Summary: Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.

Top Publications

  1. Rawlings N. Unusual phyletic distribution of peptidases as a tool for identifying potential drug targets. Biochem J. 2007;401:e5-7 pubmed
    Eukaryote homologues of carboxypeptidases Taq have been discovered by Niemirowicz et al. in the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease...
  2. Nikoh N, Nakabachi A. Aphids acquired symbiotic genes via lateral gene transfer. BMC Biol. 2009;7:12 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we obtained several lines of evidence indicating that aphids acquired genes from bacteria via lateral gene transfer and that these genes are used to maintain the obligately mutualistic bacterium, Buchnera...
  3. Saibo N, Vriezen W, De Grauwe L, Azmi A, Prinsen E, Van Der Straeten D. A comparative analysis of the Arabidopsis mutant amp1-1 and a novel weak amp1 allele reveals new functions of the AMP1 protein. Planta. 2007;225:831-42 pubmed
    ..We suggest that in amp1 mutants either zeatin overproduction or its action is strictly localized. ..
  4. Willer M, Forte G, Stirling C. Sec61p is required for ERAD-L: genetic dissection of the translocation and ERAD-L functions of Sec61P using novel derivatives of CPY. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:33883-8 pubmed publisher
    ..By changing the translocation properties of a series of novel ERAD substrates, we are able to separate these two events and find that functional Sec61p is essential for the ERAD-L pathway. ..
  5. Szathmary R, Bielmann R, Nita Lazar M, Burda P, Jakob C. Yos9 protein is essential for degradation of misfolded glycoproteins and may function as lectin in ERAD. Mol Cell. 2005;19:765-75 pubmed
    ..Yos9 protein is important for glycoprotein degradation and may act via its MRH domain as a degradation lectin-like protein in the glycoprotein degradation pathway. ..
  6. Kalinina E, Biswas R, Berezniuk I, Hermoso A, Aviles F, Fricker L. A novel subfamily of mouse cytosolic carboxypeptidases. FASEB J. 2007;21:836-50 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results are consistent with a role for Nna1/CCP1 and the related CCPs in the processing of tubulin. ..
  7. Rodríguez de la Vega Otazo M, Lorenzo J, Tort O, Aviles F, Bautista J. Functional segregation and emerging role of cilia-related cytosolic carboxypeptidases (CCPs). FASEB J. 2013;27:424-31 pubmed publisher
  8. Suzuki M, McCarty D. Functional symmetry of the B3 network controlling seed development. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2008;11:548-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Strikingly, the functional symmetry of the AFL and VAL B3 genes is mirrored in patterns of chromatin modification. ..
  9. Kim W, Spear E, Ng D. Yos9p detects and targets misfolded glycoproteins for ER-associated degradation. Mol Cell. 2005;19:753-64 pubmed
    ..Our studies show that mechanistically divergent systems collaborate to guard against passage and accumulation of misfolded proteins in the secretory pathway. ..

More Information


  1. Bandara A, Sriranganathan N, Schurig G, Boyle S. Carboxyl-terminal protease regulates Brucella suis morphology in culture and persistence in macrophages and mice. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:5767-75 pubmed
    ..abortus strain 2308 or B. suis strain 1330 but no protection against B. melitensis strain 16 M. This is the first report correlating a CtpA deficiency with cell morphology and attenuation of B. suis...
  2. Kapuria V, Peterson L, Fang D, Bornmann W, Talpaz M, Donato N. Deubiquitinase inhibition by small-molecule WP1130 triggers aggresome formation and tumor cell apoptosis. Cancer Res. 2010;70:9265-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that chemical modification of a previously described JAK2 inhibitor results in the unexpected discovery of a novel DUB inhibitor with a unique antitumor mechanism. ..
  3. Barendt S, Sham L, Winkler M. Characterization of mutants deficient in the L,D-carboxypeptidase (DacB) and WalRK (VicRK) regulon, involved in peptidoglycan maturation of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 2 strain D39. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:2290-300 pubmed publisher
    ..The other mutation was in WalRK(Spn) regulon gene spd_0703, which encodes a putative membrane protein that may function as a type of conserved streptococcal shape, elongation, division, and sporulation (SEDS) protein. ..
