lysostaphin

Summary

Summary: A 25-kDa peptidase produced by Staphylococcus simulans which cleaves a glycine-glcyine bond unique to an inter-peptide cross-bridge of the STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS cell wall. EC 3.4.24.75.

Top Publications

  1. Walencka E, Sadowska B, Rozalska S, Hryniewicz W, Rozalska B. Lysostaphin as a potential therapeutic agent for staphylococcal biofilm eradication. Pol J Microbiol. 2005;54:191-200 pubmed
    The aim was to study the activity of lysostaphin in monotherapy or in combination with oxacillin, towards biofilms built by clinical and reference S. aureus and S...
  2. Scott P, Rood J. Electroporation-mediated transformation of lysostaphin-treated Clostridium perfringens. Gene. 1989;82:327-33 pubmed
    ..9-kb Escherichia coli-C. perfringens shuttle plasmid pHR 106 required pretreatment with lysostaphin (2 to 20 micrograms/ml) for 1 h at 37 degrees C...
  3. Schmelcher M, Powell A, Becker S, Camp M, Donovan D. Chimeric phage lysins act synergistically with lysostaphin to kill mastitis-causing Staphylococcus aureus in murine mammary glands. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:2297-305 pubmed publisher
    ..streptococcal ?SA2 endolysin endopeptidase domain fused to staphylococcal cell wall binding domains from either lysostaphin (?SA2-E-Lyso-SH3b) or the staphylococcal phage K endolysin, LysK (?SA2-E-LysK-SH3b)...
  4. Satishkumar R, Vertegel A. Antibody-directed targeting of lysostaphin adsorbed onto polylactide nanoparticles increases its antimicrobial activity against S. aureus in vitro. Nanotechnology. 2011;22:505103 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus by comparing the activities of lysostaphin conjugated to biodegradable polylactide nanoparticles (NPs) in the presence and in the absence of co-..
  5. Shah A, Mond J, Walsh S. Lysostaphin-coated catheters eradicate Staphylococccus aureus challenge and block surface colonization. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48:2704-7 pubmed
    b>Lysostaphin is an endopeptidase that kills Staphylococcus aureus, a predominant organism in catheter-related infections. Lysostaphin-coated catheters prevented catheter colonization by several strains of S...
  6. Gargis S, Heath H, LeBlanc P, Dekker L, Simmonds R, Sloan G. Inhibition of the activity of both domains of lysostaphin through peptidoglycan modification by the lysostaphin immunity protein. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:6944-6 pubmed publisher
    Resistance to lysostaphin, a staphylolytic glycylglycine endopeptidase, is due to a FemABX-like immunity protein that inserts serines in place of some glycines in peptidoglycan cross bridges...
  7. Wu J, Kusuma C, Mond J, KOKAI KUN J. Lysostaphin disrupts Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms on artificial surfaces. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:3407-14 pubmed
    ..b>Lysostaphin is a glycylglycine endopeptidase which specifically cleaves the pentaglycine cross bridges found in the ..
  8. McCormick C, Dajcs J, Reed J, Marquart M, O Callaghan R. The effectiveness of lysostaphin therapy for experimental coagulase-negative Staphylococcus endophthalmitis. Curr Eye Res. 2006;31:225-30 pubmed
    To quantitatively determine the effectiveness of lysostaphin therapy for experimental endophthalmitis mediated by coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species, the leading cause of postsurgical endophthalmitis...
  9. KOKAI KUN J, Chanturiya T, Mond J. Lysostaphin as a treatment for systemic Staphylococcus aureus infection in a mouse model. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2007;60:1051-9 pubmed
    ..b>Lysostaphin, an example of such a novel therapeutic, is an endopeptidase that rapidly lyses S...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Sharma R, Sharma P, Choudhary M, Pande A, Khatri G. Cytoplasmic expression of mature glycylglycine endopeptidase lysostaphin with an amino terminal hexa-histidine in a soluble and catalytically active form in Escherichia coli. Protein Expr Purif. 2006;45:206-15 pubmed
    ..b>Lysostaphin is a novel therapeutic molecule to kill the multidrug-resistant S. aureus...
