Summary: Proteases which use a metal, normally ZINC, in the catalytic mechanism. This group of enzymes is inactivated by metal CHELATORS.

Top Publications

  1. Muir A, Greenspan D. Metalloproteinases in Drosophila to humans that are central players in developmental processes. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:41905-11 pubmed publisher
  2. Markland F, Swenson S. Snake venom metalloproteinases. Toxicon. 2013;62:3-18 pubmed publisher
    ..The "Met-turn" structure contains a conserved Met residue that forms a hydrophobic basement for the three zinc-binding histidines in the consensus sequence. ..
  3. Rucci N, Sanità P, Angelucci A. Roles of metalloproteases in metastatic niche. Curr Mol Med. 2011;11:609-22 pubmed
  4. Lenart A, Dudkiewicz M, Grynberg M, Pawłowski K. CLCAs - a family of metalloproteases of intriguing phylogenetic distribution and with cases of substituted catalytic sites. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62272 pubmed publisher
    The zinc-dependent metalloproteases with His-Glu-x-x-His (HExxH) active site motif, zincins, are a broad group of proteins involved in many metabolic and regulatory functions, and found in all forms of life...
  5. Biardi J, Coss R. Rock squirrel (Spermophilus variegatus) blood sera affects proteolytic and hemolytic activities of rattlesnake venoms. Toxicon. 2011;57:323-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that rock squirrels (S. variegatus) can defend against metalloproteases and other proteases after envenomation from at least two of five rattlesnake predators they might encounter...
  6. Lorente E, Garcia R, Mir C, Barriga A, Lemonnier F, Ramos M, et al. Role of metalloproteases in vaccinia virus epitope processing for transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP)-independent human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B7 class I antigen presentation. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:9990-10000 pubmed publisher
    ..These data may explain why TAP-deficient individuals live normal life spans without any increased susceptibility to viral infections...
  7. Nakjang S, Ndeh D, Wipat A, Bolam D, Hirt R. A novel extracellular metallopeptidase domain shared by animal host-associated mutualistic and pathogenic microbes. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30287 pubmed publisher
  8. Corps A, Robinson A, Harrall R, Avery N, Curry V, Hazleman B, et al. Changes in matrix protein biochemistry and the expression of mRNA encoding matrix proteins and metalloproteinases in posterior tibialis tendinopathy. Ann Rheum Dis. 2012;71:746-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the authors compared normal PTT, stage II dysfunctional PTT and replacement FDLT, aiming to define changes in collagen modification, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and the expression of matrix and metalloproteinase mRNA...
  9. Bothe M, Mundhenk L, Beck C, Kaup M, Gruber A. Impaired autoproteolytic cleavage of mCLCA6, a murine integral membrane protein expressed in enterocytes, leads to cleavage at the plasma membrane instead of the endoplasmic reticulum. Mol Cells. 2012;33:251-7 pubmed publisher
    ..They have been shown to modulate endogenous chloride conductance, possibly by acting as metalloproteases. Based on the differential processing of the subunits after posttranslational cleavage, two subgroups of CLCA ..

More Information


  1. Quirós P, Ramsay A, Sala D, Fernandez Vizarra E, Rodriguez F, Peinado J, et al. Loss of mitochondrial protease OMA1 alters processing of the GTPase OPA1 and causes obesity and defective thermogenesis in mice. EMBO J. 2012;31:2117-33 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides the first description of an unexpected role in energy metabolism for the metalloprotease OMA1 and reinforces the importance of mitochondrial quality control for normal metabolic function. ..
  2. Escalante T, Ortiz N, Rucavado A, Sanchez E, Richardson M, Fox J, et al. Role of collagens and perlecan in microvascular stability: exploring the mechanism of capillary vessel damage by snake venom metalloproteinases. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28017 pubmed publisher
    ..These results underscore the key role played by these ECM components in the mechanical stability of microvessels. ..
  3. Rokyta D, Lemmon A, Margres M, Aronow K. The venom-gland transcriptome of the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus). BMC Genomics. 2012;13:312 pubmed publisher
  4. Kang T, Georgieva D, Genov N, Murakami M, Sinha M, Kumar R, et al. Enzymatic toxins from snake venom: structural characterization and mechanism of catalysis. FEBS J. 2011;278:4544-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The structures of inhibitor-enzyme complexes provide ideal platforms for the design of potent inhibitors which are useful in the development of prototypes and lead compounds with potential therapeutic applications. ..
