muramoylpentapeptide carboxypeptidase


Summary: Enzyme which catalyzes the peptide cross-linking of nascent CELL WALL; PEPTIDOGLYCAN.

Top Publications

  1. Reichmann P, K Nig A, Marton A, Hakenbeck R. Penicillin-binding proteins as resistance determinants in clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Microb Drug Resist. 1996;2:177-81 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, high-level cefotaxime resistance appeared to be due to a low affinity PBP2a, indicating that this PBP can also function as a resistance determinant...
  2. Bowler L, Zhang Q, Riou J, Spratt B. Interspecies recombination between the penA genes of Neisseria meningitidis and commensal Neisseria species during the emergence of penicillin resistance in N. meningitidis: natural events and laboratory simulation. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:333-7 pubmed
    ..cinerea in N. meningitidis K196 contained an extra codon (Asp-345A) which was not found in any of the four N. cinerea isolates that we examined and which is known to result in a decrease in the affinity of PBP 2 in gonococci...
  3. Grebe T, Hakenbeck R. Penicillin-binding proteins 2b and 2x of Streptococcus pneumoniae are primary resistance determinants for different classes of beta-lactam antibiotics. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1996;40:829-34 pubmed
    ..The mutated PBP 2b also markedly reduced the lytic response to piperacillin, suggesting that such a mutation is an important step in resistance development in clinical isolates. ..
  4. Hakenbeck R, Grebe T, Zahner D, Stock J. beta-lactam resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae: penicillin-binding proteins and non-penicillin-binding proteins. Mol Microbiol. 1999;33:673-8 pubmed
  5. Spratt B, Zhang Q, Jones D, Hutchison A, Brannigan J, Dowson C. Recruitment of a penicillin-binding protein gene from Neisseria flavescens during the emergence of penicillin resistance in Neisseria meningitidis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:8988-92 pubmed
    ..flavescens, or a very similar commensal Neisseria species, appears to have occurred independently during the development of altered penA genes in non-beta-lactamase-producing penicillin-resistant strains of N. gonorrhoeae...
  6. Mendelman P, Campos J, Chaffin D, Serfass D, Smith A, Saez Nieto J. Relative penicillin G resistance in Neisseria meningitidis and reduced affinity of penicillin-binding protein 3. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1988;32:706-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the mechanism of resistance in these meningococci relatively resistant to penicillin G was decreased affinity of PBP 3. ..
  7. Arreaza L, Alcalá B, Salcedo C, De La Fuente L, Vazquez J. Dynamics of the penA gene in serogroup C meningococcal strains. J Infect Dis. 2003;187:1010-4 pubmed
    ..A different mosaic penA allele was identified in the Pen(i) C:2a strains, which belonged to the ET37 cluster. ..
  8. Nilsen T, Ghosh A, Goldberg M, Young K. Branching sites and morphological abnormalities behave as ectopic poles in shape-defective Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2004;52:1045-54 pubmed
    ..Such mutants may help to unravel how particular proteins are targeted to bacterial poles, thereby creating important biochemical and functional asymmetries. ..
  9. Pinar A, Koseoglu O, Yenisehirli G, Sener B. Molecular epidemiology of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in a university hospital, Ankara, Turkey. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2004;10:718-23 pubmed
    ..pneumoniae and viridans group streptococci may have occurred. ..

More Information

Publications115 found, 100 shown here

  1. Vinella D, Joseleau Petit D, Thevenet D, Bouloc P, D Ari R. Penicillin-binding protein 2 inactivation in Escherichia coli results in cell division inhibition, which is relieved by FtsZ overexpression. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:6704-10 pubmed
    ..These results lead us to hypothesize that the nucleotide ppGpp activates ftsZ expression and thus couples cell division to protein synthesis. ..
  2. Severin A, Figueiredo A, Tomasz A. Separation of abnormal cell wall composition from penicillin resistance through genetic transformation of Streptococcus pneumoniae. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:1788-92 pubmed
  3. Nagai K, Matsuo Y, Tsumura N, Sakata Y, Kato H. Antimicrobial susceptibilities and serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae in southwestern Japan and correlation of penicillin-binding protein 2b and 2x mutations in susceptibilities of penicillin G and cefotaxime. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2000;37:107-13 pubmed
    ..3%) cefotaxime-susceptible strains. These results suggest that possible resistance mechanisms may occur even in drug susceptible strains and that drug susceptibility survey should be updated carefully in Japan. ..
