leucyl aminopeptidase


Summary: A zinc containing enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the removal of the N-terminal amino acid from most L-peptides, particularly those with N-terminal leucine residues but not those with N-terminal lysine or arginine residues. This occurs in tissue cell cytosol, with high activity in the duodenum, liver, and kidney. The activity of this enzyme is commonly assayed using a leucine arylamide chromogenic substrate such as leucyl beta-naphthylamide.

Top Publications

  1. Bozić N, Vujcić Z. Detection and quantification of leucyl aminopeptidase after native electrophoresis using leucine-p-nitroanilide. Electrophoresis. 2005;26:2476-80 pubmed
    A general method for detecting leucyl aminopeptidase activity after native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) in situ is described...
  2. Jösch C, Klotz L, Sies H. Identification of cytosolic leucyl aminopeptidase (EC as the major cysteinylglycine-hydrolysing activity in rat liver. Biol Chem. 2003;384:213-8 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that cytosolic leucyl aminopeptidase (EC is the major cysteinylglycine hydrolysing activity in rat liver...
  3. McCarthy E, Stack C, Donnelly S, Doyle S, Mann V, Brindley P, et al. Leucine aminopeptidase of the human blood flukes, Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum. Int J Parasitol. 2004;34:703-14 pubmed
    ..Since LAP was also localised to the surface tegument it may play an additional role in surface membrane re-modelling. ..
  4. Fowler J, Narváez Vásquez J, Aromdee D, Pautot V, Holzer F, Walling L. Leucine aminopeptidase regulates defense and wound signaling in tomato downstream of jasmonic acid. Plant Cell. 2009;21:1239-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data suggested that LAP-A has a role in modulating essential defenses against herbivores by promoting late wound responses and acting downstream of JA biosynthesis and perception. ..
  5. Hattori A, Kitatani K, Matsumoto H, Miyazawa S, Rogi T, Tsuruoka N, et al. Characterization of recombinant human adipocyte-derived leucine aminopeptidase expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. J Biochem. 2000;128:755-62 pubmed
  6. Strater N, Sherratt D, Colloms S. X-ray structure of aminopeptidase A from Escherichia coli and a model for the nucleoprotein complex in Xer site-specific recombination. EMBO J. 1999;18:4513-22 pubmed
  7. Baltar F, Aristegui J, Sintes E, van Aken H, Gasol J, Herndl G. Prokaryotic extracellular enzymatic activity in relation to biomass production and respiration in the meso- and bathypelagic waters of the (sub)tropical Atlantic. Environ Microbiol. 2009;11:1998-2014 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, it is apparent that the utilization of deep ocean organic matter is linked to higher cell-specific extracellular enzymatic activity and respiration and lower cell-specific PHP than in surface waters...
  8. Serwold T, Gonzalez F, Kim J, Jacob R, Shastri N. ERAAP customizes peptides for MHC class I molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum. Nature. 2002;419:480-3 pubmed
    ..Thus, ERAAP is the missing link between the products of cytosolic processing and the final peptides presented by MHC class I molecules on the cell surface. ..
  9. Herrera Camacho I, Rosas Murrieta N, Rojo Dominguez A, Millán L, Reyes Leyva J, Santos López G, et al. Biochemical characterization and structural prediction of a novel cytosolic leucyl aminopeptidase of the M17 family from Schizosaccharomyces pombe. FEBS J. 2007;274:6228-40 pubmed
    A new leucyl aminopeptidase activity has been identified in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe...

More Information


  1. Burley S, David P, Taylor A, Lipscomb W. Molecular structure of leucine aminopeptidase at 2.7-A resolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:6878-82 pubmed
    ..Access to this cavity is provided by solvent channels that run along the twofold symmetry axes. ..
  2. Hattori A, Matsumoto H, Mizutani S, Tsujimoto M. Molecular cloning of adipocyte-derived leucine aminopeptidase highly related to placental leucine aminopeptidase/oxytocinase. J Biochem. 1999;125:931-8 pubmed
    ..The identification of A-LAP, which reveals strong homology to P-LAP, might lead to the definition of a new subfamily of zinc-containing aminopeptidases belonging to the M1 family of metallopeptidases. ..
