakashima Y, Kusakabe T, Kusakabe R, Terakita A, Shichida Y, Tsuda M. Origin of the vertebrate visual cycle: genes encoding retinal photoisomerase and two putative visual cycle proteins are expressed in whole brain of a primitive chordate. J Comp Neurol. 2003;460:180-90 pubmed
    ..The present data suggest that isomerization of all-trans-retinoid to 11-cis-retinoid occurs in the brain vesicle and visceral ganglion of a primitive chordate. ..
  33. Stacpoole P, Kurtz T, Han Z, Langaee T. Role of dichloroacetate in the treatment of genetic mitochondrial diseases. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2008;60:1478-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent in vitro data indicate that a combined DCA and gene therapy approach may also hold promise for the treatment of this devastating condition. ..
  34. Chen Y, Moiseyev G, Takahashi Y, Ma J. RPE65 gene delivery restores isomerohydrolase activity and prevents early cone loss in Rpe65-/- mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:1177-84 pubmed
    ..RPE65 gene delivery generates isomerohydrolase activity and restores retinoid profile in Rpe65-/- mice. Regeneration of 11-cis retinal is essential for survival of cone photoreceptors. ..
  35. Heipieper H, de Waard P, van der Meer P, Killian J, Isken S, de Bont J, et al. Regiospecific effect of 1-octanol on cis-trans isomerization of unsaturated fatty acids in the solvent-tolerant strain Pseudomonas putida S12. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2001;57:541-7 pubmed
  36. Rong L, Guo X, Chen K, Zhu J, Li S, Jiang J. Isolation of an isocarbophos-degrading strain of Arthrobacter sp. scl-2 and identification of the degradation pathway. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;19:1439-46 pubmed
    ..scl-2 for the first time. This study highlights an important potential use of the strain scl-2 for the cleanup of environmental contamination by isocarbophos and presents a mechanism of isocarbophos metabolism...
  37. Chen Y, Moiseyev G, Takahashi Y, Ma J. Impacts of two point mutations of RPE65 from Leber's congenital amaurosis on the stability, subcellular localization and isomerohydrolase activity of RPE65. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:4200-4 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that the decreased protein stability and altered subcellular localization of RPE65 may represent a mechanism for these mutations to lead to vision loss in LCA patients. ..
  38. Howitt C, Pogson B. Carotenoid accumulation and function in seeds and non-green tissues. Plant Cell Environ. 2006;29:435-45 pubmed
    ..Thus, understanding the regulation of carotenoid accumulation in food crops, especially tubers and cereals, should facilitate improvements to nutritional value with potentially significant health benefits. ..
  39. Eckardt N. Tangerine dreams: cloning of carotenoid isomerase from Arabidopsis and tomato. Plant Cell. 2002;14:289-92 pubmed
  40. Lee K, Nawrot M, Garwin G, Saari J, Hurley J. Relationships among visual cycle retinoids, rhodopsin phosphorylation, and phototransduction in mouse eyes during light and dark adaptation. Biochemistry. 2010;49:2454-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that rhodopsin phosphorylation has three physiological functions: it quenches phototransduction, reduces sensitivity during light adaptation, and suppresses bleached rhodopsin activity during dark adaptation. ..
  41. Lim C, Matthaei K, Blackburn A, Davis R, Dahlstrom J, Koina M, et al. Mice deficient in glutathione transferase zeta/maleylacetoacetate isomerase exhibit a range of pathological changes and elevated expression of alpha, mu, and pi class glutathione transferases. Am J Pathol. 2004;165:679-93 pubmed
    ..We detected the accumulation of succinylacetone in the serum of deficient mice but cannot exclude the possibility that maleylacetoacetate and maleylacetone may also accumulate. ..
  42. Nikolaeva O, Takahashi Y, Moiseyev G, Ma J. Negative charge of the glutamic acid 417 residue is crucial for isomerohydrolase activity of RPE65. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;391:1757-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Loss of charge at this position may represent a mechanism by which the E417Q mutation causes blindness in LCA patients. ..