  4. Finan J, Archer G, Pucci M, Climo M. Role of penicillin-binding protein 4 in expression of vancomycin resistance among clinical isolates of oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001;45:3070-5 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that alterations in PBP4 expression are at least partially responsible for the VISA phenotype. ..
  5. du Plessis M, Bingen E, Klugman K. Analysis of penicillin-binding protein genes of clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae with reduced susceptibility to amoxicillin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002;46:2349-57 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, an additional (as yet unidentified) non-PBP-mediated resistance determinant is required for full resistance development in some pneumococci. ..
  6. Vela M, Fonseca N, Di Fabio J, Castaneda E. Presence of international multiresistant clones of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Colombia. Microb Drug Resist. 2001;7:153-64 pubmed
    ..Additionally, some Colombian isolates capsular type 14 and 6B might be related to Slovakia(14)-10 Spain6B-2 clones, respectively. ..
  7. Overweg K, Bogaert D, Sluijter M, de Groot R, Hermans P. Molecular characteristics of penicillin-binding protein genes of penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated in the Netherlands. Microb Drug Resist. 2001;7:323-34 pubmed
    ..Finally, novel mosaic structures were identified indicating horizontal exchange of pbp gene parts among penicillin-nonsusceptible pneumococci. ..
  8. Hiramatsu K, Katayama Y, Yuzawa H, Ito T. Molecular genetics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Int J Med Microbiol. 2002;292:67-74 pubmed
    ..Community-acquired MRSA (C-MRSA), may become a new threat to humans, and international cooperation of researchers and clinicians will be of cardinal importance in addressing this problem. ..
  9. García Castellanos R, Mallorquí Fernández G, Marrero A, Potempa J, Coll M, Gomis Ruth F. On the transcriptional regulation of methicillin resistance: MecI repressor in complex with its operator. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:17888-96 pubmed
    ..The structure of this first molecular determinant of methicillin resistance in complex with its target DNA provides insights into its regulatory mechanism and paves the way for new antimicrobial strategies against MRSA. ..
  10. Rice L, Bellais S, Carias L, Hutton Thomas R, Bonomo R, Caspers P, et al. Impact of specific pbp5 mutations on expression of beta-lactam resistance in Enterococcus faecium. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48:3028-32 pubmed
    ..Affinity for penicillin generally correlated with beta-lactam MICs for the mutants, but these associations were not strictly proportional. ..
  11. Nicholas R, Lamson D, Schultz D. Penicillin-binding protein 1B from Escherichia coli contains a membrane association site in addition to its transmembrane anchor. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:5632-41 pubmed
    ..These results strongly suggest that the periplasmic domain of PBP 1B associates with membranes independent of its amino terminal transmembrane region. ..
  12. Pares S, Mouz N, P tillot Y, Hakenbeck R, Dideberg O. X-ray structure of Streptococcus pneumoniae PBP2x, a primary penicillin target enzyme. Nat Struct Biol. 1996;3:284-9 pubmed
    ..5 A resolution. The molecule has three domains, the central domain being a transpeptidase, which is a suitable target for antibiotic development...
  13. Chambers H. Methicillin resistance in staphylococci: molecular and biochemical basis and clinical implications. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1997;10:781-91 pubmed
    ..Investigational agents that bind PBP 2a at low concentrations appear promising but have not been tested in humans. Alternatives to vancomycin are few due to the multiple drug resistances typical of methicillin-resistant staphylococci. ..
  14. Tan T. A comparison of PCR detection of mecA with two standard methods of oxacillin disk susceptibility testing for coagulase-negative staphylococci. J Med Microbiol. 2002;51:83-5 pubmed
    ..In this study, the clinical utility of mecA detection in CNS for the determination of methicillin resistance appears to be limited. ..
  15. Weiss D, Pogliano K, Carson M, Guzman L, Fraipont C, Nguyen Distèche M, et al. Localization of the Escherichia coli cell division protein Ftsl (PBP3) to the division site and cell pole. Mol Microbiol. 1997;25:671-81 pubmed
  16. Monsen T, Abd H, Leonardsson K, Edebro H, Wiström J. Prediction of mecA-positive coagulase-negative staphylococci: assessment of different phenotypic methods, breakpoints, culture media and culture conditions. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2002;49:197-200 pubmed
    ..5 mg/L or < or = 17 mm for the disc test, after incubation at 35 degrees C for 24 h on MH-NaCl agar. The sensitivity decreased for breakpoints > or = 1 mg/L and when PDM-blood agar was used instead of MH-NaCl agar. ..
