carboxypeptidases a


Summary: Carboxypeptidases that are primarily found the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM that catalyze the release of C-terminal amino acids. Carboxypeptidases A have little or no activity for hydrolysis of C-terminal ASPARTIC ACID; GLUTAMIC ACID; ARGININE; LYSINE; or PROLINE. This enzyme requires ZINC as a cofactor and was formerly listed as EC and EC

Top Publications

  1. Moulard M, Michon T, Kerfelec B, Chapus C. Further studies on the human pancreatic binary complexes involving procarboxypeptidase A. FEBS Lett. 1990;261:179-83 pubmed
    ..Only one type of procarboxypeptidase B, the B1 type, has been detected in the analyzed pancreatic juices, thus emphasizing the previously observed genetic differences between individuals. ..
  2. Moulard M, Kerfelec B, Mallet B, Chapus C. Identification of a procarboxypeptidase A-truncated protease E binary complex in human pancreatic juice. FEBS Lett. 1989;250:166-70 pubmed
    ..The analogy with bovine subunit III is further supported by interspecies reassociation experiments showing that bovine procarboxypeptidase A can specifically bind human G32. ..
  3. Austin B, Tözsér J, Bagossi P, Tropea J, Waugh D. The substrate specificity of Metarhizium anisopliae and Bos taurus carboxypeptidases A: insights into their use as tools for the removal of affinity tags. Protein Expr Purif. 2011;77:53-61 pubmed publisher
  4. Dobson J, Seibert J, Teh E, Da as S, Fraser R, Paw B, et al. Carboxypeptidase A5 identifies a novel mast cell lineage in the zebrafish providing new insight into mast cell fate determination. Blood. 2008;112:2969-72 pubmed publisher
    ..1, but not gata-1 or fog-1, are necessary for early MC development. These studies validate the zebrafish as an in vivo tool for studying MC ontogeny and function with future capacity for modeling human MC diseases. ..
  5. Lyons P, Callaway M, Fricker L. Characterization of carboxypeptidase A6, an extracellular matrix peptidase. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:7054-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data suggest a role for CPA6 in the regulation of neuropeptides in the extracellular environment within the olfactory bulb and other parts of the brain. ..
  6. Feyerabend T, Hausser H, Tietz A, Blum C, Hellman L, Straus A, et al. Loss of histochemical identity in mast cells lacking carboxypeptidase A. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:6199-210 pubmed
    ..The Mc-cpa-/- mast cell phenotype was not associated with defects in degranulation in vitro or passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in vivo. Collectively, Mc-cpa plays a crucial role for the generation of phenotypically mature mast cells. ..
  7. Huang H, Reed C, Zhang J, Shridhar V, Wang L, Smith D. Carboxypeptidase A3 (CPA3): a novel gene highly induced by histone deacetylase inhibitors during differentiation of prostate epithelial cancer cells. Cancer Res. 1999;59:2981-8 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate that the histone hyperacetylation signaling pathway is activated during NaBu-mediated differentiation of PC-3 cells, and the new gene, CPA3, is involved in this pathway. ..
  8. Fontenele Neto J, Kalinina E, Feng Y, Fricker L. Identification and distribution of mouse carboxypeptidase A-6. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2005;137:132-42 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the distribution of CPA6 suggests a specific role in a limited number of tissues, and it is possible that this role involves an aspect of cell migration. ..
  9. Uratani Y, Takiguchi Hayashi K, Miyasaka N, Sato M, Jin M, Arimatsu Y. Latexin, a carboxypeptidase A inhibitor, is expressed in rat peritoneal mast cells and is associated with granular structures distinct from secretory granules and lysosomes. Biochem J. 2000;346 Pt 3:817-26 pubmed
    ..These results show that latexin is synthesized in rat peritoneal mast cells and suggest that it is associated with a unique type of intracellular granules distinct from MCCPA- and histamine-containing secretory granules and lysosomes. ..

More Information


  1. Matsugi S, Hamada T, Shioi N, Tanaka T, Kumada T, Satomura S. Serum carboxypeptidase A activity as a biomarker for early-stage pancreatic carcinoma. Clin Chim Acta. 2007;378:147-53 pubmed
    ..It was suggested that assays of both T-CPA and F-CPA in serum might be useful for the surveillance of early-stage pancreatic carcinoma. ..
