glutamyl aminopeptidase


Summary: A ZINC-dependent membrane-bound aminopeptidase that catalyzes the N-terminal peptide cleavage of GLUTAMATE (and to a lesser extent ASPARTATE). The enzyme appears to play a role in the catabolic pathway of the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM.

Top Publications

  1. Teuscher F, Lowther J, Skinner Adams T, Spielmann T, Dixon M, Stack C, et al. The M18 aspartyl aminopeptidase of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:30817-26 pubmed
    ..However, we were able to draw valuable observations concerning the structure-activity relationship of these inhibitors that can be employed in future inhibitor optimization studies. ..
  2. Rozenfeld R, Iturrioz X, Maigret B, Llorens Cortes C. Contribution of molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis to the identification of two structural residues, Arg-220 and Asp-227, in aminopeptidase A. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:29242-52 pubmed
    ..This model constitutes a new tool to probe further the active site of aminopeptidase A and to design new inhibitors of this enzyme. ..
  3. Martinez J, Prieto I, Ramirez M, Cueva C, Alba F, Ramirez M. Aminopeptidase activities in breast cancer tissue. Clin Chem. 1999;45:1797-802 pubmed
    ..These changes may reflect the functional status of the AP substrates, which can be selectively activated or inhibited locally in the affected tissue as a result of specific conditions brought about by the tumor. ..
  4. Ino K, Uehara C, Kikkawa F, Kajiyama H, Shibata K, Suzuki T, et al. Enhancement of aminopeptidase A expression during angiotensin II-induced choriocarcinoma cell proliferation through AT1 receptor involving protein kinase C- and mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent signaling pathway. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:3973-82 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest the possible regulatory mechanism by the local renin-angiotensin system, especially the Ang II-AT(1)R-APA system, for the growth of human choriocarcinoma cells. ..
  5. Goto Y, Hattori A, Ishii Y, Mizutani S, Tsujimoto M. Enzymatic properties of human aminopeptidase A. Regulation of its enzymatic activity by calcium and angiotensin IV. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:23503-13 pubmed
  6. Mitsui T, Nomura S, Okada M, Ohno Y, Kobayashi H, Nakashima Y, et al. Hypertension and angiotensin II hypersensitivity in aminopeptidase A-deficient mice. Mol Med. 2003;9:57-62 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate a physiological role for APA in lowering BP and offer novel insight into the mechanisms for developing hypertension. ..
  7. Yokoyama R, Kawasaki H, Hirano H. Identification of yeast aspartyl aminopeptidase gene by purifying and characterizing its product from yeast cells. FEBS J. 2006;273:192-8 pubmed
    ..SDS/PAGE of purified yeast aspartyl aminopeptidase produced a single 56-kDa band, indicating that this enzyme comprises 12 identical subunits. ..
  8. Kim D, San B, Moh S, Park H, Kim D, Lee S, et al. Structural basis for the substrate specificity of PepA from Streptococcus pneumoniae, a dodecameric tetrahedral protease. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;391:431-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report the crystal structure of PepA from Streptococcus pneumoniae, a glutamyl aminopeptidase belonging to M42 family (SpPepA)...
  9. Claperon C, Banegas Font I, Iturrioz X, Rozenfeld R, Maigret B, Llorens Cortes C. Identification of threonine 348 as a residue involved in aminopeptidase A substrate specificity. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:10618-26 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate a key role of Thr-348 in substrate specificity of APA for N-terminal acidic amino acids by insuring the optimal positioning of the substrate during catalysis. ..

More Information


  1. Zambotti Villela L, Yamasaki S, Villarroel J, Alponti R, Silveira P. Aspartyl, arginyl and alanyl aminopeptidase activities in the hippocampus and hypothalamus of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Brain Res. 2007;1170:112-8 pubmed
  2. Varona A, Blanco L, Lopez J, Gil J, Agirregoitia E, Irazusta J, et al. Altered levels of acid, basic, and neutral peptidase activity and expression in human clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007;292:F780-8 pubmed
    ..3-fold). This peptidase activity profile in the neoplastic kidney suggests a specific role for the studied convertases and the possible involvement of an intracrine renin-angiotensin system in the pathogenesis of CCRCC. ..