  5. Cillero Pastor B, Rego Pérez I, Oreiro N, Fernández Lopez C, Blanco F. Mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction modulates metalloproteases -1, -3 and -13 in human normal chondrocytes in culture. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2013;14:235 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we have investigated the relationship between the MRC dysfunction and the regulation of metalloproteases (MMPs) in human normal chondrocytes in culture...
  6. Mukherjee D, Tonry J, Kim K, Ramarao N, Popova T, Bailey C, et al. Bacillus anthracis protease InhA increases blood-brain barrier permeability and contributes to cerebral hemorrhages. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17921 pubmed publisher
    ..Cumulatively, these findings indicate that InhA contributes to BBB disruption associated with anthrax meningitis through proteolytic attack on the endothelial tight junctional protein zonula occluden (ZO)-1. ..
  7. Wagner R, Aigner H, Pruzinska A, Jänkänpää H, Jansson S, Funk C. Fitness analyses of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants depleted of FtsH metalloproteases and characterization of three FtsH6 deletion mutants exposed to high light stress, senescence and chilling. New Phytol. 2011;191:449-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, FtsH6 seems to be unimportant for LHCII degradation in vivo. ..
  8. van den Berg C, Gonçalves de Andrade R, Okamoto C, Tambourgi D. C5a receptor is cleaved by metalloproteases induced by sphingomyelinase D from Loxosceles spider venom. Immunobiology. 2012;217:935-41 pubmed publisher
  9. Casewell N, Wagstaff S, Harrison R, Renjifo C, Wüster W. Domain loss facilitates accelerated evolution and neofunctionalization of duplicate snake venom metalloproteinase toxin genes. Mol Biol Evol. 2011;28:2637-49 pubmed publisher
  10. Wu J, Chen X. Extracellular metalloproteases from bacteria. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;92:253-62 pubmed publisher
    Bacterial extracellular metalloproteases (BEMPs) are a large group of metal-containing proteases secreted by heterotrophic bacteria...
  11. Xu Q, Göhler A, Kosfeld A, Carlton D, Chiu H, Klock H, et al. The structure of Mlc titration factor A (MtfA/YeeI) reveals a prototypical zinc metallopeptidase related to anthrax lethal factor. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:2987-99 pubmed publisher
    ..These results clearly provide support for MtfA as a prototypical zinc metallopeptidase (gluzincin clan). ..
  12. Lee H, Jung E, Kang C, Yoon W, Kim J, Kim E. Scyphozoan jellyfish venom metalloproteinases and their role in the cytotoxicity. Toxicon. 2011;58:277-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the present report proposes a novel finding of Scyphozoan jellyfish venom metalloproteinases and their potential role in the cytotoxicity. ..
  13. Wojcik Stanaszek L, Sypecka J, Szymczak P, Ziemka Nalecz M, Khrestchatisky M, Rivera S, et al. The potential role of metalloproteinases in neurogenesis in the gerbil hippocampus following global forebrain ischemia. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22465 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the spatial and temporal profiles of MMPs activity suggest that these proteinases could be an important component in neurogenesis-associated processes in post-ischemic brain hippocampus. ..
  14. Formesyn E, Heyninck K, de Graaf D. The role of serine- and metalloproteases in Nasonia vitripennis venom in cell death related processes towards a Spodoptera frugiperda Sf21 cell line. J Insect Physiol. 2013;59:795-803 pubmed publisher
    ..Two protease families, serine proteases and metalloproteases were examined for their possible cytotoxic functions in the Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf21) cell line using ..
  15. Jefferson T, auf dem Keller U, Bellac C, Metz V, Broder C, Hedrich J, et al. The substrate degradome of meprin metalloproteases reveals an unexpected proteolytic link between meprin ? and ADAM10. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2013;70:309-33 pubmed publisher
    The in vivo roles of meprin metalloproteases in pathophysiological conditions remain elusive. Substrates define protease roles...
  16. Restituito S, Khatri L, Ninan I, Mathews P, Liu X, Weinberg R, et al. Synaptic autoregulation by metalloproteases and ?-secretase. J Neurosci. 2011;31:12083-93 pubmed publisher
    The proteolytic machinery comprising metalloproteases and ?-secretase, an intramembrane aspartyl protease involved in Alzheimer's disease, cleaves several substrates in addition to the extensively studied amyloid precursor protein...