  2. Bentley L, Nakabayashi K, Monk D, Beechey C, Peters J, Birjandi Z, et al. The imprinted region on human chromosome 7q32 extends to the carboxypeptidase A gene cluster: an imprinted candidate for Silver-Russell syndrome. J Med Genet. 2003;40:249-56 pubmed
  3. Cho J, Lee K, Kim D, Choi K. The role of Tyr248 probed by mutant bovine carboxypeptidase A: insight into the catalytic mechanism of carboxypeptidase A. Biochemistry. 2001;40:10197-203 pubmed
    ..A unified catalytic mechanism is proposed that can account for the different kinetic behavior observed in the CPA-catalyzed hydrolysis of peptide and ester substrates. ..
  4. Lyons P, Fricker L. Substrate specificity of human carboxypeptidase A6. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:38234-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Structural data and modeling for all CPA/B subfamily members suggests the structural basis for the unique specificities observed for each member of the CPA/B subfamily of metallocarboxypeptidases. ..
  5. Pizzuti A, Calabrese G, Bozzali M, Telvi L, Morizio E, Guida V, et al. A peptidase gene in chromosome 8q is disrupted by a balanced translocation in a duane syndrome patient. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002;43:3609-12 pubmed
    ..Functional studies of the influence of this gene on the morphogenesis of eye muscles and their innervation may clarify this question. ..
  6. Metsärinne K, Vehmaan Kreula P, Kovanen P, Saijonmaa O, Baumann M, Wang Y, et al. Activated mast cells increase the level of endothelin-1 mRNA in cocultured endothelial cells and degrade the secreted Peptide. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2002;22:268-73 pubmed
    ..These in vitro results imply a novel role for mast cell-derived neutral proteases in ET-1 metabolism and suggest that activated subendothelial mast cells are important local regulators of ET-1 metabolism. ..
  7. Feyerabend T, Weiser A, Tietz A, Stassen M, Harris N, Kopf M, et al. Cre-mediated cell ablation contests mast cell contribution in models of antibody- and T cell-mediated autoimmunity. Immunity. 2011;35:832-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Differences comparing Kit mutant mast cell deficiency models to selectively mast cell-deficient mice call for a systematic re-evaluation of immunological functions of mast cells beyond allergy. ..
  8. Kayashima T, Yamasaki K, Yamada T, Sakai H, Miwa N, Ohta T, et al. The novel imprinted carboxypeptidase A4 gene ( CPA4) in the 7q32 imprinting domain. Hum Genet. 2003;112:220-6 pubmed
    ..However, analysis of ten SRS patients revealed no mutations in CPA4. ..
  9. Lundequist A, Tchougounova E, Abrink M, Pejler G. Cooperation between mast cell carboxypeptidase A and the chymase mouse mast cell protease 4 in the formation and degradation of angiotensin II. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:32339-44 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the results of this study indicate that mast cell chymase and CPA have key roles in both the generation and degradation of Ang II. ..
  10. Pallares I, Bonet R, García Castellanos R, Ventura S, Aviles F, Vendrell J, et al. Structure of human carboxypeptidase A4 with its endogenous protein inhibitor, latexin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:3978-83 pubmed
    ..Because they are ubiquitous, latexins could represent for vertebrate A/B MCPs the counterparts of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases for matrix metalloproteinases. ..
  11. Henningsson F, Ledin J, Lunderius C, Wilén M, Hellman L, Pejler G. Altered storage of proteases in mast cells from mice lacking heparin: a possible role for heparin in carboxypeptidase A processing. Biol Chem. 2002;383:793-801 pubmed
  12. Garcia Saez I, Reverter D, Vendrell J, Aviles F, Coll M. The three-dimensional structure of human procarboxypeptidase A2. Deciphering the basis of the inhibition, activation and intrinsic activity of the zymogen. EMBO J. 1997;16:6906-13 pubmed
    ..The derived structural features explain the intrinsic activity of A1/A2 pro-enzymes for small substrates. ..
  13. Metz M, Piliponsky A, Chen C, Lammel V, Abrink M, Pejler G, et al. Mast cells can enhance resistance to snake and honeybee venoms. Science. 2006;313:526-30 pubmed
    ..These findings identify a new biological function for mast cells in enhancing resistance to the morbidity and mortality induced by animal venoms. ..