  3. Nomura M, Nomura S, Mitsui T, Suzuki M, Kobayashi H, Ito T, et al. Possible involvement of aminopeptidase A in hypertension and renal damage in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Am J Hypertens. 2005;18:538-43 pubmed
  4. Drukker M, Tang C, Ardehali R, Rinkevich Y, Seita J, Lee A, et al. Isolation of primitive endoderm, mesoderm, vascular endothelial and trophoblast progenitors from human pluripotent stem cells. Nat Biotechnol. 2012;30:531-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These markers and progenitors provide tools for purifying human tissue-regenerating progenitors and for studying the commitment of pluripotent stem cells to lineage progenitors...
  5. Mizutani S, Ishii M, Hattori A, Nomura S, Numaguchi Y, Tsujimoto M, et al. New insights into the importance of aminopeptidase A in hypertension. Heart Fail Rev. 2008;13:273-84 pubmed
    ..Thus, it appears important to consider the relationship among activation of the RAS, circulating levels of AngII, and the availability of APA in hypertensive disorders. ..
  6. Cai W, Wang L, Chen Y. Aspartyl aminopeptidase, encoded by an evolutionarily conserved syntenic gene, is colocalized with its cluster in secretory granules of pancreatic islet cells. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2010;74:2050-5 pubmed
    ..The identification and characterization of DNPEP syntenic genes confirm that conserved clustered genes can preferentially be expressed in the same signaling pathway. ..
  7. Nakamura Y, Inloes J, Katagiri T, Kobayashi T. Chondrocyte-specific microRNA-140 regulates endochondral bone development and targets Dnpep to modulate bone morphogenetic protein signaling. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:3019-28 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that Mir140 is essential for normal endochondral bone development and suggest that the reduced BMP signaling caused by Dnpep upregulation plays a causal role in the skeletal defects of Mir140-null mice. ..
  8. Song L, Ye M, Troyanovskaya M, Wilk E, Wilk S, Healy D. Rat kidney glutamyl aminopeptidase (aminopeptidase A): molecular identity and cellular localization. Am J Physiol. 1994;267:F546-57 pubmed
    b>Glutamyl aminopeptidase [aminopeptidase A (EAP), EC] is an ectoenzyme that selectively hydrolyzes acidic amino acid residues from the amino terminus of oligopeptides. EAP activity is highest within the kidney and small intestine...
  9. Ishii M, Hattori A, Numaguchi Y, Tsujimoto M, Ishiura S, Kobayashi H, et al. The effect of recombinant aminopeptidase A on hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats: its effect in comparison with candesartan. Horm Metab Res. 2008;40:887-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest the novel approach of utilizing aminopeptidase A to treat hypertension by degrading circulating angiotensin II before it binds to the receptor 1 subtype. ..
  10. Ogawa Y, Kanai Azuma M, Akimoto Y, Kawakami H, Yanoshita R. Exosome-like vesicles in Gloydius blomhoffii blomhoffii venom. Toxicon. 2008;51:984-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of these vesicles is still unknown, but they may affect blood pressure and glucose homeostasis following envenomation...
  11. Robinson M, Buchtmann K, Jenkins C, Tacchi J, Raymond B, To J, et al. MHJ_0125 is an M42 glutamyl aminopeptidase that moonlights as a multifunctional adhesin on the surface of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Open Biol. 2013;3:130017 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, surface-associated glutamyl aminopeptidase activity was detected by incubation of live M...
  12. Rozenfeld R, Iturrioz X, Okada M, Maigret B, Llorens Cortes C. Contribution of molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis to the identification of a new residue, glutamate 215, involved in the exopeptidase specificity of aminopeptidase A. Biochemistry. 2003;42:14785-93 pubmed
  13. Suganuma T, Ino K, Shibata K, Nomura S, Kajiyama H, Kikkawa F, et al. Regulation of aminopeptidase A expression in cervical carcinoma: role of tumor-stromal interaction and vascular endothelial growth factor. Lab Invest. 2004;84:639-48 pubmed
  14. Migaud M, Durieux C, Viereck J, Soroca Lucas E, Fournie Zaluski M, Roques B. The in vivo metabolism of cholecystokinin (CCK-8) is essentially ensured by aminopeptidase A. Peptides. 1996;17:601-7 pubmed
    ..In the same experiment the ID50 of pCCK-8, protected from aminopeptidases by a propionyl group was 86 pmol. These results strongly suggest that APA plays a major role in the inactivating pathway of CCK-8. ..