  4. Bhamidipati A, Denic V, Quan E, Weissman J. Exploration of the topological requirements of ERAD identifies Yos9p as a lectin sensor of misfolded glycoproteins in the ER lumen. Mol Cell. 2005;19:741-51 pubmed
    ..These and other considerations suggest that Yos9p plays a critical role in the bipartite recognition of terminally misfolded glycoproteins. ..
  5. Majdalawieh A, Ro H. PPARgamma1 and LXRalpha face a new regulator of macrophage cholesterol homeostasis and inflammatory responsiveness, AEBP1. Nucl Recept Signal. 2010;8:e004 pubmed publisher
  6. Arolas J, Popowicz G, Lorenzo J, Sommerhoff C, Huber R, Aviles F, et al. The three-dimensional structures of tick carboxypeptidase inhibitor in complex with A/B carboxypeptidases reveal a novel double-headed binding mode. J Mol Biol. 2005;350:489-98 pubmed
    The tick carboxypeptidase inhibitor (TCI) is a proteinaceous inhibitor of metallo-carboxypeptidases present in the blood-sucking tick Rhipicephalus bursa...
  7. Kawakatsu T, Taramino G, Itoh J, Allen J, Sato Y, Hong S, et al. PLASTOCHRON3/GOLIATH encodes a glutamate carboxypeptidase required for proper development in rice. Plant J. 2009;58:1028-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Double mutant analysis revealed that PLA1, PLA2 and PLA3 are regulated independently but function redundantly. Our results suggest that PLA3 modulates various signaling pathways associated with a number of developmental processes...
  8. Binda E, Marcone G, Pollegioni L, Marinelli F. Characterization of VanYn, a novel D,D-peptidase/D,D-carboxypeptidase involved in glycopeptide antibiotic resistance in Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727. FEBS J. 2012;279:3203-13 pubmed publisher
    ..similar mechanism of action and substrate binding in VanY(n) as in VanY, VanX and VanXY Zn(2+)-dependent D,D-carboxypeptidases and D-Ala-D-Ala dipeptidases acting on peptidoglycan maturation and involved in glycopeptide resistance in ..
  9. Lee B. Ecotype-dependent genetic regulation of bolting time in the Arabidopsis mutants with increased number of leaves. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;19:542-6 pubmed
    ..The bolting time differences between mfo1 and amp1, despite the same phenotype of many leaves, suggest the existence of genetic factor(s) differently function in each ecotype in the presence of mfo1/amp1 mutation. ..
  10. Carozzi V, Chiorazzi A, Canta A, Lapidus R, Slusher B, Wozniak K, et al. Glutamate carboxypeptidase inhibition reduces the severity of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neurotoxicity in rat. Neurotox Res. 2010;17:380-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support a novel approach for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. ..
  11. Tripathi L, Sowdhamini R. Cross genome comparisons of serine proteases in Arabidopsis and rice. BMC Genomics. 2006;7:200 pubmed
    ..Single domain architectures and paralogues for several putative subtilisins, serine carboxypeptidases and rhomboids suggest they may have been recruited for additional roles in secondary metabolism with spatial ..
  12. Rashid Y, Kamran Azim M. Structural bioinformatics of Neisseria meningitidis LD-carboxypeptidase: implications for substrate binding and specificity. Protein J. 2011;30:558-65 pubmed publisher
    ..This variability was predicted to provide a structural basis to S1-subsite for accommodating different amino acid residues at P1 position of the tetrapeptide substrate 'L-alanyl-D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelyl-D-alanine'...
  13. Korsak D, Vollmer W, Markiewicz Z. Listeria monocytogenes EGD lacking penicillin-binding protein 5 (PBP5) produces a thicker cell wall. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2005;251:281-8 pubmed
    ..A Listeria monocytogenes mutant lacking functional PBP5 was constructed. Cells of the mutant are viable, showing that the protein is dispensable for growth, but grow slower and have thickened cell walls. ..