  14. Rivera J. Snake bites and bee stings: the mast cell strikes back. Nat Med. 2006;12:999-1000 pubmed
  15. Lützelschwab C, Pejler G, Aveskogh M, Hellman L. Secretory granule proteases in rat mast cells. Cloning of 10 different serine proteases and a carboxypeptidase A from various rat mast cell populations. J Exp Med. 1997;185:13-29 pubmed
    ..These results showed that peritoneal MCs are highly specialized effector cells with mRNA frequencies for the major proteases in the range of several percent of the total mRNA pool. ..
  16. Schneider L, Schlenner S, Feyerabend T, Wunderlin M, Rodewald H. Molecular mechanism of mast cell mediated innate defense against endothelin and snake venom sarafotoxin. J Exp Med. 2007;204:2629-39 pubmed
    ..We conclude that mast cells attack ET and sarafotoxin exactly at the structure required for toxicity, and hence sarafotoxins could not "evade" Mc-cpa's substrate specificity without loss of toxicity. ..
  17. Pejler G, Knight S, Henningsson F, Wernersson S. Novel insights into the biological function of mast cell carboxypeptidase A. Trends Immunol. 2009;30:401-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we summarize the current knowledge of MC-CPA. ..
  18. Reynolds D, Stevens R, Gurley D, Lane W, Austen K, Serafin W. Isolation and molecular cloning of mast cell carboxypeptidase A. A novel member of the carboxypeptidase gene family. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:20094-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that mouse mast cell carboxypeptidase A is a prominent secretory granule enzyme of mast cells of the CTMC subclass and represents a novel addition to the carboxypeptidase gene family. ..
  19. Kemik O, Kemik A, Sumer A, Begenik H, Dulger A, Purisa S, et al. Serum procarboxypeptidase A and carboxypeptidase A levels in pancreatic disease. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2012;31:447-51 pubmed publisher
    ..001). These data prove for increased pro-CPA and CPA levels as a biomarker for the diagnosis of pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. ..
  20. Templin M, Ursinus A, Holtje J. A defect in cell wall recycling triggers autolysis during the stationary growth phase of Escherichia coli. EMBO J. 1999;18:4108-17 pubmed
    ..They can only function as acceptors and not as donors in the crucial cross-linking reaction. It is concluded that murein recycling is a promising target for novel antibacterial agents. ..
  21. Ke S, Wright J, Kwon G. Avidin-biotin-PEG-CPA complexes as potential EPR-directed therapeutic protein carriers: preparation and characterization. Bioconjug Chem. 2007;18:1644-50 pubmed
  22. Park Y, Park C. Topology of RbsC, a membrane component of the ribose transporter, belonging to the AraH superfamily. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:1039-42 pubmed
    ..This result is consistent with the model, based on the results of alkaline phosphatase fusions, in which the protein traverses the membrane six times and the N and C termini are exposed to the cytoplasm...
  23. Kilshtain Vardi A, Glick M, Greenblatt H, Goldblum A, Shoham G. Refined structure of bovine carboxypeptidase A at 1.25 A resolution. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2003;59:323-33 pubmed
    ..These findings could support both the general acid/general base mechanism, as well as the anhydride mechanism suggested for CPA. ..
  24. Ortego F, Sánchez Ramos I, Ruiz M, Castanera P. Characterization of proteases from a stored product mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2000;43:116-24 pubmed
    ..This suggests that trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidases A and B are involved in mite digestion...
  25. Rovira M, Delaspre F, Massumi M, Serra S, Valverde M, Lloreta J, et al. Murine embryonic stem cell-derived pancreatic acinar cells recapitulate features of early pancreatic differentiation. Gastroenterology. 2008;135:1301-1310, 1310.e1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies allow the generation of almost pure acinar-like cells from ES cells, providing a normal cell-based model for the study of the acinar differentiation program in vitro. ..
  26. Marschütz M, Zauner W, Mattner F, Otava A, Buschle M, Bernkop Schnurch A. Improvement of the enzymatic stability of a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-epitope model peptide for its oral administration. Peptides. 2002;23:1727-33 pubmed
    ..This might open the door for a successful oral immunotherapy. ..