  2. Placencia F, Kong L, Weisman L. Treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in neonatal mice: lysostaphin versus vancomycin. Pediatr Res. 2009;65:420-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Increasing antibiotic resistance, however, requires additional treatment options. Lysostaphin, an endopeptidase, has that potential...
  3. Lu H, Gu M, Huang Q, Huang J, Lu W, Lu H, et al. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry and site-directed disulfide cross-linking suggest an important dynamic interface between the two lysostaphin domains. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57:1872-81 pubmed publisher
    b>Lysostaphin is a peptidoglycan hydrolase secreted by Staphylococcus simulans. It can specifically lyse Staphylococcus aureus and is being tested as a novel antibacterial agent...
  4. Feizabadi M, Ghodousi A, Nomanpour B, Omrani M, Shahcheraghi F. Development of a modified DNA extraction method for pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of Staphylococcus aureus and enterococci without using lysostaphin. J Microbiol Methods. 2011;84:144-6 pubmed publisher
    ..developed and applied to clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and enterococci to reduce the cost of using lysostaphin. This protocol reduces the expenses of PFGE typing of S...
  5. Climo M, Patron R, Goldstein B, Archer G. Lysostaphin treatment of experimental methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus aortic valve endocarditis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998;42:1355-60 pubmed
    ..aureus. Lysostaphin, a peptidase produced by Staphylococcus simulans, specifically cleaves the glycine-glycine bonds unique to the ..
  6. KOKAI KUN J, Chanturiya T, Mond J. Lysostaphin eradicates established Staphylococcus aureus biofilms in jugular vein catheterized mice. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2009;64:94-100 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Lysostaphin has been shown to clear S...
  7. LaPlante K. In vitro activity of lysostaphin, mupirocin, and tea tree oil against clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2007;57:413-8 pubmed
    ..We examined the activity of lysostaphin, mupirocin, and tea tree oil against clinical MRSA (n = 98) isolates...
  8. Thumm G, Gotz F. Studies on prolysostaphin processing and characterization of the lysostaphin immunity factor (Lif) of Staphylococcus simulans biovar staphylolyticus. Mol Microbiol. 1997;23:1251-65 pubmed
    b>Lysostaphin is an extracellular glycylglycine endopeptidase produced by Staphylococcus simulans biovar staphylolyticus ATCC1362 that lyses staphylococcal cells by hydrolysing the polyglycine interpeptide bridges of the peptidoglycan...
  9. Miao J, Pangule R, Paskaleva E, Hwang E, Kane R, Linhardt R, et al. Lysostaphin-functionalized cellulose fibers with antistaphylococcal activity for wound healing applications. Biomaterials. 2011;32:9557-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Taking inspiration from nature, we have employed a cell lytic enzyme, lysostaphin (Lst), with specific bactericidal activity against S. aureus, to generate anti-infective bandages...
  10. Warfield R, Bardelang P, Saunders H, Chan W, Penfold C, James R, et al. Internally quenched peptides for the study of lysostaphin: An antimicrobial protease that kills Staphylococcus aureus. Org Biomol Chem. 2006;4:3626-38 pubmed
    b>Lysostaphin (EC. 3.4.24.75) is a protein secreted by Staphylococcus simulans biovar staphylolyticus and has been shown to be active against methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA)...
  11. Walsh S, Shah A, Mond J. Improved pharmacokinetics and reduced antibody reactivity of lysostaphin conjugated to polyethylene glycol. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:554-8 pubmed
    b>Lysostaphin is a 27-kDa endopeptidase that enzymatically disrupts the cell wall of Staphylococcus aureus and is a promising candidate for treating S. aureus blood-borne infections...
