Summary: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.

Top Publications

  1. Bearden C, Agarwal A, Book B, Sidner R, Gebel H, Bray R, et al. Pronase treatment facilitates alloantibody flow cytometric and cytotoxic crossmatching in the presence of rituximab. Hum Immunol. 2004;65:803-9 pubmed
    ..RIT causes B-cell crossmatches to appear positive. Pronase, a proteolytic enzyme that targets F(c) receptors removes CD20 from B cells...
  2. Chiang C, Okou D, Griffin T, Verret C, Williams M. Green fluorescent protein rendered susceptible to proteolysis: positions for protease-sensitive insertions. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2001;394:229-35 pubmed
    ..protein (GFP) is highly resistant to proteolysis and remains uncleaved after prolonged incubation with trypsin or pronase despite several putative tryptic and chymotryptic sites in exposed loops...
  3. Bahn J, Lee J, Jang S, Kim S, Kim H, Park H. Sensitization to Empynase(pronase B) in exposed hospital personnel and identification of the Empynase allergen. Clin Exp Allergy. 2006;36:352-8 pubmed
    ..Conclusion Exposure to Empynase powder may cause rhinitis and asthma in hospital personnel, and the pathogenic mechanism appears to be IgE mediated. ..
  4. Kuo C, Sheu B, Kao A, Wu C, Chuang C. A defoaming agent should be used with pronase premedication to improve visibility in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Endoscopy. 2002;34:531-4 pubmed
    The study tested whether pronase can improve endoscopic visibility and alter the accuracy of the CLO test for H. pylori detection...
  5. Yu Y, Fournier J, Gilar M, Gebler J. Identification of N-linked glycosylation sites using glycoprotein digestion with pronase prior to MALDI tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Anal Chem. 2007;79:1731-8 pubmed
    ..We explored a method using a nonspecific enzyme, pronase, to generate small glycopeptides (between two and six amino acids)...
  6. Horan R, Antle K, Collette A, Wang Y, Huang J, Moreau J, et al. In vitro degradation of silk fibroin. Biomaterials. 2005;26:3385-93 pubmed
    ..Results support that silk is a mechanically robust biomaterial with predictable long-term degradation characteristics. ..
  7. Tomimoto K, Hayakawa T, Hori H. Pronase digestion of brush border membrane-bound Cry1Aa shows that almost the whole activated Cry1Aa molecule penetrates into the membrane. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2006;144:413-22 pubmed
    ..thuringiensis Cry1Aa bound to Bombyx mori BBMV or unbound Cry1Aa were vigorously digested with Pronase. Both digests were compared by Western blotting...
  8. Vaidya S, Cooper T, Avandsalehi J, Barnes T, Brooks K, Hymel P, et al. Improved flow cytometric detection of HLA alloantibodies using pronase: potential implications in renal transplantation. Transplantation. 2001;71:422-8 pubmed
    ..To improve the specificity and sensitivity of the B cell FCXM, we utilized the proteolytic enzyme pronase to remove Fc receptors from lymphocytes before their use in FCXM...
  9. Nasr S, Galgano S, Markowitz G, Stokes M, D Agati V. Immunofluorescence on pronase-digested paraffin sections: a valuable salvage technique for renal biopsies. Kidney Int. 2006;70:2148-51 pubmed
    ..In this study, the results of IF on frozen tissue (IF-F) and on deparaffinized, pronase-treated tissue (IF-P) were compared in 71 renal biopsies representing 12 major renal diseases...

More Information


  1. Saito N, Sato F, Oda H, Kato M, Takeda H, Sugiyama T, et al. Removal of mucus for ultrastructural observation of the surface of human gastric epithelium using pronase. Helicobacter. 2002;7:112-5 pubmed
    ..We studied the nonmechanical method for removal of mucus layer of gastric epithelium using pronase. To determine the optimal concentration of pronase, mucin was used as a substrate for inhibition of the viscosity...
  2. Chang C, Chen S, Lin C, Hsieh C, Lou H, Suk F, et al. Premedication with pronase or N-acetylcysteine improves visibility during gastroendoscopy: an endoscopist-blinded, prospective, randomized study. World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13:444-7 pubmed
    To assess the efficacy of premedicaton with pronase or N-acetylcysteine (NAC) at 20 min before upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy and to determine whether pronase or NAC pretreatment influences the reliability of the rapid urease ..