  27. Gacko M, Worowska A, Woźniak A, Jedynak M, Panek B, Lapiński R. [Lysosomal carboxypeptidase A]. Postepy Biochem. 2005;51:162-70 pubmed
    ..Deficiency of this enzyme induces storage diseases. Lysosomal carboxypeptidase A as multifunctional enzyme plays an important regulatory role in organismal metabolism. ..
  28. Testero S, Granados C, Fernandez D, Gallego P, Covaleda G, Reverter D, et al. Discovery of Mechanism-Based Inactivators for Human Pancreatic Carboxypeptidase A from a Focused Synthetic Library. ACS Med Chem Lett. 2017;8:1122-1127 pubmed publisher
  29. Marie A, Przybylski C, Gonnet F, Daniel R, Urbain R, Chevreux G, et al. Capillary zone electrophoresis and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry for analyzing qualitative and quantitative variations in therapeutic albumin. Anal Chim Acta. 2013;800:103-10 pubmed publisher
  30. Wirz B, Suter F, Zuber H. Structure and function of L-lactate dehydrogenases from thermophilic and mesophilic bacteria. III) The primary structure of thermophilic lactate dehydrogenase from Bacillus stearothermophilus. Hydroxylamine-, o-iodosobenzoic acid- and tryptic-fragmen. Hoppe Seylers Z Physiol Chem. 1983;364:893-909 pubmed
    ..A comparative structure analysis (matrix system) based on the primary structure data of thermophilic enzyme should provide insight into the characteristic structure differences between thermophilic and mesophilic lactate dehydrogenase. ..
  31. Cerdà Costa N, Esteras Chopo A, Aviles F, Serrano L, Villegas V. Early kinetics of amyloid fibril formation reveals conformational reorganisation of initial aggregates. J Mol Biol. 2007;366:1351-63 pubmed
    ..Comparison with proteins with similar topology reveals that family folds do not necessarily share the same principles of protein folding and/or aggregation. ..
  32. Aloy P, Catasus L, Villegas V, Reverter D, Vendrell J, Aviles F. Comparative analysis of the sequences and three-dimensional models of human procarboxypeptidases A1, A2 and B. Biol Chem. 1998;379:149-55 pubmed
  33. Yoo S, Lee B, Kim H, Suh J. Artificial metalloprotease with active site comprising aldehyde group and Cu(II)cyclen complex. J Am Chem Soc. 2005;127:9593-602 pubmed
    ..Broad substrate selectivity, high cleavage-site selectivity, and high proteolytic rate are achieved, therefore, by positioning the aldehyde group in proximity to Cu(II)Cyc attached to a cross-linked polystyrene. ..
  34. Kadl A, Galkina E, Leitinger N. Induction of CCR2-dependent macrophage accumulation by oxidized phospholipids in the air-pouch model of inflammation. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:1362-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that oxidized phospholipids trigger a type of inflammatory response that leads to selective macrophage accumulation in vivo, a process relevant for the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases. ..
  35. Chung S, Chung S, Lee H, Kim E, Oh K, Choi H, et al. Mechanistic insight into the inactivation of carboxypeptidase A by alpha-benzyl-2-oxo-1,3-oxazolidine-4-acetic acid, a novel type of irreversible inhibitor for carboxypeptidase A with no stereospecificity. J Org Chem. 2001;66:6462-71 pubmed
    ..The present study demonstrates that the transition state for the inactivation pathway plays a critical role in determining stereochemistry of the inactivation. ..
  36. Houde M, Jamain M, Labonte J, Desbiens L, Pejler G, Gurish M, et al. Pivotal role of mouse mast cell protease 4 in the conversion and pressor properties of Big-endothelin-1. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2013;346:31-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that mMCP-4 plays a pivotal role in the dynamic conversion of systemic Big-ET-1 to ET-1 in the mouse model. ..
  37. Younan G, Suber F, Xing W, Shi T, Kunori Y, Abrink M, et al. The inflammatory response after an epidermal burn depends on the activities of mouse mast cell proteases 4 and 5. J Immunol. 2010;185:7681-90 pubmed publisher
  38. Shimada H, Funakoshi T, Waalkes M. Acute, nontoxic cadmium exposure inhibits pancreatic protease activities in the mouse. Toxicol Sci. 2000;53:474-80 pubmed
    ..Based on in vitro study, the decreases seen in trypsin and chymotrypsin activities might be based on indirect effects of cadmium, whereas the decreases in carboxypeptidase A are probably due to the direct inhibition by the metal. ..