  12. Belyansky I, Tsirline V, Martin T, Klima D, Heath J, Lincourt A, et al. The addition of lysostaphin dramatically improves survival, protects porcine biomesh from infection, and improves graft tensile shear strength. J Surg Res. 2011;171:409-15 pubmed publisher
    b>Lysostaphin (LS), a naturally occurring Staphylococcal endopeptidase, has the ability to penetrate biofilm, and has been identified as a potential antimicrobial to prevent mesh infection...
  13. Kumar J. Lysostaphin: an antistaphylococcal agent. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008;80:555-61 pubmed publisher
    b>Lysostaphin is a zinc metalloenzyme which has a specific lytic action against Staphylococcus aureus...
  14. Wall R, Powell A, Paape M, Kerr D, Bannerman D, Pursel V, et al. Genetically enhanced cows resist intramammary Staphylococcus aureus infection. Nat Biotechnol. 2005;23:445-51 pubmed
    ..To test the feasibility of protecting animals through genetic engineering, transgenic cows secreting lysostaphin at concentrations ranging from 0.9 to 14 micrograms/ml [corrected] in their milk were produced...
  15. Szweda P, Kotłowski R, Kur J. New effective sources of the Staphylococcus simulans lysostaphin. J Biotechnol. 2005;117:203-13 pubmed
    The gene encoding Staphylococcus simulans lysostaphin has been cloned into two Escherichia coli expression systems: pET23b+ (Novagen, UK) and pBAD/Thio-TOPO (Invitrogen, USA), which allow the overexpression of a target protein as a ..
  16. Kusuma C, KOKAI KUN J. Comparison of four methods for determining lysostaphin susceptibility of various strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:3256-63 pubmed
    b>Lysostaphin is an endopeptidase that cleaves the pentaglycine cross-bridges of the staphylococcal cell wall rapidly lysing the bacteria...
  17. Ragumani S, Kumaran D, Burley S, Swaminathan S. Crystal structure of a putative lysostaphin peptidase from Vibrio cholerae. Proteins. 2008;72:1096-103 pubmed publisher
  18. Becker S, Foster Frey J, Donovan D. The phage K lytic enzyme LysK and lysostaphin act synergistically to kill MRSA. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2008;287:185-91 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Lysostaphin is a bacteriocin secreted by Staphylococcus simulans to kill Staphylococcus aureus...
  19. Liu X, Wang Y, Guo W, Chang B, Liu J, Guo Z, et al. Zinc-finger nickase-mediated insertion of the lysostaphin gene into the beta-casein locus in cloned cows. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2565 pubmed publisher
    ..show in bovine fetal fibroblasts that targeting ZFNickases to the endogenous ?-casein (CSN2) locus stimulates lysostaphin gene addition by homology-directed repair...
  20. Becker S, Dong S, Baker J, Foster Frey J, Pritchard D, Donovan D. LysK CHAP endopeptidase domain is required for lysis of live staphylococcal cells. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2009;294:52-60 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus and the coagulase-negative strains. In the checkerboard assay, the CHAP-SH3b fusion achieves the same level of antimicrobial synergy with lysostaphin as the full-length LysK.
  21. Cui F, Li G, Huang J, Zhang J, Lu M, Lu W, et al. Extension of nasal anti-Staphylococcus aureus efficacy of lysostaphin by its incorporation into a chitosan-o/w cream. Drug Deliv. 2010;17:617-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study the preparation and characterizations of the chitosan-o/w cream incorporated with lysostaphin (CCL) were described...
  22. GRUNDLING A, Schneewind O. Cross-linked peptidoglycan mediates lysostaphin binding to the cell wall envelope of Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:2463-72 pubmed
    Staphylococcus simulans bv. staphylolyticus secretes lysostaphin, a bacteriocin that cleaves pentaglycine cross bridges in the cell wall of Staphylococcus aureus...
  23. Boyle Vavra S, Carey R, Daum R. Development of vancomycin and lysostaphin resistance in a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolate. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2001;48:617-25 pubmed
    ..of vancomycin 10-12 mg/L), which occurred 13 days later, associated with an increased MIC of the endopeptidase lysostaphin and slightly increased cell wall thickness...