  3. Recupero D, Daniele L, Marchio C, Molinaro L, Castellano I, Cassoni P, et al. Spontaneous and pronase-induced HER2 truncation increases the trastuzumab binding capacity of breast cancer tissues and cell lines. J Pathol. 2013;229:390-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The HER2-positive cell line BT474 treated with pervanadate or pronase was used as a positive control for p95(HER2) expression...
  4. Kumar A, Gowda L, Tharanathan R. Non-specific depolymerization of chitosan by pronase and characterization of the resultant products. Eur J Biochem. 2004;271:713-23 pubmed
    b>Pronase (type XXV serine protease from Streptomyces griseus) efficiently depolymerizes chitosan, a linear beta-->1,4-linked polysaccharide of 2-amino-deoxyglucose and 2-amino-2-N-acetylamino-D-glucose, to low-molecular weight ..
  5. Dodds E, Seipert R, Clowers B, German J, Lebrilla C. Analytical performance of immobilized pronase for glycopeptide footprinting and implications for surpassing reductionist glycoproteomics. J Proteome Res. 2009;8:502-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This report describes the ongoing development and analytically salient features of bead immobilized pronase for glycosylation site footprinting...
  6. Gotoh A, Akamatsu T, Shimizu T, Shimodaira K, Kaneko T, Kiyosawa K, et al. Additive effect of pronase on the efficacy of eradication therapy against Helicobacter pylori. Helicobacter. 2002;7:183-91 pubmed
    ..Thus, we examined the possible value of pronase, a mucolytic agent, as a potential eradication therapy...
  7. D Castro L, Wenborn A, Gros N, Joiner S, Cronier S, Collinge J, et al. Isolation of proteinase K-sensitive prions using pronase E and phosphotungstic acid. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15679 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that digestion of RML prion-infected mouse brain with pronase E, followed by precipitation with sodium phosphotungstic acid, eliminates the large majority of brain proteins, ..
  8. Williams D. Change in shear stress (Deltatau)/hydraulic conductivity (Lp) relationship after pronase treatment of individual capillaries in situ. Microvasc Res. 2007;73:48-57 pubmed
    ..Perfusate solutions were 10 mg ml-1 BSA/frog Ringer's (Control) or 0.1 mg ml-1 pronase in BSA/Ringer's (1 min) then BSA/Ringer's alone (Test). Mean (+/-SE) control Lp following Deltatau was 2.2+/-0...
  9. Vishu Kumar A, Varadaraj M, Gowda L, Tharanathan R. Characterization of chito-oligosaccharides prepared by chitosanolysis with the aid of papain and Pronase, and their bactericidal action against Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. Biochem J. 2005;391:167-75 pubmed
    Papain (from papaya latex; EC and Pronase (from Streptomyces griseus; EC caused optimum depolymerization of chitosan at pH 3...
  10. Xavier B, Houlihan A, Russell J. The activity and stability of cell-associated activity of bovicin HC5, a bacteriocin from Streptococcus bovis HC5. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2008;283:162-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Cell-associated bovicin HC5 was more resistant to degradation by Pronase E than the cell-free activity. Acidic NaCl (pH 2...
  11. Stoffel M, Friess A. Demonstration and cytochemical analysis of anionic sites on ejaculated boar spermatozoa: a scanning electron microscopy study using cationised colloidal gold. Histochem Cell Biol. 2002;117:61-7 pubmed
    ..The chemical nature of the anionic sites involved was investigated by treating spermatozoa with pronase, phosphatase and neuraminidase as well as by methylation, acid hydrolysis and beta-elimination prior to ..
  12. Okazaki J, Kakudo K, Kamada A, Utoh E, Gonda Y, Shirasu R, et al. Chondroitin sulfate isomers in synovial fluid of healthy and diseased human temporomandibular joints. Eur J Oral Sci. 1997;105:440-3 pubmed
    ..Glycosaminoglycans were liberated by digestion with pronase E, and precipitated with cetylpyridinium chloride and ethanol...
  13. Lu Q, Hu X, Wang X, Kluge J, Lu S, Cebe P, et al. Water-insoluble silk films with silk I structure. Acta Biomater. 2010;6:1380-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results also point to a new mode of generating new types of silk biomaterials with enhanced mechanical properties and increased degradation rates, while maintaining water insolubility, along with a low beta-sheet content. ..
  14. Tanguy J, Yeh J. BTX modification of Na channels in squid axons. I. State dependence of BTX action. J Gen Physiol. 1991;97:499-519 pubmed
    ..squid giant axons before (control axons) and after the pharmacological removal of the fast inactivation by pronase, chloramine-T, or NBA (pretreated axons)...