  39. Abonia J, Blanchard C, Butz B, Rainey H, Collins M, Stringer K, et al. Involvement of mast cells in eosinophilic esophagitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126:140-9 pubmed publisher
  40. Cho J, Kim D, Chung S, Ha N, Oh B, Yong Choi K. Insight into the stereochemistry in the inhibition of carboxypeptidase A with N-(hydroxyaminocarbonyl)phenylalanine: binding modes of an enantiomeric pair of the inhibitor to carboxypeptidase A. Bioorg Med Chem. 2002;10:2015-22 pubmed
    ..While the L- binding induces a concerted movement of the backbone amino acid residues at the active site, only the downward movement of Tyr-248 was noted when D- binds to CPA. ..
  41. Shirasawa S, Yoshie S, Yue F, Ichikawa H, Yokoyama T, Nagai M, et al. Pancreatic exocrine enzyme-producing cell differentiation via embryoid bodies from human embryonic stem cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;410:608-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Production of these hESC-derived pancreatic enzyme-producing cells represents a critical step in the study of pancreatic organogenesis and in the development of a renewable source of human pancreatic-like exocrine cells. ..
  42. Haller D, Ekici P, Friess A, Parlar H. High enrichment of MMP-9 and carboxypeptidase A by tweezing adsorptive bubble separation (TABS). Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2010;162:1547-57 pubmed publisher
    ..2 for MMP-9 and 0.2 for CPA). The results obtained impressively demonstrate that zinc-containing proteases can be enriched selectively and efficiently by TABS. ..
  43. Lilla J, Chen C, Mukai K, Benbarak M, Franco C, Kalesnikoff J, et al. Reduced mast cell and basophil numbers and function in Cpa3-Cre; Mcl-1fl/fl mice. Blood. 2011;118:6930-8 pubmed publisher
  44. Terwisscha van Scheltinga A, Valegård K, Hajdu J, Andersson I. MIR phasing using merohedrally twinned crystals. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2003;59:2017-22 pubmed
    ..It seems more crucial to restrict the variation in twin fractions between data sets, either by making the twin fractions of some data sets artificially higher or by screening crystals to obtain data with a low twin fraction. ..
  45. Abrunhosa L, Venancio A. Isolation and purification of an enzyme hydrolyzing ochratoxin A from Aspergillus niger. Biotechnol Lett. 2007;29:1909-14 pubmed
    ..The ochratoxin A hydrolytic enzyme presented a V (max) of 0.44 microM/min and a K (m) of 0.5 mM when the reaction was carried out at pH 7.5 and 37 degrees C. ..
  46. Normant E, Gros C, Schwartz J. Carboxypeptidase A isoforms produced by distinct genes or alternative splicing in brain and other extrapancreatic tissues. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:20543-9 pubmed
    ..This apparent discrepancy seems attributable to the presence of an endogenous peptide inhibitor which remains to be identified. ..
  47. Schroeder F, Frolov A, Starodub O, Atshaves B, Russell W, Petrescu A, et al. Pro-sterol carrier protein-2: role of the N-terminal presequence in structure, function, and peroxisomal targeting. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:25547-55 pubmed
    ..In summary, the data suggest for the first time that the 20-amino acid presequence of pro-SCP-2 alters SCP-2 structure to facilitate peroxisomal targeting mediated by the C-terminal SKL peroxisomal targeting sequence...
  48. Villanueva J, Villegas V, Querol E, Aviles F, Serrano L. Protein secondary structure and stability determined by combining exoproteolysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. J Mass Spectrom. 2002;37:974-84 pubmed
    ..Thus limited exoproteolysis, together with MALDI-TOF MS, can be a useful tool to achieve quickly the elucidation of protein structure and stability. ..
  49. Jippo T, Ushio H, Hirota S, Mizuno H, Yamatodani A, Nomura S, et al. Poor response of cultured mast cells derived from mi/mi mutant mice to nerve growth factor. Blood. 1994;84:2977-83 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the poor response of mi/mi CMCs to NGF appeared to be attributable to the impaired transcription of the p75 gene. ..