  3. Hatta T, Kazama K, Miyoshi T, Umemiya R, Liao M, Inoue N, et al. Identification and characterisation of a leucine aminopeptidase from the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis. Int J Parasitol. 2006;36:1123-32 pubmed
    ..The recombinant HlLAP enzyme activity was strongly dependent on metal divalent cations, Mn2+, and was inhibited by bestatin. These results indicate that HlLAP play an important role for host's blood digestion process. ..
  4. Pautot V, Holzer F, Reisch B, Walling L. Leucine aminopeptidase: an inducible component of the defense response in Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:9906-10 pubmed
    ..DR57 mRNAs were induced in leaves after Spodoptera littoralis feeding but were not detected in detached leaf controls. Possible roles for the DR57 leucine aminopeptidase in the defense reactions are discussed. ..
  5. Hammer G, Gonzalez F, Champsaur M, Cado D, Shastri N. The aminopeptidase ERAAP shapes the peptide repertoire displayed by major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. Nat Immunol. 2006;7:103-12 pubmed
    ..Thus, trimming of antigenic peptides by ERAAP in the endoplasmic reticulum is essential for the generation of the normal repertoire of processed peptides. ..
  6. Bozić N, Vujcić Z, Nenadovic V, Ivanović J. Partial purification and characterization of midgut leucyl aminopeptidase of Morimus funereus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) larvae. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2003;134:231-41 pubmed
    Exopeptidases of Morimus funereus larvae were partially purified and characterized. Specific leucyl aminopeptidase (LAP) activity was increased eight-fold by gel filtration of the crude midgut extract...
  7. Dorus S, Wilkin E, Karr T. Expansion and functional diversification of a leucyl aminopeptidase family that encodes the major protein constituents of Drosophila sperm. BMC Genomics. 2011;12:177 pubmed publisher
  8. Blanchard N, Kanaseki T, Escobar H, Delebecque F, Nagarajan N, Reyes Vargas E, et al. Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase associated with antigen processing defines the composition and structure of MHC class I peptide repertoire in normal and virus-infected cells. J Immunol. 2010;184:3033-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the characteristic length, as well as the composition of MHC-I peptide cargo, is determined not only by the MHC-I peptide-binding groove but also by ERAAP proteolysis in the endoplasmic reticulum. ..
  9. Hammer G, Gonzalez F, James E, Nolla H, Shastri N. In the absence of aminopeptidase ERAAP, MHC class I molecules present many unstable and highly immunogenic peptides. Nat Immunol. 2007;8:101-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, ERAAP is a 'quintessential editor' of the peptide-MHC repertoire and, paradoxically, its absence enhances immunogenicity. ..
  10. Maric S, Donnelly S, Robinson M, Skinner Adams T, Trenholme K, Gardiner D, et al. The M17 leucine aminopeptidase of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum: importance of active site metal ions in the binding of substrates and inhibitors. Biochemistry. 2009;48:5435-9 pubmed publisher
  11. Yamamoto N, Nakayama J, Yamakawa Kobayashi K, Hamaguchi H, Miyazaki R, Arinami T. Identification of 33 polymorphisms in the adipocyte-derived leucine aminopeptidase (ALAP) gene and possible association with hypertension. Hum Mutat. 2002;19:251-7 pubmed
    ..3 for presence of the Arg allele at codon 528, in comparison with presence of the Lys/Lys genotype (P = 0.004). These findings support involvement of ALAP in the regulation of blood pressure. ..
  12. Morty R, Morehead J. Cloning and characterization of a leucyl aminopeptidase from three pathogenic Leishmania species. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:26057-65 pubmed
    ..Intronless genes encoding a leucyl aminopeptidase (lap) were cloned from Leishmania amazonensis, Leishmania donovani, and Leishmania major, which encoded 60-..
  13. Chu L, Lai Y, Xu X, Eddy S, Yang S, Song L, et al. A 52-kDa leucyl aminopeptidase from treponema denticola is a cysteinylglycinase that mediates the second step of glutathione metabolism. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:19351-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results prove that T. denticola contains the entire three-step pathway to produce H2S from glutathione, which may be important for pathogenesis...