  43. Cazzonelli C, Cuttriss A, Cossetto S, Pye W, Crisp P, Whelan J, et al. Regulation of carotenoid composition and shoot branching in Arabidopsis by a chromatin modifying histone methyltransferase, SDG8. Plant Cell. 2009;21:39-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the level of lutein, the most abundant carotenoid in higher plants that is critical for photosynthesis and photoprotection, appears to be regulated by a chromatin modifying enzyme in Arabidopsis thaliana. ..
  44. Nikolaeva O, Takahashi Y, Moiseyev G, Ma J. Purified RPE65 shows isomerohydrolase activity after reassociation with a phospholipid membrane. FEBS J. 2009;276:3020-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This assay system using purified RPE65 enabled us to measure kinetic parameters for the enzymatic reaction catalyzed by RPE65. These results provide conclusive evidence that RPE65 is the isomerohydrolase of the visual cycle. ..
  45. Park H, Kreunen S, Cuttriss A, DellaPenna D, Pogson B. Identification of the carotenoid isomerase provides insight into carotenoid biosynthesis, prolamellar body formation, and photomorphogenesis. Plant Cell. 2002;14:321-32 pubmed
    ..The absence of PLBs in crtISO mutants demonstrates a function for this unique structure and carotenoids in facilitating chloroplast development during the first critical days of seedling germination and photomorphogenesis. ..
  46. Wang R, Yin Y, Wang F, Li M, Feng J, Zhang H, et al. Crystal structures and site-directed mutagenesis of a mycothiol-dependent enzyme reveal a novel folding and molecular basis for mycothiol-mediated maleylpyruvate isomerization. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:16288-294 pubmed publisher
    ..Combining the structural and site-directed mutagenesis studies, it is proposed that this surface pocket including the metal ion and MSH moiety formed the putative catalytic center...
  47. Tchaicheeyan O. Is peptide bond cis/trans isomerization a key stage in the chemo-mechanical cycle of motor proteins?. FASEB J. 2004;18:783-9 pubmed
    ..Suggested modifications may be used for labeling and functional decoupling. ..
  48. Moiseyev G, Chen Y, Takahashi Y, Wu B, Ma J. RPE65 is the isomerohydrolase in the retinoid visual cycle. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:12413-8 pubmed
    ..Identification of the function of RPE65 will contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis for retinal dystrophies associated with RPE65 mutations. ..
  49. Kiran M, Annapoorni S, Suzuki I, Murata N, Shivaji S. Cis-trans isomerase gene in psychrophilic Pseudomonas syringae is constitutively expressed during growth and under conditions of temperature and solvent stress. Extremophiles. 2005;9:117-25 pubmed
  50. Chen Y, Li F, Wurtzel E. Isolation and characterization of the Z-ISO gene encoding a missing component of carotenoid biosynthesis in plants. Plant Physiol. 2010;153:66-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, plant carotenogenesis evolved by recruitment of genes from noncarotenogenic bacteria. ..
  51. Schultz I, Merdink J, Gonzalez Leon A, Bull R. Dichloroacetate toxicokinetics and disruption of tyrosine catabolism in B6C3F1 mice: dose-response relationships and age as a modifying factor. Toxicology. 2002;173:229-47 pubmed
    ..Reduced MAAI activity alone is unlikely to be the carcinogenic mode of action for DCA and may in fact, only be important during the early stages of DCA exposure. ..
  52. Bennett P, Moutsoulas P, Lawen A, Perini E, Ng K. Novel effects on memory observed following unilateral intracranial administration of okadaic acid, cyclosporin A, FK506 and [MeVal4]CyA. Brain Res. 2003;988:56-68 pubmed
    ..These results confirm significant roles for phosphatases and PPIases in memory processing but challenge previous conclusions drawn on the basis of bilateral drug administration protocols. ..