  17. Jamieson C, Lambert P, Simpson I. In vitro and in vivo activities of AM-112, a novel oxapenem. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:1652-7 pubmed
    ..pneumoniae SHV-5 was reduced from >100 and 160 mg/kg of body weight to 2 and 33.6 mg/kg, respectively, when it was combined with AM-112 at a 1:1 ratio. AM-112 demonstrates potential as a new beta-lactamase inhibitor. ..
  18. Bean D, Ikram R, Klena J. Molecular characterization of penicillin non-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae in Christchurch, New Zealand. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2004;54:122-9 pubmed
    ..12 mg/L). This study shows that several distinct penicillin-resistant pneumococcal clones are present in the Christchurch community, most of which appear to have been imported into New Zealand. ..
  19. Hoskins J, Matsushima P, Mullen D, Tang J, Zhao G, Meier T, et al. Gene disruption studies of penicillin-binding proteins 1a, 1b, and 2a in Streptococcus pneumoniae. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:6552-5 pubmed
    ..These results also suggest that PBP2a is a functional transglycosylase in S. pneumoniae...
  20. Hebeisen P, Heinze Krauss I, Angehrn P, Hohl P, Page M, Then R. In vitro and in vivo properties of Ro 63-9141, a novel broad-spectrum cephalosporin with activity against methicillin-resistant staphylococci. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001;45:825-36 pubmed
    ..Since insufficient solubility of Ro 63-9141 itself precludes parenteral administration in humans, a water-soluble prodrug, Ro 65-5788, is considered for development. ..
  21. McEllistrem M, Adams J, Mason E, Wald E. Epidemiology of acute otitis media caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae before and after licensure of the 7-valent pneumococcal protein conjugate vaccine. J Infect Dis. 2003;188:1679-84 pubmed
    ..In 1999 and 2001, 30.8% (4/13) and 26.1% (6/23) of the nonvaccine serogroups were implicated in capsular switching, respectively. Continued surveillance will be of great importance as the distribution of the PNC7 vaccine increases. ..
  22. Ruzin A, Singh G, Severin A, Yang Y, Dushin R, Sutherland A, et al. Mechanism of action of the mannopeptimycins, a novel class of glycopeptide antibiotics active against vancomycin-resistant gram-positive bacteria. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48:728-38 pubmed
    ..In addition, it was shown that mannopeptimycins bind to lipoteichoic acid in a rather nonspecific interaction, which might facilitate the accumulation of antibiotic on the bacterial cell surface. ..
  23. Kurz M, Guba W, Vertesy L. Three-dimensional structure of moenomycin A--a potent inhibitor of penicillin-binding protein 1b. Eur J Biochem. 1998;252:500-7 pubmed
    ..1993) Transglycosylase inhibition, in Antibiotics and antiviral compounds--Chemical synthesis and modifications (Krohn, K., Kirst, H. A. & Maag, H., eds) pp. 373-378, VCH Weinheim]. ..
  24. Song J, Yang J, Jin J, Kim S, Kim C, Lee H, et al. Molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in Korea. The Asian Network for Surveillance of Resistant Pathogens (ANSORP) Study Group. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:1641-4 pubmed
    ..8%) and amino acids (3.0 to 4. 3%), while Asn-276-->Lys, Arg-285-->Cys and Ser-305-->Phe substitutions were unique to Korean MDR strains, suggesting the spread of a few epidemic clones of resistant pneumococci within Korea. ..
  25. Felten A, Grandry B, Lagrange P, Casin I. Evaluation of three techniques for detection of low-level methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): a disk diffusion method with cefoxitin and moxalactam, the Vitek 2 system, and the MRSA-screen latex agglutination test. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:2766-71 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the cefoxitin and moxalactam disk diffusion methods were the best-performing tests for routine detection of all classes of MRSA. ..