  14. Wallingford N, Perroud B, Gao Q, Coppola A, Gyengesi E, Liu Z, et al. Prolylcarboxypeptidase regulates food intake by inactivating alpha-MSH in rodents. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:2291-303 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that PRCP is an important component of melanocortin signaling and weight maintenance via control of active alpha-MSH1-13 levels. ..
  15. Ro H, Zhang L, Majdalawieh A, Kim S, Wu X, Lyons P, et al. Adipocyte enhancer-binding protein 1 modulates adiposity and energy homeostasis. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007;15:288-302 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that AEBP1 negatively regulates adipose tissue PTEN levels, in conjunction with its role in proliferation and differentiation of pre-adipocytes, as a key functional role in modulation of in vivo adiposity. ..
  16. SCHISSEL S, Dunsmore S, Liu X, Shine R, Perrella M, Layne M. Aortic carboxypeptidase-like protein is expressed in fibrotic human lung and its absence protects against bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. Am J Pathol. 2009;174:818-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, both ACLP and its discoidin-like domain may be novel targets for anti-myofibroblast-based therapies for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. ..
  17. Majdalawieh A, Zhang L, Fuki I, Rader D, Ro H. Adipocyte enhancer-binding protein 1 is a potential novel atherogenic factor involved in macrophage cholesterol homeostasis and inflammation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:2346-51 pubmed
    ..Thereby, we speculate that AEBP1 may be critically implicated in the development of atherosclerosis, and it may serve as a molecular target toward developing antiinflammatory, antiatherogenic therapeutic approaches. ..
  18. Zhang H, Yao Y, Yang H, Wang X, Kang Z, Li Y, et al. Molecular dynamics and free energy studies on the carboxypeptidases complexed with peptide/small molecular inhibitor: mechanism for drug resistance. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2012;42:583-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the decomposition analysis of binding free energies infers that the key residues Glu72, Arg127, Ile247/Leu247 and Glu270 are critical for the binding of PCI/THI to MCPs. ..
  19. Bogachev O, Majdalawieh A, Pan X, Zhang L, Ro H. Adipocyte enhancer-binding protein 1 (AEBP1) (a novel macrophage proinflammatory mediator) overexpression promotes and ablation attenuates atherosclerosis in ApoE (-/-) and LDLR (-/-) mice. Mol Med. 2011;17:1056-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Our in vivo experimental data strongly suggest that macrophage AEBP1 plays critical regulatory roles in atherogenesis, and it may serve as a potential therapeutic target for the prevention or treatment of atherosclerosis. ..
  20. Beltrametti F, Consolandi A, Carrano L, Bagatin F, Rossi R, Leoni L, et al. Resistance to glycopeptide antibiotics in the teicoplanin producer is mediated by van gene homologue expression directing the synthesis of a modified cell wall peptidoglycan. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:1135-41 pubmed
    ..Teicoplanin-producing cells were found to be tolerant to high concentrations of exogenously added glycopeptides, which were not bactericidal even at 5,000 microg/ml. ..
  21. Majdalawieh A, Ro H. LPS-induced suppression of macrophage cholesterol efflux is mediated by adipocyte enhancer-binding protein 1. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009;41:1518-25 pubmed publisher
    ..We speculate that AEBP1 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for the prevention/treatment of bacterial infection-induced atherosclerosis...
  22. Kumru O, Bunikis I, Sorokina I, Bergstrom S, Zückert W. Specificity and role of the Borrelia burgdorferi CtpA protease in outer membrane protein processing. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:5759-65 pubmed publisher
  23. Wünschmann J, Beck A, Meyer L, Letzel T, Grill E, Lendzian K. Phytochelatins are synthesized by two vacuolar serine carboxypeptidases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:1681-7 pubmed
    ..How PCs are synthesized in yeast is unclear. This study shows that the vacuolar serine carboxypeptidases CPY and CPC are responsible for PC synthesis in yeast...
  24. Zhang L, Reidy S, Nicholson T, Lee H, Majdalawieh A, Webber C, et al. The role of AEBP1 in sex-specific diet-induced obesity. Mol Med. 2005;11:39-47 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that AEBP1 plays a key functional role in in vivo modulation of adiposity via fat-cell proliferation and is involved in a sex-specific susceptibility to diet-induced obesity by the estrogen signaling pathway. ..