  53. Junker F, Ramos J. Involvement of the cis/trans isomerase Cti in solvent resistance of Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:5693-700 pubmed
    ..Southern blot analysis of total DNA from various pseudomonads showed that the cti gene is present in all the tested P. putida strains, including non-solvent-resistant ones, and in some other Pseudomonas species...
  54. Liu W, Youn H, Zhou X, Lu K, Liu J. Binding and regulation of the transcription factor NFAT by the peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase Pin1. FEBS Lett. 2001;496:105-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a possible role for Pin1 in the regulation of NFAT in T cells. ..
  55. Cazzonelli C, Roberts A, Carmody M, Pogson B. Transcriptional control of SET DOMAIN GROUP 8 and CAROTENOID ISOMERASE during Arabidopsis development. Mol Plant. 2010;3:174-91 pubmed publisher
  56. Mata N, Ruiz A, Radu R, Bui T, Travis G. Chicken retinas contain a retinoid isomerase activity that catalyzes the direct conversion of all-trans-retinol to 11-cis-retinol. Biochemistry. 2005;44:11715-21 pubmed
    ..Kinetic analysis of these two activities suggests that they act in concert to drive the formation of 11-cis-retinoids in chicken retinas. These activities may be part of a new visual cycle for the regeneration of chromophores in cones. ..
  57. Fernández Cañón J, Baetscher M, Finegold M, Burlingame T, Gibson K, Grompe M. Maleylacetoacetate isomerase (MAAI/GSTZ)-deficient mice reveal a glutathione-dependent nonenzymatic bypass in tyrosine catabolism. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:4943-51 pubmed
    ..A glutathione-mediated isomerization of MAA to FAA independent of MAAI enzyme was demonstrated in vitro. This nonenzymatic bypass is likely responsible for the lack of a phenotype in nonstressed MAAI mutant mice. ..
  58. Schiene Fischer C, Habazettl J, Schmid F, Fischer G. The hsp70 chaperone DnaK is a secondary amide peptide bond cis-trans isomerase. Nat Struct Biol. 2002;9:419-24 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a new role for the chaperone as a regioselective catalyst for bond rotation in polypeptides. ..
  59. Redmond T, Poliakov E, Kuo S, Chander P, Gentleman S. RPE65, visual cycle retinol isomerase, is not inherently 11-cis-specific: support for a carbocation mechanism of retinol isomerization. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:1919-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Specific visual cycle selectivity for 11-cis isomers instead resides downstream, attributable to mass action by CRALBP, retinol dehydrogenase 5, and high affinity of opsin apoproteins for 11-cis-retinal. ..
  60. Lyubarsky A, Savchenko A, Morocco S, Daniele L, Redmond T, Pugh E. Mole quantity of RPE65 and its productivity in the generation of 11-cis-retinal from retinyl esters in the living mouse eye. Biochemistry. 2005;44:9880-8 pubmed
  61. Zhou N, Fuenmayor S, Williams P. nag genes of Ralstonia (formerly Pseudomonas) sp. strain U2 encoding enzymes for gentisate catabolism. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:700-8 pubmed
    ..NagJ is homologous to a glutathione S-transferase, and NagM and NagN are proteins homologous to each other and to other proteins of unknown function. Downstream of the operon is a partial sequence with homology to a transposase. ..
  62. Wei J, Xu M, Zhang D, Mi H. The role of carotenoid isomerase in maintenance of photosynthetic oxygen evolution in rice plant. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2010;42:457-63 pubmed publisher
  63. Moiseyev G, Takahashi Y, Chen Y, Kim S, Ma J. RPE65 from cone-dominant chicken is a more efficient isomerohydrolase compared with that from rod-dominant species. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:8110-7 pubmed publisher
  64. Holtwick R, Keweloh H, Meinhardt F. cis/trans isomerase of unsaturated fatty acids of Pseudomonas putida P8: evidence for a heme protein of the cytochrome c type. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1999;65:2644-9 pubmed
    ..The functional significance of this motif was proven by site-directed mutagenesis. A possible mechanism of heme-catalyzed cis-trans isomerization of unsaturated fatty acids is discussed. ..