  15. Song L, Healy D. Kidney aminopeptidase A and hypertension, part II: effects of angiotensin II. Hypertension. 1999;33:746-52 pubmed
    ..These results further suggest that changes in kidney APA expression could influence the progression of angiotensin-dependent hypertension. ..
  16. Iturrioz X, Rozenfeld R, Michaud A, Corvol P, Llorens Cortes C. Study of asparagine 353 in aminopeptidase A: characterization of a novel motif (GXMEN) implicated in exopeptidase specificity of monozinc aminopeptidases. Biochemistry. 2001;40:14440-8 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, Asn-353 of the GXMEN motif, together with Glu-352, contributes to the exopeptidase specificity of APA and plays an equivalent role to Asn-144 in CPA. ..
  17. Marchio S, Lahdenranta J, Schlingemann R, Valdembri D, Wesseling P, Arap M, et al. Aminopeptidase A is a functional target in angiogenic blood vessels. Cancer Cell. 2004;5:151-62 pubmed
    ..Finally, we successfully treated tumor-bearing mice with APA binding peptides or anti-APA blocking monoclonal antibodies. These data show that APA is a regulator of blood vessel formation, and can serve as a functional vascular target. ..
  18. Mizutani S, Akiyama H, Kurauchi O, Taira H, Narita O, Tomoda Y. In vitro degradation of angiotensin II (A-II) by human placental subcellular fractions, pregnancy sera and purified placental aminopeptidases. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1985;110:135-9 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that P-LAP (microsomal) together with aminopeptidase A seem to contribute greatly to the degradation of A-II in pregnant women. ..
  19. Li L, Wang J, Cooper M. cDNA cloning and expression of human glutamyl aminopeptidase (aminopeptidase A). Genomics. 1993;17:657-64 pubmed
    The murine B-lymphocyte differentiation antigen BP-1/6C3 has been identified as glutamyl aminopeptidase (E-AP), formerly known as aminopeptidase A, the new gene symbol for which is ENPEP...
  20. Ishii M, Hattori A, Numaguchi Y, Ma X, Nagasaka T, Tsujimoto M, et al. The effect of recombinant aminopeptidase A (APA) on hypertension in pregnant spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Early Hum Dev. 2009;85:589-94 pubmed publisher
    ..We have tested the effects of aminopeptidase A (APA), MgSO(4) and various conventional antihypertensive drugs on hypertension in pregnant spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and examined the effects on both fetal heart and kidney...
  21. Wilk S, Wilk E, Magnusson R. Purification, characterization, and cloning of a cytosolic aspartyl aminopeptidase. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:15961-70 pubmed
    An aminopeptidase with a preference for N-terminal aspartyl and glutamyl residues but distinct from glutamyl aminopeptidase (EC 3.4. 11.7) was purified to near homogeneity from rabbit brain cytosol...
  22. Wilk S, Wilk E, Magnusson R. Identification of histidine residues important in the catalysis and structure of aspartyl aminopeptidase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2002;407:176-83 pubmed
    ..Mutation of His33 and of histidines residing in a cluster at residues 349, 359, and 363 all decreased k(cat). These studies reveal an important role for histidine residues both in catalysis and in the structural integrity of DAP. ..
  23. Perez I, Varona A, Blanco L, Gil J, Santaolalla F, Zabala A, et al. Increased APN/CD13 and acid aminopeptidase activities in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Head Neck. 2009;31:1335-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These data show the involvement of cell surface and cytosolic peptidases in the mechanisms underlying HNSCC. ..
  24. Ogawa Y, Murayama N, Fujita Y, Yanoshita R. Characterization and cDNA cloning of aminopeptidase A from the venom of Gloydius blomhoffi brevicaudus. Toxicon. 2007;49:1172-81 pubmed
    ..The deduced amino acid sequence shows approximately 60% sequence identity to mammalian APA sequences. This is the first study to report the primary structure of APA from a reptile...
  25. Nakashima Y, Ohno Y, Itakura A, Takeuchi M, Murata Y, Kuno N, et al. Possible involvement of aminopeptidase A in hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and change of refractoriness in response to angiotensin II in pregnant SHRs. J Hypertens. 2002;20:2233-8 pubmed
    ..Renal aminopeptidase A may be involved in the development of hypertension and the regulation of blood pressure in SHRs. Placental aminopeptidase A may be upregulated in response to fetal stress in pregnant SHRs. ..