  15. Lowther W, Matthews B. Metalloaminopeptidases: common functional themes in disparate structural surroundings. Chem Rev. 2002;102:4581-608 pubmed
  16. Bezvershenko I, Gjulling E, Dyugovskaya L. Suppression of IgE-antibody production by non-polypeptide dialysable thymic factor. Immunology. 1979;36:229-34 pubmed
    ..The treatment of this preparation with immobilized pronase affects neither its suppressive activity, nor does such treatment affect the activity of purified factor, ..
  17. Lobanov A, Uzdensky A. PDT-induced death of sensory neurons and glial cells in the isolated crayfish stretch receptor after proteolytic treatment. J Neurosci Res. 2005;82:866-74 pubmed
    ..After incubation of isolated stretch receptors with pronase or collagenase they were photosensitized with Photosens, a mixture of sulfonated alumophthalocyanines AlPcS(n) (n ..
  18. Ribas R, Oback B, Ritchie W, Chebotareva T, Taylor J, Mauricio A, et al. Modifications to improve the efficiency of zona-free mouse nuclear transfer. Cloning Stem Cells. 2006;8:10-5 pubmed
    ..Secondly, acid Tyrode's was selected for zona pellucida removal, because contrary to pronase, it allows embryo survival during parthenogenic activation in the absence of calcium...
  19. Adams B, Brazelton T, Berry G, Morris R. The role of respiratory epithelium in a rat model of obliterative airway disease. Transplantation. 2000;69:661-4 pubmed
    ..Non-immune-mediated injury will cause OAD, and epithelial cell replacement in denuded isografts can significantly reduce the fibrotic progression of the disease. ..
  20. Romagnani S, Damiani G, Giudizi M, Biagiotti R, Almerigogna F, Delprete G, et al. In vitro production of IgE by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. III. Demonstration of a circulating IgE-bearing cell involved in the spontaneous IgE biosynthesis. Clin Exp Immunol. 1982;49:176-84 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that cells mainly implicated in the spontaneous IgE production in vitro seen in atopic patients are DR+ IgE+ IgM- circulating lymphocytes. ..
  21. Kumar A, Dongari N, Sabbioni G. New isocyanate-specific albumin adducts of 4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) in rats. Chem Res Toxicol. 2009;22:1975-83 pubmed publisher
    ..0 (control), 0.26, 0.70, and 2.06 mg MDI/m(3) as aerosols. Albumin was isolated from plasma, digested with Pronase E, and analyzed by LC-MS/MS...
  22. Baquero Perez B, Kuchipudi S, Nelli R, Chang K. A simplified but robust method for the isolation of avian and mammalian muscle satellite cells. BMC Cell Biol. 2012;13:16 pubmed publisher
    ..In brief, muscle tissue was mechanically dissociated, digested with a single enzyme (pronase), triturated with a 10-ml pipette, filtered and directly plated onto collagen coated flasks...
  23. Pangestuti R, Ryu B, Himaya S, Kim S. Optimization of hydrolysis conditions, isolation, and identification of neuroprotective peptides derived from seahorse Hippocampus trimaculatus. Amino Acids. 2013;45:369-81 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Pronase E hydrolysate exerted highest protection with cell viability value of 88.33 ± 3.33 %...
  24. Mraz J, Simek P, Chvalová D, Nohová H, Smigolová P. Studies on the methyl isocyanate adducts with globin. Chem Biol Interact. 2004;148:1-10 pubmed
    ..The globin was subject to enzymatic hydrolysis with pronase, and the hydrolysate was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography with positive atmospheric pressure ..
  25. Huxley V, Williams D. Role of a glycocalyx on coronary arteriole permeability to proteins: evidence from enzyme treatments. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2000;278:H1177-85 pubmed
    ..n = 21 arterioles, N = 21 pigs) arteriolar P(s) was determined before and after perfusion with enzyme (pronase or heparinase), which was used to digest the glycocalyx...
  26. Gonzalez Noriega A, Michalak C, Cruz Perez J, Masso F. Mannose 6-phosphate-independent endocytosis of beta-glucuronidase by human fibroblasts. I. Evidence for the existence of a membrane-binding activity. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001;1538:141-51 pubmed
    ..In this study, we have isolated a peptide (IIIb2) from pronase digested bovine beta-glucuronidase that behaved as competitive inhibitor of the endocytosis of bovine beta-..
  27. de Repentigny L, Aumont F, Bernard K, Belhumeur P. Characterization of binding of Candida albicans to small intestinal mucin and its role in adherence to mucosal epithelial cells. Infect Immun. 2000;68:3172-9 pubmed
    ..However, inhibition of adherence was reversed by pretreatment of mucin with pronase or C. albicans secretory aspartyl proteinase Sap2p but not with sodium periodate...