  26. Miyamoto H, Imamura K, Kojima A, Takenaka H, Hara N, Ikenouchi A, et al. Survey of nasal colonization by, and assessment of a novel multiplex PCR method for detection of biofilm-forming methicillin-resistant staphylococci in healthy medical students. J Hosp Infect. 2003;53:215-23 pubmed
  27. Hu Y, Helm J, Chen L, Ye X, Walker S. Ramoplanin inhibits bacterial transglycosylases by binding as a dimer to lipid II. J Am Chem Soc. 2003;125:8736-7 pubmed
    ..We show that Lipid II binding is coupled to the formation of a higher order species, which may explain the tight binding. We also present a testable model for the binding-competent dimeric conformation of ramoplanin. ..
  28. Arbeloa A, Segal H, Hugonnet J, Josseaume N, Dubost L, Brouard J, et al. Role of class A penicillin-binding proteins in PBP5-mediated beta-lactam resistance in Enterococcus faecalis. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:1221-8 pubmed
    ..The latter enzyme was not inhibited by moenomycin, since deletion of the three class A PBP genes led to high-level resistance to this glycosyltransferase inhibitor. ..
  29. Fusetti F, Dijkstra B. Purification and light-scattering analysis of penicillin-binding protein 4 from Escherichia coli. Microb Drug Resist. 1996;2:73-6 pubmed
    ..Only by addition of EDTA, PEG 4000, and ammonium sulfate is the molecular mass about 110 kDa. ..
  30. Tanoue S. Clinical and laboratory evaluation of penicillin resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in relation to the mutations of pbp 1a, pbp2b and pbp2x. Kurume Med J. 2001;48:1-8 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it might be possible to presume exact values of MICs of beta-lactams against resistant strains of S. pneumoniae by detecting still unknown genes other than pbps. ..
  31. Jeong J, Chang C, Park T, Lee S, Kim S, Jeong S. Early Screening of oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis from blood culture. J Korean Med Sci. 2002;17:168-72 pubmed
    ..1% of 38 strains. The Staphy agar method is reliable and rapid for differentiating Gram-positive cocci in clusters in blood and for determining their methicillin resistance. ..
  32. Chen J, Beckwith J. FtsQ, FtsL and FtsI require FtsK, but not FtsN, for co-localization with FtsZ during Escherichia coli cell division. Mol Microbiol. 2001;42:395-413 pubmed
    ..coli cell division proteins assemble sequentially as a multimeric complex at the division site: first FtsZ, then FtsA and ZipA independently of each other, followed successively by FtsK, FtsQ, FtsL, FtsW, FtsI and FtsN. ..
  33. Kearns A, Graham C, Burdess D, Heatherington J, Freeman R. Rapid real-time PCR for determination of penicillin susceptibility in pneumococcal meningitis, including culture-negative cases. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:682-4 pubmed
    ..pneumoniae was detected in all instances. Real-time PCR proved more sensitive than culture, microscopy, or antigen detection and provided susceptibility data even in culture-negative cases. ..
  34. Fuda C, Suvorov M, Vakulenko S, Mobashery S. The basis for resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics by penicillin-binding protein 2a of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:40802-6 pubmed
    ..The observed conformational changes are likely to be a hallmark for how this enzyme carries out its catalytic function in cross-linking the bacterial cell wall. ..
  35. Lu W, Sun Y, Bauer M, Paule S, Koenigs P, Kraft W. Penicillin-binding protein 2a from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: kinetic characterization of its interactions with beta-lactams using electrospray mass spectrometry. Biochemistry. 1999;38:6537-46 pubmed
    ..The 100-fold increase in the k2/Kd value as compared with that of benzylpenicillin is mostly attributable to the decreased (60-fold) Kd, indicating that the cephalosporin fits much better to the binding pocket of the protein. ..
  36. Komatsuzawa H, Choi G, Ohta K, Sugai M, Tran M, Suginaka H. Cloning and characterization of a gene, pbpF, encoding a new penicillin-binding protein, PBP2B, in Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1999;43:1578-83 pubmed
    ..These results suggest the presence of PBP2B in S. aureus cell membrane that covalently binds penicillin. The internal region of pbpF and PBP2B protein were found in all 12 S. aureus strains tested by PCR and immunoblotting. ..