  14. Cappiello M, Lazzarotti A, Buono F, Scaloni A, D Ambrosio C, Amodeo P, et al. New role for leucyl aminopeptidase in glutathione turnover. Biochem J. 2004;378:35-44 pubmed
    ..4.11.2) or membrane-bound dipeptidase (EC, to LAP (leucyl aminopeptidase; EC
  15. Cadavid Restrepo G, Gastardelo T, Faudry E, de Almeida H, Bastos I, Negreiros R, et al. The major leucyl aminopeptidase of Trypanosoma cruzi (LAPTc) assembles into a homohexamer and belongs to the M17 family of metallopeptidases. BMC Biochem. 2011;12:46 pubmed publisher
    ..cruzi aminopeptidase EAN97960. Molecular and enzymatic analysis indicated that this leucyl aminopeptidase of T. cruzi (LAPTc) belongs to the peptidase family M17 or leucyl aminopeptidase family...
  16. Lomate P, Hivrale V. Induction of leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) like activity with wounding and methyl jasmonate in pigeonpea (Cajanas cajan) suggests the role of these enzymes in plant defense in leguminosae. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2011;49:609-16 pubmed publisher
    ..LAP-like activity was increased upto 19.5 fold after gel filtration chromatography. Results suggest that these enzymes may have functional defensive role in pigeonpea...
  17. Acosta D, Cancela M, Piacenza L, Roche L, Carmona C, Tort J. Fasciola hepatica leucine aminopeptidase, a promising candidate for vaccination against ruminant fasciolosis. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2008;158:52-64 pubmed publisher
    ..hepatica metacercariae, confirming that FhLAP is a relevant candidate for vaccine development. ..
  18. Stack C, Lowther J, Cunningham E, Donnelly S, Gardiner D, Trenholme K, et al. Characterization of the Plasmodium falciparum M17 leucyl aminopeptidase. A protease involved in amino acid regulation with potential for antimalarial drug development. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:2069-80 pubmed
    ..We have proposed that a Plasmodium falciparum M17 leucyl aminopeptidase (PfLAP) generates and regulates the internal pool of free amino acids and therefore represents a target ..
  19. Gardiner D, Trenholme K, Skinner Adams T, Stack C, Dalton J. Overexpression of leucyl aminopeptidase in Plasmodium falciparum parasites. Target for the antimalarial activity of bestatin. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:1741-5 pubmed
    ..One of the major aminopeptidases of malaria parasites is a leucyl aminopeptidase of the M17 family...
  20. Cappiello M, Alterio V, Amodeo P, Del Corso A, Scaloni A, Pedone C, et al. Metal ion substitution in the catalytic site greatly affects the binding of sulfhydryl-containing compounds to leucyl aminopeptidase. Biochemistry. 2006;45:3226-34 pubmed
    Bovine lens leucyl aminopeptidase (blLAP), a homohexameric metallopeptidase preferring bulky and hydrophobic amino acids at the N-terminus of (di)peptides, contains two Zn(2+) ions per subunit that are essential for catalytic activity...
  21. Matsui M, Fowler J, Walling L. Leucine aminopeptidases: diversity in structure and function. Biol Chem. 2006;387:1535-44 pubmed
    ..In plants the roles of the M17 LAPs and the peptidases related to M1 LAPs are being elucidated. Roles in defense, membrane transport of auxin receptors, and meiosis have been implicated. ..
  22. Strater N, Sun L, Kantrowitz E, Lipscomb W. A bicarbonate ion as a general base in the mechanism of peptide hydrolysis by dizinc leucine aminopeptidase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:11151-5 pubmed
    ..A mutational analysis shows that Arg-356 influences activity by binding the bicarbonate ion but is not essential for activity. Mutation of the catalytic Lys-282 reduces k(cat)/K(m) about 10,000-fold. ..
  23. Gu Y, Chao W, Walling L. Localization and post-translational processing of the wound-induced leucine aminopeptidase proteins of tomato. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:25880-7 pubmed
    ..Inspection of the LAP-A presequence indicated the presence of a dibasic protease (Kex2/furin) processing site motif 6-8 residues upstream from the LAP-A N termini. Its potential role in LAP-A precursor biogenesis is discussed. ..