  28. Sugita Y, Nakano Y, Oda E, Noda K, Tobe T, Miura N, et al. Determination of carboxyl-terminal residue and disulfide bonds of MACIF (CD59), a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane protein. J Biochem. 1993;114:473-7 pubmed
    ..MACIF prepared from human erythrocyte membranes was digested with pronase. When the digest was subjected to two-phase partition with butanol and 0...
  29. Odani S, Ikenaka T. Studies on soybean trypsin inhibitors. 8. Disulfide bridges in soybean Bowman-Birk proteinase inhibitor. J Biochem. 1973;74:697-715 pubmed
  30. Shakibai N, Ishidate K, Reshetnyak E, Gunji S, Kohiyama M, Rothfield L. High-affinity binding of hemimethylated oriC by Escherichia coli membranes is mediated by a multiprotein system that includes SeqA and a newly identified factor, SeqB. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:11117-21 pubmed
    ..coli is likely to be a multiprotein system that includes the SeqA and SeqB proteins. ..
  31. Schiel J, Smith N, Phinney K. Universal proteolysis and MS(n) for N- and O-glycan branching analysis. J Mass Spectrom. 2013;48:533-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This methodology should be applicable to all glycoproteins and serve as an alternative to glycan release for MS(n) branching analysis. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. ..
  32. Rolfe M, Parmar A, Hoy T, Coakley W. Erythrocyte agglutination by wheat germ agglutinin: ionic strength dependence of the contact seam topology. Mol Membr Biol. 2001;18:169-76 pubmed
    The topology of the cell-cell contact seam formed when normal or pronase pre-treated (PPT) erythrocytes are exposed to wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) in isotonic media of different ionic strengths was examined here...
  33. Aoshiba K, Yasuda K, Yasui S, Tamaoki J, Nagai A. Serine proteases increase oxidative stress in lung cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2001;281:L556-64 pubmed
    ..1--100 U/ml) of neutrophil elastase, trypsin, and Pronase increased ROS levels in the mitochondria and cytoplasm...
  34. Chang M, Potter Perigo S, Wight T, Chait A. Oxidized LDL bind to nonproteoglycan components of smooth muscle extracellular matrices. J Lipid Res. 2001;42:824-33 pubmed
    ..heparinase decreased the binding of native LDL, but increased the binding of oxidized LDL; matrix digestion with pronase or trypsin markedly reduced the binding of both native and oxidized LDL...
  35. Hoja Lukowicz D, Litynska A, Wojczyk B. Affinity chromatography of branched oligosaccharides in rat liver beta-glucuronidase. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 2001;755:173-83 pubmed
    Rat liver microsomal and lysosomal beta-glucuronidase-derived glycopeptides were obtained by extensive Pronase digestion followed by N-[14C]acetylation and desialylation by neuraminidase treatment...
  36. Xue Y, Li L, He Y, Guan Z. Protease-catalysed direct asymmetric Mannich reaction in organic solvent. Sci Rep. 2012;2:761 pubmed publisher
    ..This enzyme's catalytic promiscuity expands the application of this biocatalyst and provides a potential alternative method for asymmetric Mannich reactions. ..
  37. Manikandan B, Ramar M. Detection of natural and induced phenoloxidase activities in human serum. Hum Immunol. 2012;73:1005-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the proteases and detergents tested, pronase, SDS and Tween 20 were the best elicitors of phenoloxidase activities in serum, wherein, hydroquinone was the ..
  38. Moyer S, Cotter R, Woods A. Fragmentation of phosphopeptides by atmospheric pressure MALDI and ESI/Ion trap mass spectrometry. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2002;13:274-83 pubmed
  39. Wei T, Zhang S. Effect on lipogenesis and character of mediator induced by insulin and its analogs. Sci Sin B. 1988;31:667-75 pubmed
    ..The mediator of fraction 1 was neuraminidase- and pronase-sensitive so that it may be a glycopeptide chemically in nature.
  40. Wang X, Kluge J, Leisk G, Kaplan D. Sonication-induced gelation of silk fibroin for cell encapsulation. Biomaterials. 2008;29:1054-64 pubmed
    ..Thus, sonication provides a useful new tool with which to initiate rapid sol-gel transitions, such as for cell encapsulation. ..