  37. Billman Jacobe H, Haites R, Coppel R. Characterization of a Mycobacterium smegmatis mutant lacking penicillin binding protein 1. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1999;43:3011-3 pubmed
    ..Transposon disruption of ponA in M. smegmatis resulted in a PBP1-deficient mutant that was sensitive to beta-lactam antibiotics, was more permeable to glycine, and grew slowly in liquid culture. ..
  38. Reynolds P, Ambur O, Casadewall B, Courvalin P. The VanY(D) DD-carboxypeptidase of Enterococcus faecium BM4339 is a penicillin-binding protein. Microbiology. 2001;147:2571-8 pubmed
    ..A model to explain these contrasting observations is proposed. ..
  39. Varma A, Young K. FtsZ collaborates with penicillin binding proteins to generate bacterial cell shape in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:6768-74 pubmed
  40. Lim D, Strynadka N. Structural basis for the beta lactam resistance of PBP2a from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Nat Struct Biol. 2002;9:870-6 pubmed
    ..An analysis of the PBP2a active site in these forms reveals the structural basis of its resistance and identifies features in newly developed beta-lactams that are likely important for high affinity binding. ..
  41. Gosbell I, Neville S, Mercer J, Fernandes L, Fernandes C. Detection of intrinsic oxacillin resistance in non-multiresistant, oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (NORSA). J Antimicrob Chemother. 2003;51:468-70 pubmed
  42. Ghoshal U, Prasad K, Singh M, Tiwari D, Ayyagari A. A comparative evaluation of phenotypic and molecular methods for the detection of oxacillin resistance in coagulase-negative staphylococci. J Infect Chemother. 2004;10:86-9 pubmed
    ..The present study concludes that inducible oxacillin resistance and beta-lactamase hyperproduction are the major causes of discordant results between phenotypic methods and mecA-based PCR, and need special attention. ..
  43. Davies C, White S, Nicholas R. Crystal structure of a deacylation-defective mutant of penicillin-binding protein 5 at 2.3-A resolution. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:616-23 pubmed
    ..This similarity may explain the high beta-lactamase activity of wild-type PBP 5. Because of the low rate of deacylation of the G105D mutant, visualization of peptide substrates bound to the active site may be possible. ..
  44. Mougeot C, Guillaumat Tailliet J, Libert J. [Staphylococcus aureus: new detection of intrinsic resistance using the diffusion method]. Pathol Biol (Paris). 2001;49:199-204 pubmed
    ..In our series of strains, this new method proved to widely improve both the sensitivity and the susceptibility for the detection of methicillin-resistance by diffusion on the antibiogram. ..
  45. Ueda Y, Sunagawa M. In vitro and in vivo activities of novel 2-(thiazol-2-ylthio)-1beta-methylcarbapenems with potent activities against multiresistant gram-positive bacteria. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:2471-80 pubmed
  46. Syrogiannopoulos G, Bogaert D, Grivea I, Beratis N, De Groot R R, Hermans P. Molecular epidemiology of penicillin-susceptible, multidrug-resistant serotype 6B pneumococci isolated from children in Greece. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:581-5 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that the penicillin-susceptible MDR 6B clone that was found in Greece between the years 1996 and 1999 represents the ancestor of the pandemic penicillin-resistant MDR clone 6B. ..
  47. Yamazumi T, Furuta I, Diekema D, Pfaller M, Jones R. Comparison of the Vitek gram-positive susceptibility 106 card, the MRSA-Screen latex agglutination test, and mecA analysis for detecting oxacillin resistance in a geographically diverse collection of clinical isolates of coagulase-negative staphyloco. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:3633-6 pubmed
  48. Smith A, Klugman K. Site-specific mutagenesis analysis of PBP 1A from a penicillin-cephalosporin-resistant pneumococcal isolate. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:387-9 pubmed
    ..Our data reveal that mutations at amino acid positions 574 to 577 and position 539 cause penicillin and cefotaxime resistance. ..
  49. Soloaga R, Corso A, Gagetti P, Faccone D, Galas M. [Methicillin resistance detection in Staphylococcus aureus: comparison between conventional methods and MRSA-Screen latex agglutination technique]. Rev Argent Microbiol. 2004;36:36-40 pubmed
    ..All methods presented high sensitivity and specificity, but MRSA-Screen latex had the advantage of giving a reliable result, equivalent to PCR, in only 15 minutes. ..