  24. Cifaldi L, Lo Monaco E, Forloni M, Giorda E, Lorenzi S, Petrini S, et al. Natural killer cells efficiently reject lymphoma silenced for the endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase associated with antigen processing. Cancer Res. 2011;71:1597-606 pubmed publisher
    ..Because a large fraction of human tumors express high levels of the homologous ERAP1 and/or ERAP2, the present findings highlight a convenient, novel target for cancer immunotherapy. ..
  25. Burley S, David P, Sweet R, Taylor A, Lipscomb W. Structure determination and refinement of bovine lens leucine aminopeptidase and its complex with bestatin. J Mol Biol. 1992;224:113-40 pubmed
    ..Finally, the relationship between bovine lens leucine aminopeptidase and the homologous enzyme pepA from Escherichia coli is discussed. ..
  26. Hartl M, Merker H, Schmidt D, Baldwin I. Optimized virus-induced gene silencing in Solanum nigrum reveals the defensive function of leucine aminopeptidase against herbivores and the shortcomings of empty vector controls. New Phytol. 2008;179:356-65 pubmed
    ..nigrum, which should include control vectors carrying noncoding sequence as control treatments. Silencing LAP provided the first experimental evidence that LAP has a defensive function against herbivores...
  27. Matsushima M, Takahashi T, Ichinose M, Miki K, Kurokawa K, Takahashi K. Structural and immunological evidence for the identity of prolyl aminopeptidase with leucyl aminopeptidase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991;178:1459-64 pubmed
    ..the removal of unsubstituted NH2-terminal L-prolyl residues from various peptides and to be distinct from leucyl aminopeptidase (EC
  28. Lowther W, Matthews B. Metalloaminopeptidases: common functional themes in disparate structural surroundings. Chem Rev. 2002;102:4581-608 pubmed
  29. Drag M, Grembecka J, Pawełczak M, Kafarski P. alpha-Aminoalkylphosphonates as a tool in experimental optimisation of P1 side chain shape of potential inhibitors in S1 pocket of leucine- and neutral aminopeptidases. Eur J Med Chem. 2005;40:764-71 pubmed
    ..Additional comparison of the inhibitory activity obtained for aminopeptidase N (APN, E.C. give insight into structural preferences of both enzymes. ..
  30. Chi M, Ong P, Hsu W, Chen Y, Huang H, Lin L. Role of the invariant Asn345 and Asn435 residues in a leucine aminopeptidase from Bacillus kaustophilus as evaluated by site-directed mutagenesis. Int J Biol Macromol. 2008;43:481-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Computer modeling of the active-site structures of wild-type and mutant enzymes exhibits a partial or complete loss of the hydrogen bonding in the variants. ..
  31. Gilboa R, Spungin Bialik A, Wohlfahrt G, Schomburg D, Blumberg S, Shoham G. Interactions of Streptomyces griseus aminopeptidase with amino acid reaction products and their implications toward a catalytic mechanism. Proteins. 2001;44:490-504 pubmed
    ..These structural results have been used for the simulation of several species along the reaction coordinate and for the suggestion of a general scheme for the proteolytic reaction catalyzed by SGAP...
  32. Andersen K, Christensen E, Vik H. Effects of iodinated x-ray contrast media on renal epithelial cells in culture. Invest Radiol. 1994;29:955-62 pubmed
  33. Herzog C, Peter M, Pritsch K, Günthardt Goerg M, Egli S. Drought and air warming affects abundance and exoenzyme profiles of Cenococcum geophilum associated with Quercus robur, Q. petraea and Q. pubescens. Plant Biol (Stuttg). 2013;15 Suppl 1:230-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that increased temperature and drought will influence the relative abundance and enzyme activity of C. geophilum. However, both the Quercus species and C. geophilum tolerated warming and strong drought. ..
  34. Dópido R, Rodríguez C, Gómez T, Acosta N, Diaz M. Isolation and characterization of enterocytes along the intestinal tract of the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.). Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2004;139:21-31 pubmed
    ..This is the first report demonstrating the existence of heterogeneous metabolic and enzymatic profiles in different enterocyte populations from euryhaline teleosts. ..