  25. Zaugg C, Jousson O, Léchenne B, Staib P, Monod M. Trichophyton rubrum secreted and membrane-associated carboxypeptidases. Int J Med Microbiol. 2008;298:669-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, T. rubrum was shown to possess two genes (TruSCPA and TruSCPB) encoding serine carboxypeptidases of the S10 family which are homologues of the previously characterized Aspergillus and Penicillium secreted ..
  26. Sahab Z, Hall M, Me Sung Y, Dakshanamurthy S, Ji Y, Kumar D, et al. Tumor suppressor RARRES1 interacts with cytoplasmic carboxypeptidase AGBL2 to regulate the α-tubulin tyrosination cycle. Cancer Res. 2011;71:1219-28 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that RARRES1, its interacting partners AGBL2, Eg5/KIF11, another EEY-bearing protein (EB1), and the microtubule tyrosination cycle are important in tumorigenesis and identify a novel area for therapeutic intervention. ..
  27. Hoge R, Laschinski M, Jaeger K, Wilhelm S, Rosenau F. The subcellular localization of a C-terminal processing protease in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2011;316:23-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide experimental evidence for the generally accepted hypothesis that CTPs are located in the periplasmic space of Gram-negative bacteria. ..
  28. Lee M, Isaza C, White J, Chen R, Liang G, He H, et al. Insight into the substrate length restriction of M32 carboxypeptidases: characterization of two distinct subfamilies. Proteins. 2009;77:647-57 pubmed publisher
    M32 carboxypeptidases are a distinct family of HEXXH metalloproteases whose structures exhibit a narrow substrate groove that is blocked at one end...
  29. Robb G, Rana T. RNA helicase A interacts with RISC in human cells and functions in RISC loading. Mol Cell. 2007;26:523-37 pubmed
    ..Our results identify RHA as a RISC component and demonstrate that RHA functions in RISC as an siRNA-loading factor. ..
  30. Courtin P, Miranda G, Guillot A, Wessner F, Mezange C, Domakova E, et al. Peptidoglycan structure analysis of Lactococcus lactis reveals the presence of an L,D-carboxypeptidase involved in peptidoglycan maturation. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:5293-8 pubmed
    ..lactis strain MG1363. Analysis of the muropeptide composition of an MG1363 dacB mutant showed that the dacB-encoded protein has l,d-carboxypeptidase activity and is involved in peptidoglycan maturation. ..
  31. Korza H, Bochtler M. Pseudomonas aeruginosa LD-carboxypeptidase, a serine peptidase with a Ser-His-Glu triad and a nucleophilic elbow. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:40802-12 pubmed publisher
    LD-Carboxypeptidases (EC are named for their ability to cleave amide bonds between l- and d-amino acids, which occur naturally in bacterial peptidoglycan...
  32. Kos J, Sekirnik A, Premzl A, Zavasnik Bergant V, Langerholc T, Turk B, et al. Carboxypeptidases cathepsins X and B display distinct protein profile in human cells and tissues. Exp Cell Res. 2005;306:103-13 pubmed
    ..Its expression, restricted to immune cells suggests a role in phagocytosis and the regulation of immune response. ..
  33. D Arcy P, Brnjic S, Olofsson M, Fryknäs M, Lindsten K, De Cesare M, et al. Inhibition of proteasome deubiquitinating activity as a new cancer therapy. Nat Med. 2011;17:1636-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that the deubiquitinating activity of the 19S regulatory particle is a new anticancer drug target. ..
  34. Sanchez Pulido L, Kong L, Ponting C. A common ancestry for BAP1 and Uch37 regulators. Bioinformatics. 2012;28:1953-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analysis demonstrates a common ancestry for BAP1 and Uch37 regulators in PR-DUB, INO80 chromatin remodelling and proteosome complexes. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. ..