  26. Kusumoto K, Matsushita Morita M, Furukawa I, Suzuki S, Yamagata Y, Koide Y, et al. Efficient production and partial characterization of aspartyl aminopeptidase from Aspergillus oryzae. J Appl Microbiol. 2008;105:1711-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, attention is focused here on the efficient production of this enzyme by a recombinant Aspergillus oryzae and characterization of its biochemical properties...
  27. Larrinaga G, Callado L, Agirregoitia N, Varona A, Gil J. Subcellular distribution of membrane-bound aminopeptidases in the human and rat brain. Neurosci Lett. 2005;383:136-40 pubmed
    ..Moreover, these peptidases may play specific roles depending on their activity levels at the different subcellular structures where they are localized. ..
  28. Nanus D, Engelstein D, Gastl G, Gluck L, Vidal M, Morrison M, et al. Molecular cloning of the human kidney differentiation antigen gp160: human aminopeptidase A. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:7069-73 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that the gp160 human kidney/RCC glycoprotein is human APA. ..
  29. Katsumata Y, Nomura S, Ino K, Iwanaga K, Kurosawa N, Ito T, et al. Progesterone stimulates the expression of aminopeptidase A/angiotensinase in human choriocarcinoma cells. Placenta. 2001;22:831-6 pubmed
    ..These findings may serve as a useful model to study the effects of progesterone on angiotensin II metabolism in placenta, although the physiological validity of these studies remains to be clarified. ..
  30. Goto Y, Hattori A, Mizutani S, Tsujimoto M. Asparatic acid 221 is critical in the calcium-induced modulation of the enzymatic activity of human aminopeptidase A. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:37074-81 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the negative charge of Asp-221 is essential for Ca2+ modulation of the enzymatic activity of APA and causes preferential cleavage of acidic amino acid at the N-terminal end of substrate peptides. ..
  31. Rozenfeld R, Muller L, El Messari S, Llorens Cortes C. The C-terminal domain of aminopeptidase A is an intramolecular chaperone required for the correct folding, cell surface expression, and activity of this monozinc aminopeptidase. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:43285-95 pubmed
    ..Our data provide the first demonstration that the C-terminal domain of an eukaryotic exopeptidase acts as an intramolecular chaperone. ..
  32. Wu Y, Xiao J, Wu L, Tian W, Liu L. Expression of glutamyl aminopeptidase by osteogenic induction in rat bone marrow stromal cells. Cell Biol Int. 2008;32:748-53 pubmed publisher
    b>Glutamyl aminopeptidase (GluAP, EC 3.4.11...
  33. Blanco A, Bertucci J, Sánchez Bretaño A, Delgado M, Valenciano A, Unniappan S. Ghrelin modulates gene and protein expression of digestive enzymes in the intestine and hepatopancreas of goldfish (Carassius auratus) via the GHS-R1a: Possible roles of PLC/PKC and AC/PKA intracellular signaling pathways. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2017;442:165-181 pubmed publisher
    ..This indicates that ghrelin effects on digestive enzymes are mediated by GHS-R1a, partly by triggering the PLC/PKC and AC/PKA intracellular signaling pathways. These data suggest a role for ghrelin on digestive processes in fish. ..
  34. Li L, Wu Q, Barnoski B, Cooper M. High-resolution genetic map of the human glutamyl aminopeptidase gene (ENPEP). Genomics. 1997;43:380-3 pubmed
    The murine B-lymphocyte differentiation antigen BP-1/6C3 has been identified as glutamyl aminopeptidase (EAP), the gene symbol for which is ENPEP...
  35. Gerlofs Nijland M, Assmann K, Dijkman H, Dieker J, van Son J, Mentzel S, et al. Albuminuria in mice after injection of antibodies against aminopeptidase A: role of angiotensin II. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2001;12:2711-20 pubmed
    ..Altogether, these findings clearly demonstrate that Ang II is not required for the induction of albuminuria upon injection of enzyme-inhibiting anti-APA mAb. ..