  50. Villegas V, Viguera A, Aviles F, Serrano L. Stabilization of proteins by rational design of alpha-helix stability using helix/coil transition theory. Fold Des. 1996;1:29-34 pubmed
    ..In this work we demonstrate that by using a helix/coil algorithm to design helix-stabilizing mutations on the solvent-exposed face of helices, it is possible to rationally increase the stability of proteins. ..
  51. Matsui K, Nishikawa A. Percutaneous application of peptidoglycan from Staphylococcus aureus induces mast cell development in mouse spleen. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2006;139:271-8 pubmed
    ..Percutaneous application of PEG may lead to the development of mast cells in the spleens of mice and contribute to an increase in mast cell numbers in the dermis, as seen in the skin lesions of atopic dermatitis patients. ..
  52. Sapio M, Salzmann A, Vessaz M, Crespel A, Lyons P, Malafosse A, et al. Naturally occurring carboxypeptidase A6 mutations: effect on enzyme function and association with epilepsy. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:42900-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results provide further evidence for the involvement of CPA6 mutations in human epilepsy and reveal additional rare mutations that inactivate CPA6 and could, therefore, also be associated with epileptic phenotypes. ..
  53. Ramirez GarciaLuna J, Chan D, Samberg R, Abou Rjeili M, Wong T, Li A, et al. Defective bone repair in mast cell-deficient Cpa3Cre/+ mice. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0174396 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together the data indicate that mast cells have a positive impact on bone repair. ..
  54. Morii E, Ogihara H, Kim D, Ito A, Oboki K, Lee Y, et al. Importance of leucine zipper domain of mi transcription factor (MITF) for differentiation of mast cells demonstrated using mi(ce)/mi(ce) mutant mice of which MITF lacks the zipper domain. Blood. 2001;97:2038-44 pubmed
    ..The Zip domain of MITF appeared to be important for the development of mast cells. (Blood. 2001;97:2038-2044) ..
  55. Oliveira H, Mamede M, Goes Neto A, Koblitz M. Improving chocolate flavor in poor-quality cocoa almonds by enzymatic treatment. J Food Sci. 2011;76:C755-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work proposes an enzymatic treatment to increase the quality of that cocoa almonds and, consequently, to improve the quality of the chocolate produced and consumed in the country. ..
  56. Emini E, Elzinga M, Wimmer E. Carboxy-terminal analysis of poliovirus proteins: termination of poliovirus RNA translation and location of unique poliovirus polyprotein cleavage sites. J Virol. 1982;42:194-9 pubmed
    ..In none of the analyzed cases has C-terminal trimming after cleavage been observed...
  57. Chung H, Kim H, Kim K, Choi J, Yu B. Molecular inflammation hypothesis of aging based on the anti-aging mechanism of calorie restriction. Microsc Res Tech. 2002;59:264-72 pubmed
    ..It was further proposed that CR's major force of the regulation of redox-sensitive inflammation may well be its life-prolonging action. ..
  58. Mock W, Cheng H. Principles of hydroxamate inhibition of metalloproteases: carboxypeptidase A. Biochemistry. 2000;39:13945-52 pubmed
    ..Structure-activity relationships suggest design criteria for hydroxamic acid inhibitors in order to provide most effective binding with metalloenzymes. ..
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  60. Schmidt D, Brennan S. Modified form of the fibrinogen Bbeta chain (des-Gln Bbeta), a potential long-lived marker of pancreatitis. Clin Chem. 2007;53:2105-11 pubmed
    ..5 h, respectively, measuring des-Gln Bbeta fibrinogen, the in vivo product of CpA activity, could provide clinicians with retrospective evidence of disease. ..
  61. Liu J, Wulff G. Functional mimicry of carboxypeptidase A by a combination of transition state stabilization and a defined orientation of catalytic moieties in molecularly imprinted polymers. J Am Chem Soc. 2008;130:8044-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, this demonstrates the important role of the transition state stabilization during the catalysis of this reaction. ..
  62. Igic R, Garber S, Sekosan M, Urbanska R, Behnia R. Localization of carboxypeptidase A-like enzyme in rat kidney. Peptides. 2003;24:1237-40 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that a CPA-like enzyme could be added to a repertoire of enzymes present in the rat mesangial cells and adventitia of renal blood vessels. ..