  24. Dajcs J, Thibodeaux B, Hume E, Zheng X, Sloop G, O Callaghan R. Lysostaphin is effective in treating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus endophthalmitis in the rabbit. Curr Eye Res. 2001;22:451-7 pubmed
    To determine the effectiveness of lysostaphin treatment of experimental endophthalmitis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In one experiment, rabbits were injected in the mid-vitreous with 50 or 200 CFU of S...
  25. Oldham E, Daley M. Lysostaphin: use of a recombinant bactericidal enzyme as a mastitis therapeutic. J Dairy Sci. 1991;74:4175-82 pubmed
    A recombinant mucolytic protein, lysostaphin, was evaluated as a potential intramammary therapeutic for Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in dairy cattle...
  26. Dajcs J, Thibodeaux B, Girgis D, Shaffer M, Delvisco S, O Callaghan R. Immunity to lysostaphin and its therapeutic value for ocular MRSA infections in the rabbit. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002;43:3712-6 pubmed
    To determine the effects of immunization against lysostaphin on the bactericidal action of lysostaphin in ocular tissue and the possible induction of allergic reactions...
  27. Desbois A, Gemmell C, Coote P. In vivo efficacy of the antimicrobial peptide ranalexin in combination with the endopeptidase lysostaphin against wound and systemic meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2010;35:559-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Earlier studies showed that ranalexin, an antimicrobial peptide (AMP), in combination with lysostaphin, an antistaphylococcal endopeptidase, synergistically inhibits the growth of MRSA, meaning that it deserved ..
  28. Kiri N, Archer G, Climo M. Combinations of lysostaphin with beta-lactams are synergistic against oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002;46:2017-20 pubmed
    Oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is rapidly killed by the endopeptidase lysostaphin, and the addition of beta-lactam antibiotics provides synergistic killing...
  29. Desbois A, Coote P. Bactericidal synergy of lysostaphin in combination with antimicrobial peptides. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2011;30:1015-21 pubmed publisher
    ..There has been a resurgence in interest in using lysostaphin (a specific anti-staphylococcal enzyme) as a treatment for infections caused by these important pathogens...
  30. Francius G, Domenech O, Mingeot Leclercq M, Dufrêne Y. Direct observation of Staphylococcus aureus cell wall digestion by lysostaphin. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:7904-9 pubmed publisher
    ..An example of such a potential therapeutic is lysostaphin, an enzyme that specifically cleaves the S. aureus peptidoglycan, thereby lysing the bacteria...
  31. Sabala I, Jonsson I, Tarkowski A, Bochtler M. Anti-staphylococcal activities of lysostaphin and LytM catalytic domain. BMC Microbiol. 2012;12:97 pubmed publisher
    b>Lysostaphin and the catalytic domain of LytM cleave pentaglycine crossbridges of Staphylococcus aureus peptidoglycan...
  32. Bellinati Pires R, Salgado M, Hypolito I, Grumach A, Carneiro Sampaio M. Application of a fluorochrome-lysostaphin assay to the detection of phagocytic and bactericidal disturbances in human neutrophils and monocytes. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 1995;5:337-42 pubmed
    ..1989) (AO assay), but was modified by the addition of an alternative leukocyte treatment with 0.5 U/ml of lysostaphin (LS) for 5 min at 37 degrees C, after phagocytosis (AO-LS assay)...
  33. Turner M, Waldherr F, Loessner M, Giffard P. Antimicrobial activity of lysostaphin and a Listeria monocytogenes bacteriophage endolysin produced and secreted by lactic acid bacteria. Syst Appl Microbiol. 2007;30:58-67 pubmed
    ..bacteriophage N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase endolysin Ply511 and the glycylglycine endopeptidase lysostaphin were examined...