  36. Zhang F, Jia J, Wang B, Qian L, Yin S, Wang Y, et al. [Clinical characteristics of primary biliary cirrhosis: a report of 45 cases]. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi. 2002;41:163-7 pubmed
    ..Elevated serum ALP and gamma-GT levels together with positive AMA/AMA-M2 can help to diagnose PBC. Liver biopsy is useful to confirm the diagnosis and differentiate histopathological stages. ..
  37. Pelegrini da Silva A, Rosa E, Guethe L, Juliano M, Prado W, Martins A. Angiotensin III modulates the nociceptive control mediated by the periaqueductal gray matter. Neuroscience. 2009;164:1263-73 pubmed publisher
  38. Petersen Y, Burrin D, Sangild P. GLP-2 has differential effects on small intestine growth and function in fetal and neonatal pigs. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2001;281:R1986-93 pubmed
    ..This may be related to the normal developmental changes in intestine growth and function and to a maturation of the GLP-2R signaling pathways around the time of birth...
  39. Chouinard R, Meek R, Cooney S, Tuttle K. Effects of amino acids and glucose on mesangial cell aminopeptidase a and angiotensin receptors. Kidney Int. 2002;61:S106-9 pubmed
    ..Conversely, glucose increased AT2 receptor expression, which could modulate responses mediated by the AT1 receptor. ..
  40. Zima T, Fialova L, Mestek O, Janebova M, Crkovska J, Malbohan I, et al. Oxidative stress, metabolism of ethanol and alcohol-related diseases. J Biomed Sci. 2001;8:59-70 pubmed
    ..It could be related to the impairment of the immune system in alcoholics. Measurement of these parameters in blood compartments does not seem to indicate a possible organ, e.g. liver deficiency. ..
  41. Banegas I, Ramirez M, Vives F, Alba F, Segarra A, Duran R, et al. Aminopeptidase activity in the nigrostriatal system and prefrontal cortex of rats with experimental hemiparkinsonism. Horm Metab Res. 2005;37:53-5 pubmed
  42. Reaux Le Goazigo A, Iturrioz X, Fassot C, Claperon C, Roques B, Llorens Cortes C. Role of angiotensin III in hypertension. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2005;7:128-34 pubmed
    ..This justifies the development of potent systemically active APA inhibitors, such as RB150, as prototypes of a new class of antihypertensive agents for the treatment of certain forms of hypertension. ..
  43. Castillo I, Pardo M, Bartolome J, Ortiz Movilla N, Rodríguez Iñigo E, de Lucas S, et al. Occult hepatitis C virus infection in patients in whom the etiology of persistently abnormal results of liver-function tests is unknown. J Infect Dis. 2004;189:7-14 pubmed
    ..017) and fibrosis (P=.022) than were patients without intrahepatic HCV RNA. Patients with ALF-EU may have intrahepatic HCV RNA in the absence of anti-HCV antibodies and of serum HCV RNA. ..
  44. Prieto I, Martinez J, Hermoso F, Ramirez M, De Gasparo M, Vargas F, et al. Effect of valsartan on angiotensin II- and vasopressin-degrading activities in the kidney of normotensive and hypertensive rats. Horm Metab Res. 2001;33:559-63 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a functional relationship between the AT(1) receptor and vasopressin-degrading activity. ..
  45. Ijima M, Nomura S, Okada M, Ikoma Y, Ito T, Mitsui T, et al. Effects of age, hypertension and HRT on serum aminopeptidase A activity. Maturitas. 2002;43:215-21 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, hypertension and HRT up-regulated the serum APA activity significantly. The measurements of serum APA would be of value to elucidate the physiological and clinical roles of APA, although further studies are required. ..
  46. Inguimbert N, Coric P, Dhotel H, Bonnard E, Llorens Cortes C, Mota N, et al. Synthesis and in vitro activities of new non-peptidic APA inhibitors. J Pept Res. 2005;65:175-88 pubmed
    ..Compound 10a, (3S,4S)-3-amino-4-mercapto-6-phenyl-hexane-1-sulfonic acid was obtained using an asymmetric synthesis. Inhibitor 10a exhibits a Ki value of 30 nm. ..
  47. Stefanovic V, Vlahovic P, Ardaillou N, Ardaillou R. Receptor-mediated induction of aminopeptidase A (APA) of human glomerular epithelial cells (HGEC) by glucocorticoids. FEBS Lett. 1991;294:171-4 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that AII availability at glomerular receptor sites may be reduced by DEX and suggest a role for glucocorticoids in AII-dependent changes of glomerular filtration rate. ..