  35. Peters J, Povey S, Jeremiah S, De Giorgi L. Linkage relationships of peptidase-7, Pep-7, in the mouse. Biochem Genet. 1983;21:801-7 pubmed
    ..Gene order and recombination frequencies are estimated as Pep-7, 3.5 +/- 2.0 Rw 8.8 +/- 2.2 go 20.0 +/- 4.6 bf. ..
  36. Picha J, Liboska R, Budesinsky M, Jiracek J, Pawełczak M, Mucha A. Unusual activity pattern of leucine aminopeptidase inhibitors based on phosphorus containing derivatives of methionine and norleucine. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2011;26:155-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Unexpectedly, organophosphorus derivatives of methionine and norleucine exhibited moderate activity with K(i) values in the micromolar range. ..
  37. Su M, Wei M, Zhou Z, Liu S. Application of capillary electrophoresis coupling with electrochemiluminescence detection to estimate activity of leucine aminopeptidas. Biomed Chromatogr. 2013;27:946-52 pubmed publisher
    ..This method was successfully applied to detect LAP activity in plasma and the results were in good agreement with that obtained by the clinical method. ..
  38. Wang F, Guo S, Liu Y, Lan D, Yang B, Wang Y. Biochemical and conformational characterization of a leucine aminopeptidase from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans NG80-2. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;28:3227-37 pubmed publisher
    ..In this regard, GtLAP could potentially be used in the protein hydrolysis industry. ..
  39. Farooq N, Priyamvada S, Arivarasu N, Salim S, Khan F, Yusufi A. Influence of Ramadan-type fasting on enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism and brush border membrane in small intestine and liver of rat used as a model. Br J Nutr. 2006;96:1087-94 pubmed
    ..The present results show a tremendous adaptation capacity of both liver and intestinal metabolic activities with Ramadan-type fasting in rats used as a model for Ramadan fasting in people. ..
  40. Hatta T, Tsuji N, Miyoshi T, Islam M, Alim M, Yamaji K, et al. Leucine aminopeptidase, HlLAP, from the ixodid tick Haemaphysalis longicornis, plays vital roles in the development of oocytes. Parasitol Int. 2010;59:286-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Regulation of the tick molecules involved in nutrient metabolism for the reproduction, including blood digestion and vitellogenesis, would help in controlling the tick population and tick-borne pathogens. ..
  41. Huynh K, Natarajan S, Choi J, Song N, Kim J, Lee B, et al. Cloning, expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) from the pepA gene of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2009;65:952-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The LAP crystal diffracted to 2.6 A resolution and belonged to the cubic space group P2(1)3. The unit-cell volume of the crystal was compatible with the presence of two monomers in the asymmetric unit. ..
  42. Changklungmoa N, Chaithirayanon K, Kueakhai P, Meemon K, Riengrojpitak S, Sobhon P. Molecular cloning and characterization of leucine aminopeptidase from Fasciola gigantica. Exp Parasitol. 2012;131:283-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Because of its important metabolic role and fairly exposed position, FgLAP is a potential drug target and a possible vaccine candidate against fasciolosis. ..
  43. VanDoorn A, Bonaventure G, Schmidt D, Baldwin I. Regulation of jasmonate metabolism and activation of systemic signaling in Solanum nigrum: COI1 and JAR4 play overlapping yet distinct roles. New Phytol. 2011;190:640-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrate that SnLOX3, SnCOI1 and SnJAR4 have overlapping yet distinct roles in jasmonate signaling, differentially controlling jasmonate metabolism and the production of a systemic signal...
  44. Wu S, Chen X, Lü J, Wang M. BML-111 Attenuates Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury Via Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-α-Regulated Heme Oxygenase-1. Inflammation. 2016;39:611-24 pubmed publisher
    ..BML-111 protects the kidney against I/R injury via activation of p38 MAPK/PPARα/HO-1 pathway. ..
  45. Klukowska Rötzler J, Jost U, Schelling C, Dolf G, Chowdhary B, Leeb T, et al. Characterization and RH mapping of six gene-associated equine microsatellite markers. Anim Genet. 2006;37:305-6 pubmed
  46. Ricart M, Barcelo D, Geiszinger A, Guasch H, de Alda M, Romani A, et al. Effects of low concentrations of the phenylurea herbicide diuron on biofilm algae and bacteria. Chemosphere. 2009;76:1392-401 pubmed publisher
  47. Gisbert E, Fernandez I, Alvarez González C. Prolonged feed deprivation does not permanently compromise digestive function in migrating European glass eels Anguilla anguilla. J Fish Biol. 2011;78:580-92 pubmed publisher
    ..anguilla at this glass eel stage to withstand periods without food but rapidly provide amino acids for protein synthesis and growth when suitable food was available...