  34. Climo M, Ehlert K, Archer G. Mechanism and suppression of lysostaphin resistance in oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001;45:1431-7 pubmed
    The potential for the development of resistance in oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ORSA) to lysostaphin, a glycylglycine endopeptidase produced by Staphylococcus simulans biovar staphylolyticus, was examined in vitro and in an ..
  35. Koehl J, Muthaiyan A, Jayaswal R, Ehlert K, Labischinski H, Wilkinson B. Cell wall composition and decreased autolytic activity and lysostaphin susceptibility of glycopeptide-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48:3749-57 pubmed
    ..In contrast to whole cells, which showed decreased lysostaphin susceptibility, purified cell walls of GISA showed increased susceptibility to lysostaphin...
  36. Odintsov S, Sabala I, Marcyjaniak M, Bochtler M. Latent LytM at 1.3A resolution. J Mol Biol. 2004;335:775-85 pubmed
    ..aureus, is a Zn(2+)-dependent glycyl-glycine endopeptidase with a characteristic HxH motif that belongs to the lysostaphin-type (MEROPS M23/37) of metallopeptidases. Here, we present the 1...
  37. Kerr D, Plaut K, Bramley A, Williamson C, Lax A, Moore K, et al. Lysostaphin expression in mammary glands confers protection against staphylococcal infection in transgenic mice. Nat Biotechnol. 2001;19:66-70 pubmed
    ..The protein, lysostaphin, is a peptidoglycan hydrolase normally produced by Staphylococcus simulans...
  38. Bardelang P, Vankemmelbeke M, Zhang Y, Jarvis H, Antoniadou E, Rochette S, et al. Design of a polypeptide FRET substrate that facilitates study of the antimicrobial protease lysostaphin. Biochem J. 2009;418:615-24 pubmed publisher
    We have developed a polypeptide lysostaphin FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) substrate (MV11F) for the endopeptidase activity of lysostaphin...
  39. KOKAI KUN J, Walsh S, Chanturiya T, Mond J. Lysostaphin cream eradicates Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization in a cotton rat model. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:1589-97 pubmed
    ..aureus nasal colonization, but resistance to this antibiotic is emerging. Lysostaphin is a glycylglycine endopeptidase which specifically cleaves the cross-linking pentaglycine bridges in the cell ..
  40. Graham S, Coote P. Potent, synergistic inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus upon exposure to a combination of the endopeptidase lysostaphin and the cationic peptide ranalexin. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2007;59:759-62 pubmed
    ..In this work, we have investigated the potential of combining lysostaphin with cationic antimicrobial peptides to effectively inhibit Staphylococcus aureus. S...
  41. Kusuma C, Jadanova A, Chanturiya T, KOKAI KUN J. Lysostaphin-resistant variants of Staphylococcus aureus demonstrate reduced fitness in vitro and in vivo. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:475-82 pubmed
    b>Lysostaphin is under development as a therapy for serious staphylococcal infections. During preclinical development, lysostaphin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus variants have occasionally been reported in vitro and in vivo...
  42. Gr ndling A, Missiakas D, Schneewind O. Staphylococcus aureus mutants with increased lysostaphin resistance. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:6286-97 pubmed publisher
    Staphylococcus simulans secretes lysostaphin, a bacteriolytic enzyme that specifically binds to the cell wall envelope of Staphylococcus aureus and cleaves the pentaglycine cross bridges of peptidoglycan, thereby killing staphylococci...
  43. Fan W, Plaut K, Bramley A, Barlow J, Kerr D. Adenoviral-mediated transfer of a lysostaphin gene into the goat mammary gland. J Dairy Sci. 2002;85:1709-16 pubmed
    ..an adenoviral-mediated gene transfer technique was used to enable mammary cells to synthesize and secrete lysostaphin, an anti-staphylococcal protein...
  44. von Eiff C, KOKAI KUN J, Becker K, Peters G. In vitro activity of recombinant lysostaphin against Staphylococcus aureus isolates from anterior nares and blood. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:3613-5 pubmed
    The in vitro activity of recombinant lysostaphin was tested against a collection of well-characterized clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates by disk diffusion (429 isolates) and minimum bactericidal concentration (10 isolates) assays...