  17. Miller M, Tam A, Cho J, Doherty T, Pham A, Khorram N, et al. ORMDL3 is an inducible lung epithelial gene regulating metalloproteases, chemokines, OAS, and ATF6. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:16648-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Transfection of ORMDL3 in human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro induced expression of metalloproteases (MMP-9, ADAM-8), CC chemokines (CCL-20), CXC chemokines (IL-8, CXCL-10, CXCL-11), oligoadenylate synthetases (..
  18. Biardi J, Nguyen K, Lander S, Whitley M, Nambiar K. A rapid and sensitive fluorometric method for the quantitative analysis of snake venom metalloproteases and their inhibitors. Toxicon. 2011;57:342-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Metalloproteases are responsible for the hemorrhagic effects of many snake venoms and contribute to other pathways that lead to local tissue damage...
  19. Yurtsever Z, Sala Rabanal M, Randolph D, Scheaffer S, Roswit W, Alevy Y, et al. Self-cleavage of human CLCA1 protein by a novel internal metalloprotease domain controls calcium-activated chloride channel activation. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:42138-49 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide both a mechanistic basis for CLCA1 self-cleavage and a novel mechanism for regulation of chloride channel activity specific to the mucosal interface. ..
  20. Bothe M, Mundhenk L, Kaup M, Weise C, Gruber A. The murine goblet cell protein mCLCA3 is a zinc-dependent metalloprotease with autoproteolytic activity. Mol Cells. 2011;32:535-41 pubmed publisher
    ..a conserved HEXXH zinc-binding amino acid motif has been identified, suggesting a role for CLCA proteins as metalloproteases. Here, we have characterized the cleavage and autoproteolytic activity of the murine model protein mCLCA3, ..
  21. Barnard A, Nijhof A, Gaspar A, Neitz A, Jongejan F, Maritz Olivier C. Expression profiling, gene silencing and transcriptional networking of metzincin metalloproteases in the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Vet Parasitol. 2012;186:403-14 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we identified metzincin metalloproteases from Rhipicephalus microplus as potential vaccine candidates since they are implicated as essential to blood-..
  22. FERNANDEZ J, Alape Girón A, Angulo Y, Sanz L, Gutierrez J, Calvete J, et al. Venomic and antivenomic analyses of the Central American coral snake, Micrurus nigrocinctus (Elapidae). J Proteome Res. 2011;10:1816-27 pubmed publisher
    ..nigrocinctus equine antivenom revealed differences in immunorecognition of venom proteins that correlate with their molecular mass, with the weakest recognition observed toward 3FTxs...
  23. Del Buono A, Oliva F, Longo U, Rodeo S, Orchard J, Denaro V, et al. Metalloproteases and rotator cuff disease. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2012;21:200-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are needed to better define the mechanism of action, and whether these new strategies are safe and effective in larger models. ..
  24. Ortiz E, Rendón Anaya M, Rego S, Schwartz E, Possani L. Antarease-like Zn-metalloproteases are ubiquitous in the venom of different scorpion genera. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1840:1738-46 pubmed publisher
    ..A structural model was constructed to assess the functionality of the putative metalloproteases. A phylogenetic analysis was performed to identify clustering patterns of these venom components...
  25. Bernardes C, Menaldo D, Camacho E, Rosa J, Escalante T, Rucavado A, et al. Proteomic analysis of Bothrops pirajai snake venom and characterization of BpirMP, a new P-I metalloproteinase. J Proteomics. 2013;80:250-67 pubmed publisher
  26. Pacheco Quinto J, Herdt A, Eckman C, Eckman E. Endothelin-converting enzymes and related metalloproteases in Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2013;33 Suppl 1:S101-10 pubmed
  27. Trevisan Silva D, Gremski L, Chaim O, da Silveira R, Meissner G, Mangili O, et al. Astacin-like metalloproteases are a gene family of toxins present in the venom of different species of the brown spider (genus Loxosceles). Biochimie. 2010;92:21-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, mRNAs extracted from L. laeta and L. gaucho venom glands were screened for astacin-like metalloproteases, and cDNAs obtained using LALP1-specific primers were sequenced, and their deduced amino acid sequences ..
  28. Antúnez K, Anido M, Schlapp G, Evans J, Zunino P. Characterization of secreted proteases of Paenibacillus larvae, potential virulence factors involved in honeybee larval infection. J Invertebr Pathol. 2009;102:129-32 pubmed publisher
    ..larvae. Inhibition assays confirmed the presence of metalloproteases. Two different proteases patterns (PP1 and PP2) were identified in a collection of P...