  48. Varona A, Silveira P, Irazusta A, Valdivia A, Gil J. Effects of changes in hydromineral balance on rat brain aspartyl, arginyl, and alanyl aminopeptidase activities. Horm Metab Res. 2003;35:36-42 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that aminopeptidases in the central nervous system may be involved in the physiological regulation of hydromineral balance. ..
  49. Ochedalska A, Rebas E, Kunert Radek J, Fournie Zaluski M, Pawlikowski M. Angiotensins II and IV stimulate the activity of tyrosine kinases in estrogen-induced rat pituitary tumors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;297:931-3 pubmed
    ..Because the action of both aminopeptidases is necessary to convert AngII into AngIV, this finding suggested that the effect of AngII on TK activity is (at least in part) exerted via AngIV. ..
  50. Abouzied M, Eltahir H, Abdel Aziz M, Ahmed N, Abd El Ghany A, Abd El Aziz E, et al. Curcumin ameliorate DENA-induced HCC via modulating TGF-β, AKT, and caspase-3 expression in experimental rat model. Tumour Biol. 2015;36:1763-71 pubmed publisher
    ..It interferes and modulates cell signaling pathways and hence turns death signals and apoptosis on within tumor cells. ..
  51. Gerlofs Nijland M, Assmann K, van Son J, Dijkman H, Te Loeke N, van der Zee R, et al. Epitope mapping of monoclonal antibodies directed to aminopeptidase A and their relevance for albuminuria in mice. Nephron Exp Nephrol. 2003;94:e25-34 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that ASD-41 modulates the binding of ASD-37 to its epitope and/or vice versa. As a consequence, ASD-37 and ASD-41 act synergistically, not only in inhibiting enzyme activity but also in inducing albuminuria. ..
  52. Lauterbach S, Coetzer T. The M18 aspartyl aminopeptidase of Plasmodium falciparum binds to human erythrocyte spectrin in vitro. Malar J. 2008;7:161 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that, in addition to its proposed role in hemoglobin digestion, PfM18AAP performs other functions in the erythrocyte host and can utilize several substrates, which highlights the multifunctional role of malaria enzymes. ..
  53. Fournie Zaluski M, Fassot C, Valentin B, Djordjijevic D, Reaux Le Goazigo A, Corvol P, et al. Brain renin-angiotensin system blockade by systemically active aminopeptidase A inhibitors: a potential treatment of salt-dependent hypertension. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:7775-80 pubmed
  54. Catalano A, Poloz Y, O Day D. Dictyostelium puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase A is a nucleoplasmic nucleomorphin-binding protein that relocates to the cytoplasm during mitosis. Histochem Cell Biol. 2011;136:677-88 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are interpreted in terms of the inter-relationship between NumA1 and PsaA in cell function in Dictyostelium. ..
  55. Charlier D, Gigot D, Huysveld N, Roovers M, Pierard A, Glansdorff N. Pyrimidine regulation of the Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium carAB operons: CarP and integration host factor (IHF) modulate the methylation status of a GATC site present in the control region. J Mol Biol. 1995;250:383-91 pubmed
  56. Dijkman H, Gerlofs Nijland M, van der Laak J, Wetzels J, Groenen P, Assmann K. Podocyte changes after induction of acute albuminuria in mice by anti-aminopeptidase A mAb. Nephron Exp Nephrol. 2003;94:e85-93 pubmed
    ..Extended studies at day 7 demonstrated uncoupling of albuminuria, podocytic foot process effacement and CD2AP staining. Changes in podocin more closely paralleled changes in albuminuria. ..
  57. Vlahovic P, Cvetkovic T, Savic V, Stefanovic V. Dietary curcumin does not protect kidney in glycerol-induced acute renal failure. Food Chem Toxicol. 2007;45:1777-82 pubmed
    ..The results obtained in this study provided additional evidence that despite its limited antioxidant activity curcumin did not protect kidney in myoglobinuric model of ARF...
  58. Mentzel S, Dijkman H, van Son J, Koene R, Assmann K. Organ distribution of aminopeptidase A and dipeptidyl peptidase IV in normal mice. J Histochem Cytochem. 1996;44:445-61 pubmed
    ..This distribution and partial co-localization suggests that the two hydrolases, acting either alone or in concert, have a role in many diverse biological processes. ..