  63. Phoon L, Burton N. Assessment of a mechanism for reactive inhibition of carboxypeptidase A with QM/MM methods. J Mol Graph Model. 2005;24:94-101 pubmed
    ..The study has shown that the enzyme active site appears to be flexible enough to allow the nucleophilic deactivation reactions of both the (R) and (S) forms of a model of the inhibitor to be catalysed by the Zn(II) cofactor of CPA. ..
  64. Vlahos C, Dekker E. The complete amino acid sequence and identification of the active-site arginine peptide of Escherichia coli 2-keto-4-hydroxyglutarate aldolase. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:11683-91 pubmed
    ..Whereas the active-site lysine peptide of this aldolase shows 65% homology with the same peptide of 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate aldolase from Pseudomonas putida, these two proteins in toto show 49% homology. ..
  65. Rall S, Weisgraber K, Mahley R. Human apolipoprotein E. The complete amino acid sequence. J Biol Chem. 1982;257:4171-8 pubmed
  66. Takata K, Watanabe S, Hirono M, Tamaki M, Teraoka H, Hayashizaki Y. The role of the carboxyl-terminal 6 amino acid extension of human TSH beta subunit. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1989;165:1035-42 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that the 6 amino acid C-terminal extension is not necessary for the hTSH maturation in the process of the biosynthesis and for its bioactivity. ..
  67. Jitonnom J, Sontag C. Comparative study on activation mechanism of carboxypeptidase A1, A2 and B: first insights from steered molecular dynamics simulations. J Mol Graph Model. 2012;38:298-303 pubmed publisher
    ..Our simulations have included the dynamic and long range conformational effects taking place after the first proteolytic cleavage in PCPs, providing first insights into the activation of carboxypeptidase A1, A2 and B. ..
  68. Arolas J, Sanglas L, Lorenzo J, Bronsoms S, Aviles F. Insights into the two-domain architecture of the metallocarboxypeptidase inhibitor from the Ascaris parasite inferred from the mechanism of its oxidative folding. Biochemistry. 2009;48:8225-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, the results provide important clues about the two-domain nature of ACI and may pave the way for its further engineering and development of a minimized inhibitor. ..
  69. Clauser E, Gardell S, Craik C, MacDonald R, Rutter W. Structural characterization of the rat carboxypeptidase A1 and B genes. Comparative analysis of the rat carboxypeptidase gene family. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:17837-45 pubmed
    ..Conserved sequences in the 5' flanking regions of the rat CPA1, CPA2, CPB, and other pancreas-specific genes have been identified. ..
  70. Benchabane M, Goulet M, Dallaire C, Côté P, Michaud D. Hybrid protease inhibitors for pest and pathogen control--a functional cost for the fusion partners?. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2008;46:701-8 pubmed publisher
  71. Mustafi D, Smith C, Makinen M, Lee R. Multi-block poloxamer surfactants suppress aggregation of denatured proteins. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1780:7-15 pubmed
  72. Kim D. Chemistry-based design of inhibitors for carboxypeptidase A. Curr Top Med Chem. 2004;4:1217-26 pubmed
    ..The design strategy developed with CPA may be transferred to other zinc proteases of medicinal interest, leading to discovery of a novel type of therapeutically useful enzyme inhibitors. ..
  73. Ton G, Fine J, Kwon G. Methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)-conjugated carboxypeptidase A for solid tumor targeting: part I: synthesis and characterization. J Control Release. 2005;104:129-39 pubmed
    ..This finding is particularly important in the development of a novel CPA/methotrexate-alpha-peptide system in solid tumor chemotherapy. ..
  74. Xin X, Day R, Dong W, Lei Y, Fricker L. Identification of mouse CPX-2, a novel member of the metallocarboxypeptidase gene family: cDNA cloning, mRNA distribution, and protein expression and characterization. DNA Cell Biol. 1998;17:897-909 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest a widespread function for CPX-2, possibly as a binding protein rather than an active carboxypeptidase. ..
  75. Park J, Kim D. Cysteine derivatives as inhibitors for carboxypeptidase A: synthesis and structure-activity relationships. J Med Chem. 2002;45:911-8 pubmed
    ..A proposal that accounts for the different structural requirement for the maximum activity between the two series of inhibitors is provided. ..
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