  29. Tonello F, Montecucco C. The anthrax lethal factor and its MAPK kinase-specific metalloprotease activity. Mol Aspects Med. 2009;30:431-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A significant similarity between the metalloprotease domain of the lethal factor and of that of the clostridial neurotoxins has been noted and is discussed. ..
  30. Kato Y, Miura E, Ido K, Ifuku K, Sakamoto W. The variegated mutants lacking chloroplastic FtsHs are defective in D1 degradation and accumulate reactive oxygen species. Plant Physiol. 2009;151:1790-801 pubmed publisher
    ..Attenuated D1 degradation in the nonvariegated mutants also suggests that leaf variegation seems to be independent of the PSII repair. ..
  31. Jeyaraju D, Cisbani G, De Brito O, Koonin E, Pellegrini L. Hax1 lacks BH modules and is peripherally associated to heavy membranes: implications for Omi/HtrA2 and PARL activity in the regulation of mitochondrial stress and apoptosis. Cell Death Differ. 2009;16:1622-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate a different function and mechanism of Hax1 in apoptosis and re-opens the question of whether mammalian PARL, in addition to apoptosis, regulates mitochondrial stress response through Omi/HtrA2 processing. ..
  32. Kulkarni M, Olson C, Engman D, McGwire B. Trypanosoma cruzi GP63 proteins undergo stage-specific differential posttranslational modification and are important for host cell infection. Infect Immun. 2009;77:2193-200 pubmed publisher
    The protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi expresses multiple isoforms of the GP63 family of metalloproteases. Polyclonal antiserum against recombinant GP63 of T. cruzi (TcGP63) was used to study TcGP63 expression and localization in this organism...
  33. Leonardi A, Sathe S, Bortolotti M, Beaton A, Sack R. Cytokines, matrix metalloproteases, angiogenic and growth factors in tears of normal subjects and vernal keratoconjunctivitis patients. Allergy. 2009;64:710-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To detect the presence of multiple mediators and growth factors in tears of vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) patients with active disease using stationary phase antibody arrays...
  34. Jin S, Lazarou M, Wang C, Kane L, Narendra D, Youle R. Mitochondrial membrane potential regulates PINK1 import and proteolytic destabilization by PARL. J Cell Biol. 2010;191:933-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, differential localization to the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes appears to regulate PINK1 stability and function. ..
  35. Spencer J, Murphy L, Conners R, Sessions R, Gamblin S. Crystal structure of the LasA virulence factor from Pseudomonas aeruginosa: substrate specificity and mechanism of M23 metallopeptidases. J Mol Biol. 2010;396:908-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results highlight how LasA is a structurally distinct member of this endopeptidase family, consistent with its activity against a wider range of substrates and with its multiple roles in Pseudomonas virulence...
  36. Sanchez Ramos C, Vega J, del Valle M, Fernandez Balbuena A, Bonnin Arias C, Benitez del Castillo J. Role of metalloproteases in retinal degeneration induced by violet and blue light. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010;664:159-64 pubmed publisher
    An essential role for metalloproteases (MMPs) has been described in blood vessel neoformation and the removal of cell debris. MMPs also play a key role in degenerative processes and in tumors...
  37. Gonzalez L, Corte M, Junquera S, González Fernández R, del Casar J, Garcia C, et al. Expression and prognostic significance of metalloproteases and their inhibitors in luminal A and basal-like phenotypes of breast carcinoma. Hum Pathol. 2009;40:1224-33 pubmed publisher
    To analyze the expression and prognostic value of matrix metalloproteases and their tissue inhibitors in luminal A and basal-like breast carcinomas, an immunohistochemical study was performed on cancer specimens from 93 randomly selected ..
  38. Singh B, Schneider M, Knyazev P, Ullrich A. UV-induced EGFR signal transactivation is dependent on proligand shedding by activated metalloproteases in skin cancer cell lines. Int J Cancer. 2009;124:531-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Using RNAi this EGFR activation was further shown to depend on the metalloproteases ADAM9 and ADAM17 in SCC-9 cells...
  39. Tavares N, Correia J, Guarnieri M, Lima Filho J, Prieto da Silva A, Radis Baptista G. Expression of mRNAs coding for VAP1/crotastatin-like metalloproteases in the venom glands of three South American pit vipers assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. Toxicon. 2008;52:897-907 pubmed publisher
    Snake venom metalloproteases encompass a large family of toxins, with approximately 200 members already catalogued, which exhibit a diversity of structures and biological functions...