  48. Kanaseki T, Blanchard N, Hammer G, Gonzalez F, Shastri N. ERAAP synergizes with MHC class I molecules to make the final cut in the antigenic peptide precursors in the endoplasmic reticulum. Immunity. 2006;25:795-806 pubmed
    ..However, MHC I molecules could bind proteolytic intermediates and were essential for generation of the final peptide by ERAAP. Thus, ERAAP synergizes with MHC I to generate the final pMHC I repertoire. ..
  49. Baltar F, Aristegui J, Gasol J, Yokokawa T, Herndl G. Bacterial versus archaeal origin of extracellular enzymatic activity in the Northeast Atlantic deep waters. Microb Ecol. 2013;65:277-88 pubmed publisher
  50. Proia L, Lupini G, Osorio V, Perez S, Barcelo D, Schwartz T, et al. Response of biofilm bacterial communities to antibiotic pollutants in a Mediterranean river. Chemosphere. 2013;92:1126-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that the continuous entrance of antibiotics in running waters cause significant structural and functional changes in microbial attached communities. ..
  51. Misic C, Povero P, Fabiano M. Ectoenzymatic ratios in relation to particulate organic matter distribution (Ross Sea, Antarctica). Microb Ecol. 2002;44:224-34 pubmed
  52. Caruso G, Genovese L, Mancuso M, Modica A. Effects of fish farming on microbial enzyme activities and densities: comparison between three Mediterranean sites. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2003;37:324-8 pubmed
    ..Effects induced appeared to be extended not only to stations in which cages were located, but also to control sites far from the direct influence of fish farming. ..
  53. Chavant P, Taupin V, El Alaoui H, Wawrzyniak I, Chambon C, Prensier G, et al. Proteolytic activity in Encephalitozoon cuniculi sporogonial stages: predominance of metallopeptidases including an aminopeptidase-P-like enzyme. Int J Parasitol. 2005;35:1425-33 pubmed
  54. Saric T, Graef C, Goldberg A. Pathway for degradation of peptides generated by proteasomes: a key role for thimet oligopeptidase and other metallopeptidases. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:46723-32 pubmed
    ..Thus, degradation of most 9-17 residue proteasome products is initiated by endoproteolytic cleavages, primarily by TOP, and the resulting 6-9 residue fragments are further digested to amino acids by aminopeptidases. ..
  55. Fundoiano Hershcovitz Y, Rabinovitch L, Langut Y, Reiland V, Shoham G, Shoham Y. Identification of the catalytic residues in the double-zinc aminopeptidase from Streptomyces griseus. FEBS Lett. 2004;571:192-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in Tyr246 resulted in about 100-fold reduction of activity, suggesting that this residue is involved in the stabilization of the transition state intermediate...
  56. Changklungmoa N, Kueakhai P, Riengrojpitak S, Chaithirayanon K, Chaichanasak P, Preyavichyapugdee N, et al. Immunization with recombinant leucine aminopeptidase showed protection against Fasciola gigantica in mice. Parasitol Res. 2013;112:3653-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These indicated that rFgLAP has a potential as a vaccine candidate against F. gigantica, whose efficacy will be studied further in economic animals including cattle, sheep, and goat. ..
  57. Kikkawa F, Kajiyama H, Ino K, Watanabe Y, Ito M, Nomura S, et al. Possible involvement of placental peptidases that degrade gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in the dynamic pattern of placental hCG secretion via GnRH degradation. Placenta. 2002;23:483-9 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, NEP and P-LAP are responsible enzymes for GnRH degradation in human villi. ..
  58. Srichanun M, Tantikitti C, Utarabhand P, Kortner T. Gene expression and activity of digestive enzymes during the larval development of Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer). Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2013;165:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Activity of all digestive enzymes increased from around 18 dph and onwards. In conclusion, the development of main digestive enzymes in Asian seabass larvae shows a similar pattern to that of other marine fish species. ..