  35. Kimura Y, Kurabe N, Ikegami K, Tsutsumi K, Konishi Y, Kaplan O, et al. Identification of tubulin deglutamylase among Caenorhabditis elegans and mammalian cytosolic carboxypeptidases (CCPs). J Biol Chem. 2010;285:22936-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, loss of ccpp-6 gene function, which encodes one of two cytosolic carboxypeptidases (CCPs), resulted in elevated levels of ciliary MT polyglutamylation...
  36. Marcone G, Beltrametti F, Binda E, Carrano L, Foulston L, Hesketh A, et al. Novel mechanism of glycopeptide resistance in the A40926 producer Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:2465-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Heterologous expression of vanY in a sensitive Streptomyces species, Streptomyces venezuelae, resulted in higher levels of glycopeptide resistance. ..
  37. Majdalawieh A, Zhang L, Ro H. Adipocyte enhancer-binding protein-1 promotes macrophage inflammatory responsiveness by up-regulating NF-kappaB via IkappaBalpha negative regulation. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:930-42 pubmed
    ..We speculate that AEBP1 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of various chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. ..
  38. Hauptmann P, Lehle L. Kex1 protease is involved in yeast cell death induced by defective N-glycosylation, acetic acid, and chronological aging. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:19151-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we demonstrate that Kex1 contributes also to the active cell death program induced by acetic acid stress or during chronological aging, suggesting that Kex1 plays a more general role in cellular suicide of yeast. ..
  39. Vidaurre D, Ploense S, Krogan N, Berleth T. AMP1 and MP antagonistically regulate embryo and meristem development in Arabidopsis. Development. 2007;134:2561-7 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest a model in which auxin-derived positional information through MP carves out meristematic niches by locally overcoming a general differentiation-promoting activity involving AMP1. ..
  40. Denic V, Quan E, Weissman J. A luminal surveillance complex that selects misfolded glycoproteins for ER-associated degradation. Cell. 2006;126:349-59 pubmed
  41. Lyons P, Sapio M, Fricker L. Zebrafish cytosolic carboxypeptidases 1 and 5 are essential for embryonic development. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:30454-62 pubmed publisher
    The cytosolic carboxypeptidases (CCPs) are a subfamily of metalloenzymes within the larger M14 family of carboxypeptidases that have been implicated in the post-translational modification of tubulin...
  42. Sycuro L, Rule C, Petersen T, Wyckoff T, Sessler T, Nagarkar D, et al. Flow cytometry-based enrichment for cell shape mutants identifies multiple genes that influence Helicobacter pylori morphology. Mol Microbiol. 2013;90:869-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate FACS robustly detects perturbations of bacterial cell shape and identify additional PG peptide modifications associated with helical cell shape in H.?pylori. ..
  43. Macrae I, Ma E, Zhou M, Robinson C, Doudna J. In vitro reconstitution of the human RISC-loading complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:512-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, once Ago2 is loaded with an miRNA, it tends to dissociate from the rest of the complex. These results lay the groundwork for future structural and functional dissection of RISC loading in humans. ..
  44. Bonis M, Ecobichon C, Guadagnini S, Prevost M, Boneca I. A M23B family metallopeptidase of Helicobacter pylori required for cell shape, pole formation and virulence. Mol Microbiol. 2010;78:809-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, HdpA is the first enzyme belonging to the M23-peptidase family able to perform the d,d-carboxypeptidation and regulate cell shape. ..
  45. Pshezhetsky A, Hinek A. Serine carboxypeptidases in regulation of vasoconstriction and elastogenesis. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2009;19:11-7 pubmed publisher
    Lysosomal carboxypeptidases play important roles in catabolism of proteins and peptides and in posttranslational processing of other lysosomal enzymes...
  46. Ghosh A, Chowdhury C, Nelson D. Physiological functions of D-alanine carboxypeptidases in Escherichia coli. Trends Microbiol. 2008;16:309-17 pubmed publisher
  47. Mallela J, Yang J, Shariat Madar Z. Prolylcarboxypeptidase: a cardioprotective enzyme. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009;41:477-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The anti-hypertensive and proinflammatory properties of PRCP implicate that this enzyme may well be an accessible target for anti-inflammatory therapy. ..