  40. Sun Q, Bao J. Purification, cloning and characterization of a metalloproteinase from Naja atra venom. Toxicon. 2010;56:1459-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Complement components factor B and C6 are major targets for atrase B to cleave. Atrase B is the first identified SVMP that cleaves complement components factor B, C6, C7, and C8. ..
  41. Witters L, Scherle P, Friedman S, Fridman J, Caulder E, Newton R, et al. Synergistic inhibition with a dual epidermal growth factor receptor/HER-2/neu tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a disintegrin and metalloprotease inhibitor. Cancer Res. 2008;68:7083-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that there may be an additional clinical benefit of combining agents that target the ErbB pathways at multiple points. ..
  42. Bergin D, Greene C, Sterchi E, Kenna C, Geraghty P, Belaaouaj A, et al. Activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by a novel metalloprotease pathway. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:31736-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The data describe a previously unidentified lung metalloprotease meprin alpha, and its role in NE-induced EGFR and TLR4 activation and IL-8 production. ..
  43. Sanchez E, Schneider F, Yarleque A, Borges M, Richardson M, Figueiredo S, et al. The novel metalloproteinase atroxlysin-I from Peruvian Bothrops atrox (Jergón) snake venom acts both on blood vessel ECM and platelets. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010;496:9-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Complementarily, the laminin and collagen binding integrins alpha7beta1 and alpha1beta1 were cleaved by atroxlysin. Even without catalytic activity atroxlysin-I inhibited collagen- and ADP-triggered platelet aggregation. ..
  44. Newby A. Metalloproteinase expression in monocytes and macrophages and its relationship to atherosclerotic plaque instability. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008;28:2108-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, recent evidence suggests that different macrophage phenotypes express characteristically different spectra of MMPs and their inhibitors. New therapies may result from targeting matrix MMP overproduction. ..
  45. Kastrup C, Boedicker J, Pomerantsev A, Moayeri M, Bian Y, Pompano R, et al. Spatial localization of bacteria controls coagulation of human blood by 'quorum acting'. Nat Chem Biol. 2008;4:742-50 pubmed
    ..We refer to this mechanism as 'quorum acting' to distinguish it from quorum sensing--it does not require a change in gene expression, it can be rapid and it can be independent of bacterium-to-bacterium communication. ..
  46. Margulis A, Nocka K, Brennan A, Deng B, Fleming M, Goldman S, et al. Mast cell-dependent contraction of human airway smooth muscle cell-containing collagen gels: influence of cytokines, matrix metalloproteases, and serine proteases. J Immunol. 2009;183:1739-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Hypercontractility is a hallmark of smooth muscle cells in the asthmatic lung. Our findings define novel mechanisms whereby mast cells may modulate HASM-driven contractile responses. ..
  47. Zychar B, Dale C, Demarchi D, Gonçalves L. Contribution of metalloproteases, serine proteases and phospholipases A2 to the inflammatory reaction induced by Bothrops jararaca crude venom in mice. Toxicon. 2010;55:227-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Notwithstanding, the relative participation of serine proteases, metalloproteases and phospholipases A(2) in the inflammatory reaction produced by crude Bothrops venoms is poorly understood...
  48. Stepek G, McCormack G, Page A. Collagen processing and cuticle formation is catalysed by the astacin metalloprotease DPY-31 in free-living and parasitic nematodes. Int J Parasitol. 2010;40:533-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the recombinant DPY-31 enzymes from both H. contortus and B. malayi were shown to efficiently process the C. elegans cuticle collagen SQT-3 at the correct C-terminal procollagen processing site. ..
  49. Guan H, Goh K, Davamani F, Wu P, Huang Y, Jeyakanthan J, et al. Structures of two elapid snake venom metalloproteases with distinct activities highlight the disulfide patterns in the D domain of ADAMalysin family proteins. J Struct Biol. 2010;169:294-303 pubmed publisher
    The structures of snake venom metalloproteases (SVMPs) are proposed to be useful models to understand the structural and functional relationship of ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) which are membrane-anchored proteins involved in ..