  59. Caruso G, Zaccone R. Estimates of leucine aminopeptidase activity in different marine and brackish environments. J Appl Microbiol. 2000;89:951-9 pubmed
    ..The determination of the potential rates of extracellular enzyme activity is of great ecological importance to extend knowledge on the role played by bacteria in aquatic biogeochemical cycles. ..
  60. Woolwine S, Sprinkle A, Wozniak D. Loss of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PhpA aminopeptidase activity results in increased algD transcription. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:4674-9 pubmed
    ..This regulation occurred at the previously mapped algD transcription initiation site and was not due to activation of an alternative promoter. ..
  61. Liew S, Tay S, Puthucheary S. Enzymatic and molecular characterisation of leucine aminopeptidase of Burkholderia pseudomallei. BMC Microbiol. 2013;13:110 pubmed publisher
    ..The high LAP activity detected in both B. pseudomallei and B. thailandensis, suggests that LAP is probably a housekeeping enzyme rather than a virulence determinant. ..
  62. Băguţ E, Cambier L, Heinen M, Cozma V, Monod M, Mignon B. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serodiagnosis of ringworm infection in cattle. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2013;20:1150-4 pubmed publisher
  63. Peric Mataruga V, Vlahovic M, Janac B, Ilijin L, Janković Tomanić M, Matić D, et al. Ghrelin effect on nutritional indices, midgut and fat body of Lymantria dispar L. (Lymantriidae). Peptides. 2012;37:55-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Such information provides additional evidence for application of this relatively simple model system in the future studies of the mechanisms underlying of digestion and energy balance in more complex organisms. ..
  64. Pulido Cejudo G, El Abdaimi K, Wang C, Kar B, Medina Acevedo J, Cardenas J, et al. Model building and quantitative analysis of a tandem immuno-capturing assay as a screening tool for breast cancer. Int J Oncol. 2004;25:1365-74 pubmed
  65. Sairam M, Papkoff H, Li C. Human pituitary interstitial cell stimulating hormone: primary structure of the subunit. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1972;48:530-7 pubmed
  66. Kang J, Ju H, Ju J, Sohn W, Kim T, Bahk Y, et al. Comparative biochemical and functional properties of two leucine aminopeptidases of Clonorchis sinensis. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2012;182:17-26 pubmed publisher
    ..sinensis and may be involved in the final digestion of peptides that hydrolyzed within intestinal lumen followed by absorbed into gastrodermal cells of the parasite. ..
  67. Harbut M, Velmourougane G, Dalal S, Reiss G, Whisstock J, Onder O, et al. Bestatin-based chemical biology strategy reveals distinct roles for malaria M1- and M17-family aminopeptidases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:E526-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, inhibition of Pf-LAP was lethal to parasites early in the life cycle, prior to the onset of Hb degradation suggesting that Pf-LAP has an essential role outside of Hb digestion. ..
  68. Ayuso S, Guerrero M, Montes C, López Archilla A. Regulation and spatiotemporal patterns of extracellular enzyme activities in a coastal, sandy aquifer system (Doñana, SW Spain). Microb Ecol. 2011;62:162-76 pubmed publisher
    ..This study proposes that groundwater systems should be considered dynamic systems, comparable in functional complexity to surface systems. ..
  69. Blanchard N, Gonzalez F, Schaeffer M, Joncker N, Cheng T, Shastri A, et al. Immunodominant, protective response to the parasite Toxoplasma gondii requires antigen processing in the endoplasmic reticulum. Nat Immunol. 2008;9:937-44 pubmed publisher
    ..gondii-infected ERAAP-deficient mice, which were more susceptible to toxoplasmosis. Thus, endoplasmic reticulum proteolysis is critical for eliciting protective immunity to a vacuolar parasite. ..
  70. Bhutani N, Venkatraman P, Goldberg A. Puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase is the major peptidase responsible for digesting polyglutamine sequences released by proteasomes during protein degradation. EMBO J. 2007;26:1385-96 pubmed
    ..Thus, PSA, which is induced in neurons expressing mutant huntingtin, appears critical in preventing the accumulation of polyQ peptides in normal cells, and its activity may influence susceptibility to polyQ diseases. ..
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