  45. Yang G, Gao Y, Feng J, Huang Y, Li S, Liu Y, et al. C-terminus of TRAP in Staphylococcus can enhance the activity of lysozyme and lysostaphin. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2008;40:452-8 pubmed
    ..by surface plasmon resonance and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that TRAP can specifically bind lysozyme and lysostaphin through its C-terminus (amino acids 155-167) and enhance lysozomal activities in vitro...
  46. Walencka E, Sadowska B, Rozalska S, Hryniewicz W, Rozalska B. Staphylococcus aureus biofilm as a target for single or repeated doses of oxacillin, vancomycin, linezolid and/or lysostaphin. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2006;51:381-6 pubmed
    ..MIC) and biofilm inhibitory concentration (BIC) of oxacillin (Oxa), vancomycin (Van), linezolid (Lzd) and lysostaphin (Lss) as well as the possible synergistic effect of the antibiotics and lysostaphin were determined...
  47. Fedorov T, Surovtsev V, Pletnev V, Borozdina M, Gusev V. Purification and some properties of lysostaphin, a glycylglycine endopeptidase from the culture liquid of Staphylococcus simulans biovar staphylolyticus. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2003;68:50-3 pubmed
    This work presents a method for purification of lysostaphin, a glycylglycine endopeptidase, from the culture liquid of S. simulans biovar staphylolyticus to homogeneity in a few steps...
  48. Renzoni A, Huggler E, Kelley W, Lew D, Vaudaux P. Increased uptake and improved intracellular survival of a teicoplanin-resistant mutant of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in non-professional phagocytes. Chemotherapy. 2009;55:183-8 pubmed publisher
    ..and teicoplanin-susceptible strains by human embryonic kidney 293 cells was estimated by a lysostaphin protection assay. Differential intracellular survival of all S...
  49. Klein M, Kronke M, Krut O. Expression of lysostaphin in HeLa cells protects from host cell killing by intracellular Staphylococcus aureus. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2006;195:159-63 pubmed
    The Staphylococcus aureus-specific cell wall endopeptidase lysostaphin was used as a model for an intracellular acting bactericidal antibiotic...
  50. Zucol F, Ammann R, Berger C, Aebi C, Altwegg M, Niggli F, et al. Real-time quantitative broad-range PCR assay for detection of the 16S rRNA gene followed by sequencing for species identification. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:2750-9 pubmed
    ..DNA extraction protocol III, using lysozyme, lysostaphin, and proteinase K, followed by PCR with the primer pair Bak11W/Bak2, giving amplicons of 796 bp in length, ..
  51. Balibar C, Shen X, McGuire D, Yu D, McKenney D, Tao J. cwrA, a gene that specifically responds to cell wall damage in Staphylococcus aureus. Microbiology. 2010;156:1372-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, the gene was shown to be important for virulence in a mouse sepsis model of infection...
  52. Jonsson I, Juuti J, Francois P, AlMajidi R, Pietiäinen M, Girard M, et al. Inactivation of the Ecs ABC transporter of Staphylococcus aureus attenuates virulence by altering composition and function of bacterial wall. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14209 pubmed publisher
    ..Inactivation of Bacillus subtilis Ecs causes pleiotropic changes in the bacterial phenotype including inhibition of intramembrane proteolysis. The molecule(s) transported by Ecs is (are) still unknown...
  53. Shaw L, Golonka E, Szmyd G, Foster S, Travis J, Potempa J. Cytoplasmic control of premature activation of a secreted protease zymogen: deletion of staphostatin B (SspC) in Staphylococcus aureus 8325-4 yields a profound pleiotropic phenotype. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:1751-62 pubmed
    ..aureus phages, extensively diminished sensitivity to lysis by lysostaphin, the ability to form a biofilm, and a total lack of extracellular proteins secreted into the growth media...