  59. Larrinaga G, Gil J, Meana J, Ruiz F, Callado L, Irazusta J. Aminopeptidase activity in the postmortem brain of human heroin addicts. Neurochem Int. 2005;46:213-9 pubmed
    ..This result agrees with previous findings in morphine-tolerant rats, and indicates that soluble PSA may be involved in neurobiological processes which underlie heroin addiction. ..
  60. Blakely G, Colloms S, May G, Burke M, Sherratt D. Escherichia coli XerC recombinase is required for chromosomal segregation at cell division. New Biol. 1991;3:789-98 pubmed
  61. Larrinaga G, Blanco L, Errarte P, Beitia M, Sanz B, Perez I, et al. Altered peptidase activities in thyroid neoplasia and hyperplasia. Dis Markers. 2013;35:825-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies will help to define the possible clinical usefulness of AlaAP and AspAP in the diagnosis/prognosis of thyroid neoplasms. ..
  62. Larrinaga G, Perez I, Sanz B, Irazusta A, Zarrazquin I, Sanchez C, et al. Activity of soluble aminopeptidase A and dipeptidyl peptidase IV and membrane-bound aminopeptidase B and pyroglutamyl peptidase I in adenoid hyperplasia, tonsillar hyperplasia and chronic tonsillitis. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2011;75:1399-403 pubmed publisher
    ..These finfings may modify in the future the clinical approach to these diseases. ..
  63. Strater N, Sherratt D, Colloms S. X-ray structure of aminopeptidase A from Escherichia coli and a model for the nucleoprotein complex in Xer site-specific recombination. EMBO J. 1999;18:4513-22 pubmed
  64. Castella M, Buckberg G, Tan Z. Neurologic preservation by Na+-H+ exchange inhibition prior to 90 minutes of hypothermic circulatory arrest. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005;79:646-54; discussion 646-54 pubmed
    ..These observations imply that NHE inhibition therapy before ischemia may improve neurologic protection in adult and infant patients undergoing cerebral ischemia during procedures that use hypothermic circulatory arrest. ..
  65. Tsujimoto M, Goto Y, Maruyama M, Hattori A. Biochemical and enzymatic properties of the M1 family of aminopeptidases involved in the regulation of blood pressure. Heart Fail Rev. 2008;13:285-91 pubmed
    ..In this review, the current situation regarding the biochemical characteristics of these enzymes including enzymatic properties and modes of action is summarized. ..
  66. Guhathakurta A, Viney I, Summers D. Accessory proteins impose site selectivity during ColE1 dimer resolution. Mol Microbiol. 1996;20:613-20 pubmed
    ..Constraint was restored by the insertion of a full helical turn. ..
  67. Erbey F, Cuhaci A, Incecik F, Noyan A, Altintas D, Tuncer I, et al. Neonatal lupus erythematosus presenting with cholestatic hepatitis: a case report and review of the literature. Turk J Pediatr. 2005;47:63-6 pubmed
    ..Both the infant and his mother were positive for anti-Ro (SS-A) and anti-La (SS-B). ..
  68. Mayas M, Ramírez Expósito M, Garcia M, Ramirez M, Martínez Martos J. Ethanol modifies differently aspartyl- and glutamyl-aminopeptidase activities in mouse frontal cortex synaptosomes. Brain Res Bull. 2002;57:195-203 pubmed
    Aminopeptidase A activity (aspartyl aminopeptidase (AspAP) and glutamyl aminopeptidase (GluAP) exerts angiotensinase activity due to its relation to the metabolism of angiotensins in the regional brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS)...
  69. Sánchez Agesta Ortega R, Arias de Saavedra Alías J, Liebana Cañada A, Sánchez Muñoz B, Martinez Martos J, Ramírez Expósito M. Circulating aminopeptidase activities in men and women with essential hypertension. Curr Med Chem. 2013;20:4935-45 pubmed
    ..Therefore, aminopeptidases constitute new elements for the knowledge of the causes of essential hypertension and an alternative as therapeutic targets against the illness. ..
  70. Malthouse J. Stereospecificity of alpha-proton exchange reactions catalysed by pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003;1647:138-42 pubmed
    ..Finally the catalytic efficiency and stereospecificity of the alpha-proton exchange reactions catalysed by all the PLP-dependent catalysts examined are compared. ..
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