  65. Milcamps A, de Bruijn F. Identification of a novel nutrient-deprivation-induced Sinorhizobium meliloti gene (hmgA) involved in the degradation of tyrosine. Microbiology. 1999;145 ( Pt 4):935-47 pubmed publisher
    ..This is believed to be the first report of a hmgA-homologous gene in bacteria...
  66. Travis G, Kaylor J, Yuan Q. Analysis of the retinoid isomerase activities in the retinal pigment epithelium and retina. Methods Mol Biol. 2010;652:329-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Isomerase-2 appears to be present in Müller cells but has not yet been identified. Methods are provided in this chapter for assaying isomerase-2 in chicken retina homogenates. ..
  67. Blackburn A, Woollatt E, Sutherland G, Board P. Characterization and chromosome location of the gene GSTZ1 encoding the human Zeta class glutathione transferase and maleylacetoacetate isomerase. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1998;83:109-14 pubmed
    ..This gene structure information will allow analysis of the polymorphism in genomic DNA samples, and enables further investigations into genetic defects in this step of the phenylalanine catabolism pathway. ..
  68. Jacobson S, Aleman T, Cideciyan A, Heon E, Golczak M, Beltran W, et al. Human cone photoreceptor dependence on RPE65 isomerase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:15123-8 pubmed
  69. Tsuda M, Kusakabe T, Iwamoto H, Horie T, Nakashima Y, Nakagawa M, et al. Origin of the vertebrate visual cycle: II. Visual cycle proteins are localized in whole brain including photoreceptor cells of a primitive chordate. Vision Res. 2003;43:3045-53 pubmed
    ..The ascidian visual cycle is composed of two cellular compartments, the photoreceptors and the brain vesicle, but some photoreceptor cells also contain visual cycle proteins...
  70. Cottet S, Michaut L, Boisset G, Schlecht U, Gehring W, Schorderet D. Biological characterization of gene response in Rpe65-/- mouse model of Leber's congenital amaurosis during progression of the disease. FASEB J. 2006;20:2036-49 pubmed
  71. Feng J, Che Y, Milse J, Yin Y, Liu L, R ckert C, et al. The gene ncgl2918 encodes a novel maleylpyruvate isomerase that needs mycothiol as cofactor and links mycothiol biosynthesis and gentisate assimilation in Corynebacterium glutamicum. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:10778-85 pubmed publisher
    ..glutamicum with gentisate or 3-hydroxybenzoate as carbon sources and the first characterization of a mycothiol-dependent maleylpyruvate isomerase...
  72. Heipieper H, Meinhardt F, Segura A. The cis-trans isomerase of unsaturated fatty acids in Pseudomonas and Vibrio: biochemistry, molecular biology and physiological function of a unique stress adaptive mechanism. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2003;229:1-7 pubmed
    ..A functional heme-binding site of the cytochrome c-type was identified in the predicted Cti polypeptide and very recently, direct evidence was obtained that isomerization does not include a transient saturation of the double bond. ..
  73. Gollapalli D, Rando R. Molecular logic of 11-cis-retinoid biosynthesis in a cone-dominated species. Biochemistry. 2003;42:14921-9 pubmed
    ..Finally, 11-cis-retinyl-bromoacetate, a known affinity-labeling agent of isomerohydrolase, also blocks chromophore biosynthesis in the cone system. ..
  74. Golczak M, Kuksa V, Maeda T, Moise A, Palczewski K. Positively charged retinoids are potent and selective inhibitors of the trans-cis isomerization in the retinoid (visual) cycle. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:8162-7 pubmed
    ..Ret-NH2 can be a significant investigational tool to study the mechanism of regeneration of visual chromophore. ..
  75. Fernández Cañón J, Peñalva M. Characterization of a fungal maleylacetoacetate isomerase gene and identification of its human homologue. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:329-37 pubmed
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