  41. Fléchon J, Kopecny V, Pivko J, Pavlok A, Motlik J. Texture of the zona pellucida of the mature pig oocyte. The mammalian egg envelope revisited. Reprod Nutr Dev. 2004;44:207-18 pubmed
    ..Such texture is probably related to the unique ZP protein composition and to a coordinated synthesis. ..
  42. Zhao Q, Kiyohara H, Nagai T, Yamada H. Structure of the complement-activating proteoglycan from the pilose antler of Cervus nippon Temminck. Carbohydr Res. 1992;230:361-72 pubmed
    ..nippon Temminck by digestion with pronase, gel filtration, and affinity chromatography, consisted mainly of GalNAc, GlcA, IdoA, and sulfate in the molar ..
  43. Xia M, Hale G, Lifely M, Ferguson M, Campbell D, Packman L, et al. Structure of the CAMPATH-1 antigen, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoprotein which is an exceptionally good target for complement lysis. Biochem J. 1993;293 ( Pt 3):633-40 pubmed
    ..We postulate that one of the reasons why the CAMPATH-1 antibodies are so good for cell lysis is because they bind to an epitope which is likely to be very close to the lipid bilayer. ..
  44. Xavier B, Russell J. The ability of non-bacteriocin producing Streptococcus bovis strains to bind and transfer bovicin HC5 to other sensitive bacteria. Anaerobe. 2009;15:168-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Bovicin HC5 that was bound to S. bovis JB1 was much more resistant to Pronase E than cell-free bovicin HC5, but it could be inactivated if the incubation period was 24 h...
  45. Miyauchi M, Giummelly P, Yazawa S, Okawa Y. Adhesion of Candida albicans to HeLa cells: studies using polystyrene beads. Biol Pharm Bull. 2007;30:588-90 pubmed
    ..The adherence drastically decreased by pronase treatment of the yeast cells...
  46. Siadat O, Lougarre A, Lamouroux L, Ladurantie C, Fournier D. The effect of engineered disulfide bonds on the stability of Drosophila melanogaster acetylcholinesterase. BMC Biochem. 2006;7:12 pubmed
    ..The quantities produced by this mutant were the same as in wild-type flies. Addition of a disulfide bridge may either stabilize or unstabilize proteins. One bond out of the 7 tested provided significant stabilisation. ..
  47. Lúcio Eterovic A, Jorge J, Polizeli M, Terenzi H. Biochemical characterisation of the trehalase of thermophilic fungi: an enzyme with mixed properties of neutral and acid trehalase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1723:201-7 pubmed
    ..More knowledge is needed about the molecular structure of this protein and its corresponding gene, to clarify the structural and evolutionary relationship of this trehalase to the conventional trehalases. ..
  48. Xia M, Hale G, Waldmann H. Efficient complement-mediated lysis of cells containing the CAMPATH-1 (CDw52) antigen. Mol Immunol. 1993;30:1089-96 pubmed
  49. Tompkins G, Wood D, Birchmeier K. Detection and comparison of specific hemin binding by Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:620-6 pubmed
    ..intermedia. Hemin binding by BPB was reduced following treatment with protein-modifying agents (heat, pronase, and N-bromosuccinimide) and was blocked by protoporphyrin IX and hemoglobin but not by Congo red...
  50. Baudry N, Lejeune P, Delom F, Vinet L, Carayon P, Mallet B. Role of multimerized porcine thyroglobulin in iodine storage. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998;242:292-6 pubmed
    ..Our data point to a role for i-Tg in iodine storage and the involvement of TPO in i-Tg degradation and iodide release. ..
  51. Yang Y, Niu Y, Hong H, Wu H, Zhang Y, Engle J, et al. Radiolabeled ?-AApeptides: a new class of tracers for positron emission tomography. Chem Commun (Camb). 2012;48:7850-2 pubmed publisher
  52. McCormick M, Gaut J, Lin T, Britigan B, Buettner G, Heinecke J. Electron paramagnetic resonance detection of free tyrosyl radical generated by myeloperoxidase, lactoperoxidase, and horseradish peroxidase. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:32030-7 pubmed
    ..EPR signal resulting from this MNP/polypeptide adduct was greatly narrowed by proteolytic digestion with Pronase, confirming that the initial spin-trapped radical was protein-bound...
  53. Jiang H, Tay J, Maszenan A, Tay S. Enhanced phenol biodegradation and aerobic granulation by two coaggregating bacterial strains. Environ Sci Technol. 2006;40:6137-42 pubmed
    ..Investigation of in situ occurrence of coggregation in aerobic granulation would help unveil its molecular mechanism. Then the granulation process could be improved through selection of specific microbial groups...