  48. Fraser C, Rider L, Chapple C. An expression and bioinformatics analysis of the Arabidopsis serine carboxypeptidase-like gene family. Plant Physiol. 2005;138:1136-48 pubmed
    ..Arabidopsis thaliana) genome encodes a family of 51 proteins that are homologous to known serine carboxypeptidases. Based on their sequences, these serine carboxypeptidase-like (SCPL) proteins can be divided into several ..
  49. Komura H, Obata K, Campbell W, Yumoto M, Shimomura Y, Katsuya H, et al. Effect of anticoagulants in colorimetric assay for basic carboxypeptidases. Microbiol Immunol. 2002;46:115-7 pubmed
    b>Carboxypeptidases (CP) in plasma and sera serve as regulators of anaphylatoxins such as C3a and C5a. The activity of CP can be measured by determining hippuric acid after cleavage of the small synthetic substrate hippuryl-L-arginine...
  50. Walker J, Bajzar L. The intrinsic threshold of the fibrinolytic system is modulated by basic carboxypeptidases, but the magnitude of the antifibrinolytic effect of activated thrombin-activable fibrinolysis inhibitor is masked by its instability. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:27896-904 pubmed
    ..To investigate the effect of basic carboxypeptidases on fibrinolysis under conditions of constant carboxypeptidase activity, we employed pancreatic ..
  51. Rosenblum J, Kozarich J. Prolyl peptidases: a serine protease subfamily with high potential for drug discovery. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2003;7:496-504 pubmed
    ..These proteins have important roles in regulation of signaling by peptide hormones, and are emerging targets for diabetes, oncology and other indications. ..
  52. Tikellis C, Johnston C, Forbes J, Burns W, Burrell L, Risvanis J, et al. Characterization of renal angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in diabetic nephropathy. Hypertension. 2003;41:392-7 pubmed
  53. Fan X, Olson S, Blevins L, Allen G, Johnson M. Immunohistochemical localization of carboxypeptidases D, E, and Z in pituitary adenomas and normal human pituitary. J Histochem Cytochem. 2002;50:1509-16 pubmed
    b>Carboxypeptidases may play important role(s) in prohormone processing in normal and neoplastic adenohypophyseal cells of the pituitary...
  54. Lyons P, Muise A, Ro H. MAPK modulates the DNA binding of adipocyte enhancer-binding protein 1. Biochemistry. 2005;44:926-31 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that MAPK regulates the transcriptional activity of AEBP1 by a novel dual mechanism, in which MAPK interaction enhances and subsequent phosphorylation decreases the DNA-binding ability of AEBP1. ..
  55. Milkowski C, Strack D. Serine carboxypeptidase-like acyltransferases. Phytochemistry. 2004;65:517-24 pubmed
    ..During evolution, they apparently have been recruited from serine carboxypeptidases and adapted to take over acyl transfer function...
  56. Katzmann D, Sarkar S, Chu T, Audhya A, Emr S. Multivesicular body sorting: ubiquitin ligase Rsp5 is required for the modification and sorting of carboxypeptidase S. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:468-80 pubmed
    ..Thus, both Rsp5 and Fab1 play distinct and essential roles in the targeting of biosynthetic MVB cargoes. However, whereas Rsp5 seems to be responsible for cargo ubiquitination, the precise role for Fab1 remains to be elucidated. ..
  57. Podmore A, Reynolds P. Purification and characterization of VanXY(C), a D,D-dipeptidase/D,D-carboxypeptidase in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus gallinarum BM4174. Eur J Biochem. 2002;269:2740-6 pubmed
    ..This suggests that Asp59, unlike Asp68 in VanX, does not have a pivotal role in catalysis. ..
  58. Harmer D, Gilbert M, Borman R, Clark K. Quantitative mRNA expression profiling of ACE 2, a novel homologue of angiotensin converting enzyme. FEBS Lett. 2002;532:107-10 pubmed
    ..Therefore, in probing the functional significance of this novel peptidase, some consideration should be given to a role in gastrointestinal physiology and pathophysiology. ..