  50. Glad T, Klingenberg C, Flaegstad T, Ericson J, Olsvik O. Rapid detection of the methicillin-resistance gene, mecA, in coagulase-negative Staphylococci. Scand J Infect Dis. 2001;33:502-6 pubmed
    ..The PCR detection of mecA is rapid, fairly simple and can easily be assimilated into the routines of a clinical microbiological laboratory. ..
  51. Mukhopadhyay S, Chakrabarti P. Altered permeability and beta-lactam resistance in a mutant of Mycobacterium smegmatis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1997;41:1721-4 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the results suggest that decreased affinities of PBP 1 for beta-lactams, combined with the decreased permeability of the cell wall of the mutant, lead to the development of high-level acquired beta-lactam resistance. ..
  52. Koch A. Penicillin binding proteins, beta-lactams, and lactamases: offensives, attacks, and defensive countermeasures. Crit Rev Microbiol. 2000;26:205-20 pubmed
    ..In the last 60 years the resistant bacteria in the main arose by movement of genes from other organisms, from minor genetic changes, and from alteration of the regulation of synthesis. ..
  53. Savolainen K, Paulin L, Westerlund Wikström B, Foster T, Korhonen T, Kuusela P. Expression of pls, a gene closely associated with the mecA gene of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, prevents bacterial adhesion in vitro. Infect Immun. 2001;69:3013-20 pubmed
  54. Lleo M, Bonato B, Tafi M, Signoretto C, Boaretti M, Canepari P. Resuscitation rate in different enterococcal species in the viable but non-culturable state. J Appl Microbiol. 2001;91:1095-102 pubmed
    ..faecium, in an oligotrophic laboratory environment, tends to die instead of entering the VBNC state. These experiments may mimic what happens when enterococci are released by humans and animals in natural environments. ..
  55. Senna J, Pinto C, Carvalho L, Santos D. Comparison of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and PCR analysis of polymorphisms on the mec hypervariable region for typing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:2254-6 pubmed
    ..However, this technique shows a discriminatory power inferior to that of PFGE. We conclude that PFGE is a more reliable method of typing MRSA than HVR-PCR. ..
  56. Popham D, Meador Parton J, Costello C, Setlow P. Spore peptidoglycan structure in a cwlD dacB double mutant of Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:6205-9 pubmed
    ..A cwlD dacB double mutant produced spores with a two- to fourfold greater increase in PG cross-linking and novel muropeptides containing glycine residues but no significant changes in spore resistance or core hydration. ..
  57. de Lencastre H, Wu S, Pinho M, Ludovice A, Filipe S, Gardete S, et al. Antibiotic resistance as a stress response: complete sequencing of a large number of chromosomal loci in Staphylococcus aureus strain COL that impact on the expression of resistance to methicillin. Microb Drug Resist. 1999;5:163-75 pubmed
    ..Sequencing upstream and downstream allowed the identification of a number of additional open reading frames, some of which may also include functions relevant for the expression of antibiotic resistance. ..
  58. Park Y, Oh E, Lee S, Kim B. Absence of mutation in the region (nt. 710-1010) of pbp4 gene in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus with low-level teicoplanin resistance. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2001;39:271-3 pubmed
    ..Of 41 clinical isolates screened, none contained the mutations in pbp4 indicating these mutations cannot be used as a molecular diagnostic tool for glycopeptide resistance. ..
  59. Pinho M, de Lencastre H, Tomasz A. An acquired and a native penicillin-binding protein cooperate in building the cell wall of drug-resistant staphylococci. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:10886-91 pubmed
    ..aureus from an extra species source. ..
  60. Errington J, Daniel R, Scheffers D. Cytokinesis in bacteria. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2003;67:52-65, table of contents pubmed
    ..The functions of most of these proteins are unclear with the exception of at least one penicillin-binding protein, which catalyzes a key step in cell wall synthesis in the division septum. ..
  61. Stingele F, Mollet B. Disruption of the gene encoding penicillin-binding protein 2b (pbp2b) causes altered cell morphology and cease in exopolysaccharide production in Streptococcus thermophilus Sfi6. Mol Microbiol. 1996;22:357-66 pubmed
    ..In S. thermophilus, pbp2b and recM were transcribed from their own promoters as monocistronic mRNAs and are therefore organized as independent transcriptional units...