  50. Oliveira A, Paes Leme A, Asega A, Camargo A, Fox J, Serrano S. New insights into the structural elements involved in the skin haemorrhage induced by snake venom metalloproteinases. Thromb Haemost. 2010;104:485-97 pubmed publisher
  51. Gonzalez L, Gonzalez Reyes S, Junquera S, Marin L, Gonzalez L, del Casar J, et al. Expression of metalloproteases and their inhibitors by tumor and stromal cells in ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast and their relationship with microinvasive events. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2010;136:1313-21 pubmed publisher
    This study aimed to investigate the expression of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (TIMPs) in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)...
  52. Park J, Pan J, Möhrlen F, Schupp M, Johnsen R, Baillie D, et al. Characterization of the astacin family of metalloproteases in C. elegans. BMC Dev Biol. 2010;10:14 pubmed publisher
    Astacins are a large family of zinc metalloproteases found in bacteria and animals. They have diverse roles ranging from digestion of food to processing of extracellular matrix components. The C...
  53. Ehses S, Raschke I, Mancuso G, Bernacchia A, Geimer S, Tondera D, et al. Regulation of OPA1 processing and mitochondrial fusion by m-AAA protease isoenzymes and OMA1. J Cell Biol. 2009;187:1023-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings link distinct peptidases to constitutive and induced OPA1 processing and shed new light on the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders associated with mutations in m-AAA protease subunits. ..
  54. Mackessy S. Evolutionary trends in venom composition in the western rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis sensu lato): toxicity vs. tenderizers. Toxicon. 2010;55:1463-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The functional significance of these biochemical characteristics likely relates to characteristics of prey consumed, and venoms with low metalloproteinase activity may constrain snake prey selection or foraging activity patterns. ..
  55. Civitarese A, MacLean P, Carling S, Kerr Bayles L, McMillan R, Pierce A, et al. Regulation of skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and insulin signaling by the mitochondrial rhomboid protease PARL. Cell Metab. 2010;11:412-26 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that lower PARL expression may contribute to the mitochondrial abnormalities seen in aging and T2DM. ..
  56. Chung M, Jorgensen S, Popova T, Tonry J, Bailey C, Popov S. Activation of plasminogen activator inhibitor implicates protease InhA in the acute-phase response to Bacillus anthracis infection. J Med Microbiol. 2009;58:737-44 pubmed publisher
  57. Pidde Queiroz G, Furtado M, Filgueiras C, Pessoa L, Spadafora Ferreira M, van den Berg C, et al. Human complement activation and anaphylatoxins generation induced by snake venom toxins from Bothrops genus. Mol Immunol. 2010;47:2537-44 pubmed publisher
  58. Mac Sweeney A, Gil Parrado S, Vinzenz D, Bernardi A, Hein A, Bodendorf U, et al. Structural basis for the substrate specificity of bone morphogenetic protein 1/tolloid-like metalloproteases. J Mol Biol. 2008;384:228-39 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of these substantial differences between the BMP-1 and astacin active sites, a structural basis for their differing substrate specificities is proposed. ..
  59. Pruteanu M, Hyland N, Clarke D, Kiely B, Shanahan F. Degradation of the extracellular matrix components by bacterial-derived metalloproteases: implications for inflammatory bowel diseases. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2011;17:1189-200 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the genes encoding metalloproteases were detected by conventional or real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
  60. Tallant C, García Castellanos R, Baumann U, Gomis Ruth F. On the relevance of the Met-turn methionine in metzincins. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:13951-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Replacement of the methionine with residues that deviate in size, side-chain conformation, and chemical properties impairs the plug-core interaction and prejudices molecular stability and activity. ..
  61. Paes Leme A, Escalante T, Pereira J, Oliveira A, Sanchez E, Gutierrez J, et al. High resolution analysis of snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP) peptide bond cleavage specificity using proteome based peptide libraries and mass spectrometry. J Proteomics. 2011;74:401-10 pubmed publisher
  62. Guillemet E, Cadot C, Tran S, Guinebreti re M, Lereclus D, Ramarao N. The InhA metalloproteases of Bacillus cereus contribute concomitantly to virulence. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:286-94 pubmed publisher
    ..To study this aspect of pathogenesis, we focused on three metalloproteases, InhA1, InhA2, and InhA3, which share more than 66% identity...
  63. Wallnoefer H, Lingott T, Gutierrez J, Merfort I, Liedl K. Backbone flexibility controls the activity and specificity of a protein-protein interface: specificity in snake venom metalloproteases. J Am Chem Soc. 2010;132:10330-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A perfect paradigm to study such multispecific protein-protein interfaces are snake venom metalloproteases (SVMPs)...