  62. Di Guilmi A, Dessen A, Dideberg O, Vernet T. Bifunctional penicillin-binding proteins: focus on the glycosyltransferase domain and its specific inhibitor moenomycin. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2002;3:63-75 pubmed
  63. Deka R, Machius M, Norgard M, Tomchick D. Crystal structure of the 47-kDa lipoprotein of Treponema pallidum reveals a novel penicillin-binding protein. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:41857-64 pubmed
    ..Taken together, Tp47 does not fit the classical structural and mechanistic paradigms for PBPs, and thus Tp47 appears to represent a new class of PBP. ..
  64. Grail B, Payne J. Conformational analysis of bacterial cell wall peptides indicates how particular conformations have influenced the evolution of penicillin-binding proteins, beta-lactam antibiotics and antibiotic resistance mechanisms. J Mol Recognit. 2002;15:113-25 pubmed
    ..This approach could have applications in the rational design of antibiotics targeted against PBPs and their substrates. ..
  65. Siligardi G, Harris F, Phoenix D. Alpha-helical conformation in the C-terminal anchoring domains of E. coli penicillin-binding proteins 4, 5 and 6. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997;1329:278-84 pubmed
    ..This correlation would agree with the hypothesis that an alpha-helical conformation is required for membrane interaction of the PBP5 C-terminal region. ..
  66. Marrec Fairley M, Piette A, Gallet X, Brasseur R, Hara H, Fraipont C, et al. Differential functionalities of amphiphilic peptide segments of the cell-septation penicillin-binding protein 3 of Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2000;37:1019-31 pubmed
    ..The E206-V217 peptide segment is exposed at the surface of the non-catalytic module. It has the information ensuring that PBP3 fulfils its cell septation activity within the fully complemented divisome. ..
  67. Paul R, Postius S, Melchers K, Sch fer K. Mutations of the Helicobacter pylori genes rdxA and pbp1 cause resistance against metronidazole and amoxicillin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001;45:962-5 pubmed publisher
  68. Ogawara H. [Genetic and biochemical studies on the regulatory mechanism of the self-resistance and biosynthesis of antibiotics]. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2001;121:193-213 pubmed
    ..eukaryotic-type protein kinases from Streptomyces including cloning of the genes and evolution and classification of eukaryotic-type protein kinases in general. ..
  69. Oliveira D, Tomasz A, de Lencastre H. The evolution of pandemic clones of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: identification of two ancestral genetic backgrounds and the associated mec elements. Microb Drug Resist. 2001;7:349-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The data allow tentative identification of an evolutionary pathway for the emergence of pandemic MRSA clones and also provide evidence for the multiple, yet restricted, numbers of acquisition of the mec element by S. aureus...
  70. Pedersen L, Angert E, Setlow P. Septal localization of penicillin-binding protein 1 in Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:3201-11 pubmed
    ..subtilis. This is the first example of a high-molecular-weight class A PBP that is localized to the bacterial division septum. ..
  71. Mlynarczyk G, Mlynarczyk A, Jeljaszewicz J. Epidemiological aspects of antibiotic resistance in respiratory pathogens. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2001;18:497-502 pubmed
    ..Several mechanisms depending on changes in target, active efflux and modifying enzymes are involved. ..
  72. Signoretto C, Lleò M, Canepari P. Modification of the peptidoglycan of Escherichia coli in the viable but nonculturable state. Curr Microbiol. 2002;44:125-31 pubmed
    ..Finally, VBNC cells displayed an autolytic capability which was far higher than that of exponentially growing cells. It is suggested that part of these alterations of peptidoglycan may be connected with the VBNC state. ..
  73. Woods W, Ramotar K, Lem P, Toye B. Oxacillin susceptibility testing of coagulase-negative staphylococci using the disk diffusion method and the Vitek GPS-105 card. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2002;42:291-4 pubmed
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    ..coli. We also identified the homologous gene of dacD in Salmonella typhimurium as one of the components of the previously described phsBCDEF gene cluster. ..
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    ..Serotype 14 variants of the Spanish serotype 9V clone have therefore arisen on more than one occasion by large recombinational replacements that extend from the start of the cps region into the pbp1a gene...
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    ..The results of our study encourage the use of the VITEK 2 system, which proved to be a highly reliable and rapid phenotypic method for the detection of methicillin resistance in CoNS. ..
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    ..A possible structural interaction between PBP1B and murein hydrolases in vivo by the formation of a multienzyme complex is discussed. ..